ZHANGJING

侠客棋牌JINNIANLAI,JICENGZHILIXIAOGUOBUJIADEWENTIRIYITUXIAN,JUTIBIAOXIANWEI:JICENGSHEHUIQINGXURIYIZHENGZHIHUA;WANGLUOPIPINGQINGXIANGYUGUIYINZHENGZHI;GETISHIJIANRONGYIFAZHANWEIQUNTISHIJIAN;FALVSHIJIANRONGYIFAZHANWEIZHENDUIGONGGONGZUZHIDESHIJIAN。BIRUWOZAIZHEJIANGLISHUIDIQUDEDIAOYANZHONG,TINGDAOBUSHAOJICENGGANBUBAOYUAN,GONGZUOYALI“ZHENGZAIJIADA”,QUNZHONGYUELAIYUE“NANYIGUANLI”,GANBUSHUOHUA“MEIYOUWEIXIN”。WEISHENMECENGJINGJIANGUERSHENRUDESHEHUIZHILITIXIXIANRUKUNJING?CHENGWEIZHENGZHISHEHUIXUEYANJIUMIANDUIDETIAOZHANXINGWENTI。ZHEIGEJINGYANWENTIHELILUNDEGUANLIAN,ZAIYUJIEDAZHENGZHIRENTONGZENGQIANGHUOJIANRUODEYUANYIN——ZHEIZHONGBIANHUAYUANYUHEZHONGSHEHUIYINSUDEYINGXIANG?

DUICI,YOUXUEZHECONGJINGJIBUPINGDENG、SHEHUILIUDONGGUHUA、MINZHUZHIDUQUEFA、WAILAIYISHIXINGTAIZHENGDUO、HUOZHEGANBUXINGWEIBUDANGDENGJIAODU,JICHULEBUTONGDEDAAN。TAMENSUIRANJUYOUQIFAXING,DANHAISHICUNZAIYIXIESHANGWEIJIEDADEKUNHUO:WEISHENMEZAIZHONGGUO,BUMANBUYIDINGLAIZISHOURUHEDIWEIZUIDIDEQUNTI?BANGEDUOSHIJIYILAI,ZHONGGUOZHENGZHIZHIDUBINGMEIYOUZHONGDAGAIBIAN,DANWEISHENMEJINNIANYILAISHANGFANGTUZENG,SHEHUIZHILISHIXIAOYANZHONG?ZHULIUMEITIDEYISHIXINGTAIXUANCHUANBINGWEIJIANRUO,DANWEIHEDUIQUNZHONG“SIXIANGZHENGDUO”DEXIAOLIYOUXIAN?ZAI“HUAIGANBU”JIAODUODEDIFANG,QUNZHONGBUMANCHENGDUGAOHUOFUHELUOJI,DANWEIHEJISHIHUANLE“HAOGANBU”——TAMENDEXINGWEIGAIBIANLE——YENANYINIUZHUANJICENGZHILIZHENGTISHANGXIAOLIXIAJIANGDETAISHI?

HUIYINGZHEIXIEKUNHUOWENTI,XUYAOTANSUOXINDEJIEDAFANGXIANG,XUNZHAOGENGWEIJICHUXINGDEYAOSUGUANXI,YITUOZHANSHEHUIZHILIYANJIUDESHIYE。WOMENXUYAOWEN,JINGJIDIWEIDECHAYIZAIMOUZHONGCHENGDUSHANGQUESHIHUIYINFAZHENGZHIBUMAN,DANWEIHESUOYOUSHEHUIDOUCUNZAILEISIDESHEHUICHABIE,DANQUEBUYIDINGDOUZHUANHUAWEIZHENGZHIWENTI?ZHEIHUOXUANSHI,ERZHEJIANDEGUANXIBINGFEINEIMEZHIJIE,YIXIESHEHUICHABIEZHUANHUACHENGZHENGZHIWENTI,YIXIESHEHUICHABIESUIRANCUNZAIQUEMEIYOUCHENGWEIZHENGZHIWENTI,ZAISHEHUICHABIEXIANGZHENGZHIBUMANDEZHUANHUAZHONG,SHIFOUCUNZAIZHEMOUXIEJICHUXINGYINSUCUIHUACUCHENGLEZHEIYIZHUANHUA?WOCHENGZHEIXIEYINSUJUYOUJICHUXING,ZAIYUTADETEZHENG:XITONG(QUANJU)XINGDE,FEIGERENDE,FEIOURANDE,FEIQIRAN(ZHENGCEMUBIAO)DE,KEJIESHIGENGDADEBIANYIXIANXIANG,ERQIEFUHEWOMENSHEHUIDELISHISHISHI。

WEICI,WOJIANYIJINRUZHONGGUOJICENGZHILIDELISHIZHONGXUNZHAODAAN,XIANKANXIANGGUANZHILIJIAOSE、JIQIZERENGUANXIXINGCHENGDELISHILAIYUANHETEZHENG,ZAIKANTAYUXINDESHEHUIHUANJINGHEZHILIDUIXIANGDEGUANXI。

双重治理结构

1950NIANDAIZHONGGUODEZHENGZHIBIANGE,TUIDONGLEYIXILIEDESHEHUIZHONGZU,BAOKUOSHEHUIGUANXI、ZUZHIGUANXIHEZHILIGUANXIDEZHONGZU,JIANLIQIYITAOXINERDUTEDE“GONGGONGYUGEREN”LIANJIEXITONG。ZHEIGEXITONGDETEDIAN:YISHIFUGAIGUANGKUO,JIBENSHANGFUGAILE90%SHENZHIGENGDUODESHEHUICHENGYUAN;ERSHISANJI(GUOJIA、DANWEI、GEREN)LIANJIE;SANSHIDANWEIZERENBAOGANDAOREN,JISUCHENGDE“SHEIJIADEHAIZISHEIBAOZOU”,JUEDABUFENDESHEHUISHIWU,DOUYOURENMENSUOZAIDEDANWEI(CHENGSHI)HUOXINGZHENGCUN(XIANGCUN)CHULI;SISHICUNZAIDENGJI、ZISHANGERXIADEZIYUANZAIFENPEI,DENGJIYUEGAODEZUZHIJUYOUYUEDADEZIYUANFENPEIQUAN。

ZAIZHEIZHONGZUZHIGUANXIZHONG,CUNZAILIANGGEZHILIDEJIAOSE:YISHIZHENGFU,ZHUYAOZHINENGSHIZHENGCEJUEDINGHEZIYUANZAIFENPEI,JUTIDEGONGZUOSHIZHIDINGJIHUA,XIAFAZHILING(WENJIAN),SHENPIHEDIAOBOZIYUAN;ERSHIDANWEI,ZHUYAOZHINENGSHIZHIXINGZHENGFUDEZHILING,ANZHAOZHISHI,SHISHISHEHUIZHILI,BINGTIGONGGONGGONGPIN,LIRUJIAOYU、JIUYI、ZHUFANGDENG。ZAIZHEIGEYIYISHANG,DANWEICHENGWEIZHENGFUDEYANSHENJIGOU,TADEDUTEXINGSHIDAILIZHENGFUDEBUFENZHINENG。LIANGGEJIAOSEDEFENGONGSHI,QIANZHEFABUZHILING,HOUZHESHISHISHEHUIZHILI。

ZHEISHIYIZHONGSHUANGZHONGZHILIJIEGOU。QIZHONGZHENGFUDEZHILIDUIXIANGSHIDANWEIZUZHI,BUSHISHEHUISHOUZHONG,KEYIYONGJIANJIEZHILIGAIKUO,ERDANWEIDEZHILIDUIXIANGZESHISUOSHUSHEHUISHOUZHONG,KEYIYONGZHIJIEZHILIGAIKUO。YUZHENGFUXIANGBI,DANWEIDEZHILIZHINENGGENGDUO,SUIRANYOUXIEWEIBISHIQIMUBIAOYIYUAN,SHENZHITAWEIBIYISHIDAO,DANGUANQIRICHANGSHIJIAN,KEYIFAXIAN,DANWEISHIJISHANGCHENGDANLEFENPEIZIYUAN、LIANJIE、XIEDIAO、BIHU、YINGZEHEDAIBIAODEZHINENG。

ZAIMEIYIGEDANWEI,ZIYUAN、BAOKUOGONGGONGPINFENPEIZHIJIEZHENDUIGEREN;TAJIANGDANWEICHENGYUAN(GETI)NARUGONGGONGTIZHI(ZHENGTI);TAXIEDIAOCHULIGETIJIANYIJIGETIHEQUNTILIYIDEGUANXI;TABIHUSUOSHUCHENGYUAN;TABIXUYINGZE——HUIYINGSUOSHUXUQIU,FUZEJIEJUEQIWENTI;TABUDEBUDAIBIAOZUZHI,CHUANSHUCHENGYUANSUQIU,XIANGWAIZHENGQULIYI,BINGTONGGUONEIBUDEZHENGCEXIUDING,LAIMANZUZHEIXIELIYISUQIU。

ZAILAIKANZHENGFU,TAFENPEIZIYUAN,DANDUIZUZHI(DANWEI)BUDUIGEREN;TAYOULIANJIEZUOYONG,QUEDINGDANWEIJIANDENGJI,PINGHENGZUZHILIYI;TADEXIEDIAOZHINENGPINGHENGDESHIDANWEIJIANGUANXI,CHULIZHENGSU、ZHONGCAIHEZHENGCEDIAOZHENG;TABIHUXIANGGUANDEZUZHI。XIANRAN,ZHENGFUDEZHILIZERENBIDANWEIYAOQING,YINWEISUOYOUTADEZHINENGDOUSHIZHENDUIZUZHIERFEISHOUZHONGGETI,ERQIEHAISHAOLIANGYANG:YINGZEHEDAIBIAOZHINENG。YOUDALIANGDEDANWEIZUOWEIDAILIZHENGFUCUNZAI,ZHENGFUMEIYOUFAZHANCHUMIANDUISHOUZHONGDEYINGZEHEDAIBIAODEZHINENG。

侠客棋牌YINCI,DUIYUSHEHUIZHILIDANWEIDEZUOYONGZHIGUANZHONGYAO。BIAOMIANSHANGKAN,SHEHUIZHONGDEGONGWUJIGOUYOUXIAN,DANSHIJISHANGCONGSHISHEHUIZHILIDE“DAILIJIGOU”BIANDICUNZAI。YOUYUZHENGFUDUIZUZHIBUDUIGERENDEGONGZUOGUANLI,DANWEISHISHISHANGLONGDUANLEGERENYUGUOJIADELIANJIETONGDAO,SHIERZHEJIANDEZHONGJIE,DUIYUPUTONGRENERYAN,YOUDANWEICAIYIWEIZHEYOUZHIDUQUDAO,NENG“JIANJIE”DILIANXISHANGZHENGFUZUZHI。GENGZHONGYAODESHI,DANWEITONGGUOYINGZE、DAIBIAO、BIHUHEXIEDIAO,ZAIJICENGSHEHUIDANRENZHEJIUCUOZHINENG,ZHEIYIZHINENGDEHUOYUECUNZAI,SHIJISHANGTIGONGLEZUIGUANJIANDEGONGGONGPIN:PINGHENGLIYIDEJICENGJIUCUOJIZHI。

ERZHENGFUGAODUYILAIZHEIGE“DAILIJIGOU”ZHANGWOXINXI、CHULIWENTIHEZHILISHEHUI,WUXUZIJIQINSHEQIZHONG。YINCIZHENGFUHEDAZHONGSHISHULIDE,SHEHUICHENGYUANWUXU、YEWUQUANJIECHUZHENGFU。YIDANYOUQINGKUANGFASHENG,ZHENGFURENWEISHIDANWEISHIZE,YAOQIUDANWEILINGHUIRENYUANCHULI。ZHEIZHONGJIAOSERENZHIGUANGFANCUNZAIYUZHENGFUJIGOU,KEYIJIESHICHANGJIANDEZHENGFUTUIWEI、DANWEIJIEFANG、YINMANXINXIXIANXIANGWEIHECUNZAI。

侠客棋牌DUIYUGETIERYAN,TAMENSHIXIANQUANYIDETONGDAODANYI,ZHIYOUTONGGUODANWEI,TAMENCAINENGZAIGUOJIAGONGGONGTIXIZHONGHUODEWEIZHI,YIKAOZHIDUTONGDAOSHIXIANQUANYI,FOUZE,JISHICUNZAIZHEIXIEQUANYIDEFALVGUIDING,YEMEIYOUTUJINGSHIXIAN。YINWEIQUANYIDESHIXIANBUJINXUYAOFALVGUIDING,GENGXUYAOJUTIDE、TIZHICHENGRENDEZHIXINGZHEHEZERENZHE,ERZHEIGEZHIXINGZHEHEZERENZHEZAISHUANGZHONGZHILIJIEGOUZHONGJIUSHIDANWEI。

90NIANDAIZHONGQIYIQIAN,ZHEIYISHUANGZHONGZHILITIXIDEXIAOYONG,SHISHEHUIZHILIDEDAOWEIXIDEYUANYIN。DANWEIZAIGETIHEGONGGONGZHIJIANDEZHONGJIEDIWEI,SHIGUOJIA“ZHENGHENENGLI”CUNZAIDEJIEGOUXINGJICHU。ZHEIYIJIEGOU,CHENGGONG“XIAOJIE”LESHEHUICHONGTUJINRU(DANWEIYIWAI)GONGGONGLINGYUDEDONGLI,JISHIZAIGUOJIACENGMIANFASHENGZHENGZHIDONGDANG——BIRU“WENGE”SHIQI,JICENGSHEHUIZHIXUYEMEIYOUQUANMIANWAJIE,ZHENGSHIYOUYUDANWEIDEZHILIZHINENGDATICUNZAI。

社会的变化

侠客棋牌90NIANDAIZHONGYEYIHOU,YOULIANGXIANGZHONGYAODESHEHUIBIANQIANFASHENG。YISHIGUANGFANDESHEHUILIUDONGCHUXIAN,LIKAIDANWEIDERENSHURIYIZENGZHANG,JIEZHI2013NIAN,ZHIYOUBUDAO1/4DECHENGZHENJIUYERENKOU,HAICHUZAIJIAOWEIDIANXINGDEDANWEIZHILITIZHIZHONG。[1]ZAIXIANGCUN,2000~2010SHINIANJIAN,QUANGUOZIRANCUNYOU363WANGEJIANZHI271WANGE,YOU90DUOWANGEZIRANCUNXIAOSHENGNIJI。[2]ERSHIDANWEIDEJINGJIZHINENGKUOZHANG,SHEHUIZHILIZHINENGSHOUSUO。“ZHUANQIAN”CHENGWEIHENDUODANWEIDESHOUYAOMUBIAO。

侠客棋牌YOUCICHANSHENGDEHOUGUOSHI,KEYITONGGUODANWEITONGDAOLIANJIEGONGGONGZHIDUDEGETISHULIANGJIJUJIANSHAO,BUSHAORENDE“ZUZHISHENFEN”XIAOSHI,DUIYUGERENLAISHUO,ZHEIYIFANGMIANSHIZIJIDE“SHIERMEIRENGUANLE”,LINGYIFANGMIANSHIQISHENBIANDEZERENZUZHIXIAOSHILE。JUGELIZI,WEISHENMEGUOQIYUANGONGBUYUANYIMAIDUANGONGLINGLIKAIDANWEI?“DIUFANWAN”GURANSHIJINGJIYUANYIN,DANGENGZHONGYAODESHISHEHUIYUANYIN:LIKAIDANWEIJIUZAIYEMEIYOUZERENZUZHILE,QIYUGUOJIADEZUZHIHUALIANJIEYIDANXIAOSHI,FALVHEGONGGONGZHIDUJIYUTAMENDEQUANYI,JIUNANYIJINGYOUZUZHITUJINGHUODESHIXIAN。

ZUZHISHENFENHETONGDAODUIYUPUTONGRENSHIFOUZHONGYAO?YIXIANG2015NIANDEDIAOCHASHUJUXIANSHI,RUGUOYUDAOBUGONG,XUANZEXIANGFAYUANSHANGSUDEZHAN71.3%,XUANZEDANGZHENGBUMEN(BAOHANGONGQINGFU)DEZHAN59%,XUANZEGERENXIESHANGJIEJUEDEZHAN36.7%,XUANZEQIUZHUMEITIDEZHAN24.3%,XUANZEXINFANG、SHANGFANGDEZHAN15.9%,XUANZEZHAODANWEIJIEJUEDEZHIZHAN13.8%。[3]ERDUIBIZAOXIAN(1987HE1999NIAN)DELEISIDIAOCHASHUJU,KEYIKANDAOMINGXIANBUTONG:1987NIANDEDIAOCHAXIANSHI,DANWEIZAISUOYOUSUQIUBIAODAQUDAOZHONGJUYOU“ZHIPEIXINGDE”DIWEI,TASHIJIEJUEWENTIDEZHUYAOQUDAO,YOU72%DESUQIUTONGGUODANWEITICHU。12NIANHOU,ZAI1999NIANDETONGYANGDIAOCHAZHONG,SHOUFANGGETIXUANZEDANWEIQUDAOJIEJUEWENTIDEYOUXIAJIANG,DANHAISHIDIYIWEIDE,“GONGZUODANWEI”HE“DANGZHENGBUMEN”(BAOKUOGONGQINGFUTUANTI)QUDAO,GONGTONGGAOJURENMENXUANZEDEQIANLIE。DANGSHI,YOUDANWEIXIANGBIMEIYOUDANWEIDEREN,QIANZHEJIEJUEWENTIDENENGLIGAO8BEIYISHANG,[4]ZHEIZHONGNENGLIXIANRANBUSHILAIZIGEREN,ERSHILAIZIGERENHEZUZHIDEGUANXI。

侠客棋牌YISHANGSHUJUFANYINGCHUZHONGYAODEXINXI:ZHONGGUOSHEHUIDEZUZHIHUAJIEGOUCHUXIANZHONGDAZHUANXING,TAZHENGZAICONGDANWEISHEHUIZOUXIANGGONGGONGSHEHUI。ZAIZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGXIA,YUANYOUDEDANWEIZHILIXIAOLIZIRANYOUXIAN:TAZHISHIBUDAOSIFENZHIYICHENGZHENJIUYERENKOUDEZERENZUZHI。LINGWAISIFENZHISANNI?TAMENDEZERENZUZHISHISHEI?DAIBIAOZUZHISHISHEI?YOULEWENTIZHAOSHEI?RUGUOSHIYINGGONGGONGSHEHUIDEYINGZEHEDAIBIAOJIZHIWEIJIANLI,HENDUOMAODUNZHAOBUDAOJIEJUETUJING,BUGONGZHENGGANJIUHUIZAISHEHUIZHONGZHUJIANJILEI,SHEHUIBUMANDEMUBIAOSUIZHIZHUANXIANGWENZEZHENGFU,JIFASHENGZHENGZHIXINGZHUANHUA。YUQISHUOSHISHOURUBUPINGDENGYINFALEPUBIANDEZHILIKUNNAN,BURUSHUOYINGZEZUZHIBUZAIGENGKENENGJIFABUGONGZHENGGANSHOU,YINWEIZHEIYANGDECHUJINGWUFATIGONGZUZHIHUATUJINGJIUCUO,JIERULIYICHONGTUJIEJUELAIWEIHUGONGZHENG。KEYISHUO,JICENGPINGHENGLIYI,WEIHUGONGZHENGZUZHIJINENGDEWAJIE,SHISHEHUIZHILIDEWEIJISUOZAI。

双重治理结构瓦解

侠客棋牌WEISHENMEYIXIESHEHUIBUMANXIANGZHENGZHISUQIUZHUANHUA,CHANSHENGYANZHONGDESHEHUIZHILIWENTI?YINWEISHANGGESHIJIZHONGYEJIANLIDESHUANGZHONGZHILITIXIZHENGZAIDAGUIMOWAJIE,CUNZAIYUJICENGDELIYIPINGHENG、JIUCUO、YINGZE、DAIBIAOHEBIHUJIZHI,NENGGOUFUWUDERENQUNDAFUDUJIANSHAO。ERZHENGFUDE“JIANJIEZHILI”JIAOSE,JI,BUZHIJIECHULIZHILIWENTI,DUIDANWEIBUDUIGERENDEGONGZUOFANGSHI,SHIZHIMEIYOUKENENGFAZHANCHUMIANDUIDANGSHIRENYINGZE、DAIBIAOHEBIHUZHINENG。ZHEIKEYIJIESHIWEIHEGONGWURENYUANXIGUANYUTUIWEI,JIQIWEIHE“ZHILINENGLI”BUZU,YINWEIZAISHUANGZHONGZHILITIXIZHONG,ZHENGFUDESHENPI、ZHISHIDIWEI,SHIZHIJIANGJUTIDEZHILIZERENJIAOJIDANWEI,ERBUSHIZIJI。DANGDANWEIZHILIFASHENGWAJIESHI,XIANGDUIYUSHOUZHONGDEXUYAO,ZHENZHENGDANDANGZHILIZERENDEZUZHIDADAJIANSHAO,ZHEISHIJICENGSHEHUIZHILISHIXIAODEYUANYIN。

WEISHENMEDANWEIZHILIHUIWAJIE?YINWEISHEHUIHUANJINGFASHENGLEBIANHUA。YUANYOUDEDANWEIZHILITIXIFADUANYURENKOULIUDONGYOUXIAN、ZUZHITONGZHIXINGJIAOGAODESHEHUITIAOJIANXIA,SHIDANGSHIZIYUANFENPEIFANGSHIDECHANWU。JINTIANDEZHILIWENTIYIJINGBUTONG:TABUZAISHIDUIJUBUFENGBIDESHURENSHEHUIDEZHILI,ERSHIDUILIUDONGDE、YIZHIHUADEGONGGONGSHEHUIDEZHILI。JINTIANDEZIYUANFENPEITUJINGYEDADAGAIBIAN,HENDUOZIYUANYIJINGJINRUSHICHANGFENPEI,ERFEIYOUXINGZHENGZUZHILONGDUANFENPEI。SHEHUICHENGYUANDUIYUDANYIZUZHIDEYILAIXINGJIANGDI,XUANZEXINGZENGJIA,YESHIQIANSUOWEIYOUDEXINHUANJING。

侠客棋牌MIANDUIZHEIXIEXINDEGAIBIAN,JIUZHILITIXIDESHIHEXINGJIANGDI,ZAIXINDEZUZHIGUANXIHERENJIGUANXIZHONG,TADEZHILIXIAONENGDAJIAN。BIRU,ZAICUNZHUANGHUOSHIDANWEINEI,YIKAORENJIGUANXIXIEDIAO、HUOZHESUNHAIXIANGGUANZHELIYIDEFANGFA,JUYOUYUESHULI,DANSHIRUGUOHUANYIGESHEHUIHUANJING,BATAYIZHIDAOMOSHENGRENZUCHENGDEDAFANWEISHANGYESHEHUI,JIUHUISHIQUZUOYONG。DUIJIARENFUZE,BUDENGYUNENGDUILURENFUZE,XIANGFAN,YUESHIZHAOGUQINPENG,JIUYUEKENENGYULURENJINGZHENGZIYUAN,ZAOCHENGBUGONG,XIANRAN,DANWEITONGSHIHUOLINYOUGUIZEBUZAISHIHEJIEJUEGONGGONGSHEHUIDEZHILIWENTI。

社会问题的政治转化

ZHENGZHISHEHUIXUEYANJIUZHENGSHI,GUOMINDUIYUSHEHUITIZHIDERENTONG,YUJIZHONGYINSUYOUGUAN。

QIYI,SHISHEHUITIZHIBAOHUSHEHUIGONGZHENGDENENGLI,JI,TANENGFOUYOUXIAOGONGZHENGDIJIEJUEGEZHONGWENTI,SHIBUTONGDERENXIANGYOUPINGDENGDESHOUBAOHUJIHUI;QIER,SHISHEHUITIZHINENGFOUJIANLIYOUXIAOLIANJIESHEHUICHENGYUANDEQUDAO,JI,YOUMEIYOUZHIDUHUATONGDAOKEYISHUNLILIANJIEMINZHONG,BATAMENNARUZHIDUZIYUANDEGONGXIANGZHENGTIZHONG;QISAN,SHIJICENGSHEHUIDEZUZHIGONGNENG,BIRUSHUO,ZAISHEHUIJICHUCENGCI,SHIFOUCUNZAIMINGQUEDEYINGZE、XIEDIAOHEDAIBIAOJIZHI,YIFANGBIANHUIYINGMINZHONGDEGEZHONGXUQIU,JIEJUETAMENDEWENTI,XIEDIAOTAMENZHIJIAN,YIJITAMENHEGONGGONGZUZHIZHIJIANDEMAODUN。

ZHEIXIEDONGXI,BIAOMIANKANSHANGQUBUSHEZHENGZHI,DANSHISHISHANGDUIYUZHIGUOLIZHENG,JUYOUGUANJIANXINGDEZHENGZHIHOUGUO,YINWEI,TADEZUOYONGSHIZAOJIUSHEHUIPINGHENGZHIXU。RUGUOZHEIGEJIZHIBUCUNZAI,HUOZHEMEIFAHAOHAOYUNXING,GEZHONGFENSANGULIDEWENTIDEBUDAOYOUXIAOJIEJUE,SHEHUIGONGZHENGJIUMEIBANFASHUNLITIGONG。SHISHIZHENGMING,DANGZHEIGESHIHOU,YEJIUSHIDANGRENMENQIANGLIEGANJUEDAOBUGONGZHENGDESHIHOU,SHEHUIWENTIJIUXIANGZHENGZHIWENTIZHUANHUA,RUGUORENMENFAXIAN,ZHEIGESHEHUIMEIYOUBANFAGONGZHENGJIEJUEZIJIDEWENTI,YUANQIJIUHUIXUNSUZHENGZHIHUA,TAMENDUIYUBAOHUSHEHUIGONGZHENGDEXUNQIU,JIUHUIZHUANXIANG,CHENGWEIDUIGUOJIATIZHINAIZHIZHENGZHITIZHIDEGAIZAOYAOQIU。

侠客棋牌SUOYI,BAOHUSHEHUIGONGZHENG,TINGSHANGQUCHOUXIANG,DANSHIJISHANGHEJIEJUEJUTIWENTIDEJINENGYUNXINGYOUGUAN。SUOYOUZHILILIANGHAODEGUOJIA,DOUFEICHANGZHONGSHIZHEIYIDIAN。ZONGGUANGEZHONGBUTONGDEZHILITIXI,KEYIFAXIAN,ZHENZHENG“ZHILI”ZHESHEHUI、NENGGOUYOUXIAOXINGCHENGSHEHUIFUCONGZHIXUDE,SHI“SHEHUIGONGZHENG”DEWEIHUJIZHI。ZHEIZHONGJIZHIBUCHONGLEHONGGUANTIZHIWUFATIDAIDEZUOYONG,KEYIYOUDUOZHONGZUZHIXINGTAIHESHIJIANYANGSHI。SHEHUIZHILIYILAIZHEIXIEJIZHIDEHUOYUEGONGZUO,DANCAIQUNAZHONGZUZHIXINGTAISHIXIANTA,ZEJIYULISHIHELUJINGYILAI。ZHEILIDEZHONGDIAN,BUZAIYUZUZHIXINGTAIDEMINGCHENG,ERSHITAMENZAIJICENGSHEHUIDESHIJIZUOYONG。

理论问题:影响政治认同的要素

YUCIXIANGGUANDEYIGELILUNWENTISHI,SHENMEYINSUNENGGOUYINGXIANGSHEHUICHENGYUANDUIYUGONGGONGTIZHIDEZHENGZHIRENTONG?

ZAIXIANDAISHEHUIZHONG,SHEHUIZUZHIJIEGOUTONGGUOSANZHONGFANGSHI,YINGXIANGRENMENDESHENGCUNLIYI:GOUZAOCHENGYUANSHENFEN(membership)——GETISHIFOUBEINARUTUANTICHENGWEIQIZHONGYIYUAN;ZUZHINANGKUO(organization includes)——GETISHIFOUYONGYOUZERENZUZHI;JIEGOUKEJIXING(structural access)——GETISHIFOUKENENGJIEJINGONGGONGTIZHI,YINGXIANGZHENGCE,BINGYIKAOQISHENGCUN。ZHEISANFANGMIANBIAOZHUNBUSHESHOURUCHABIE,DANQUESHEQUANLISHIXIANDEJIHUICHABIE,JUYOUYINGZEZUZHIDEREN,KEYIJIAOSHUNLIDISHIXIANQUANYI,ERLINGYIXIERENZEKUNNANZHONGZHONG,QIUDIWUMEN。

XIANGDUIYUNEIXIEYONGYOUZUZHITUJINGJIAOSHAO、HUOGENBENMEIYOUDESHEHUICHENGYUAN,YONGYOUZUZHITUJINGDERENZHIHUOYINENGLIDEDAODAFUDUTISHENG:TAMENYOUGENGGAODEYINGXIANGLI,QUYINGXIANGXIANGGUANZHENGCEDEZHIXINGSHENZHIGAIBIAN,TAMENYOUZUZHIQUDAOKEYILAI,BINGZHUQIYOUXIAOJIUCUO,TAMENYOUZHIDUHUADEZERENJIGOU,KEYIXIEDIAOTAHEQITAGETIHUOQUNTIDEGUANXI,TAMENBUXUYAOZIJIXINGDONG,YINWEIYOUYINGZEZUZHIHUIYINGQIWENTI,BINGDAIBIAOTAMENDELIYIXINGDONG。RUGUOZHEILEIRENSHIXIANQUANYIDEJIHUITIGAO,ERQIEZHEIXIESHIXIANQUANYIDETUJINGYOUZHENGZHITIXITIGONGBAOZHANG,JIUHUISHENGCHANDUITIZHIDEZHENGZHIRENTONG,XIANGFAN,ZEHUIXUERUODUITIZHIDEZHENGZHIRENTONG。SUOYI,GERENYUZUZHIDEJIEGOUGUANXI,YOUYUGUANSHESHIXIANQUANYIDEJIHUI,KEYIYINGXIANGBINGCEDURENMENDEZHENGZHIRENTONG。

侠客棋牌CONGLINGYIGEJIAODU,YEKEYISHUO,NENGGOUJIANLIZHEIYIZUZHIGUANXIZHE,ZAIZHENGQURENMENDEZHENGZHIRENTONGFANGMIANJUYOUYOUSHI,YINWEIZUZHIHUAJIEGOUNENGGOUMANZUSHEHUICHENGYUANDUI“JIHUITONGDAO”PINGDENGDEXUQIU。HUANYANZHI,SHEITIGONGKEGONGYIKAODEZUZHIZEREN,SHEIJIUHUODEZHENGZHIRENTONG,YINGDEZHENGZHIZHENGHEYOUSHI,YINWEITIGONGZUZHIYIKAOHEBAOHU,YOUZHUYUCHANSHENGHULAIGUANXIJIXIANGHUZEREN。RUGUORENMENYUGONGGONGTIXIMEIYOUZHEIZHONGHULAIGUANXI,RUHEDUIQICHANSHENGZHENGZHIRENTONG?JUGELIZI,ZAIZHONGGUOCHUANTONGSHEHUIZHONG,SHEHUIZUZHIXIANXIANWEIFENGCHAOJIEGOU,SHEHUICHENGYUANFENSANZAIJUBUDEDUOGEDIFANGXINGZUZHIZHONG,YIKAOJIATING、ZONGZUHUOZHESIRENZUZHISHENGCUN,ZHEIXIEZUZHICHENGWEIQIGUISHUYIKAOHEZHONGCHENGDEZHONGXIN。ZHEIZHONGZHUANGKUANGXIA,SHEHUICHENGYUANBINGWEIZHENGHECHENGWEIGONGGONGTIXIDEYIBUFEN,CHULETASHENBIANDEZONGZUCUNSHEZUZHIWAI,GETIHEGONGGONGMEIYOULIYIHEZERENHULAIDEGUANXI,QISHENGCUNYUGONGGONGTIXIJIBENWUGUAN,DUIYUGONGGONGZUZHIDEZHENGZHIRENTONGYEJIUWUCONGCHANSHENG。

政策启示

侠客棋牌SHANGSHUTAOLUN,KEYIDECHUSHENMEZHENGCEQISHI?

XUYAOTEBIEZHONGSHIZUZHIHUATONGDAODUIYUJIANLISHEHUIPINGDENGDEZUOYONG。CAICHANSHOURUHEJINGJIDIWEIDEBUPINGDENG,ZAIMOUZHONGYIYISHANGSHISHEHUIDAZHONGKEJIESHOUDECHABIE,YINWEIQIZHONGBAOHANYOUHENDACHENGFENDEGERENNULI。DANSHEHUIBUPINGDENGZEYIWEIZHE,BUTONGRENDUIGONGGONGZHIDUDEYIKAOHELIYONGYOUCHABIE,TAMENYONGYOUDEJIEJUEWENTITONGDAOYOUCHABIE,ZHEISHUYUZHIDUBUPINGDENG,WUFAJINGYOUGERENNULIERGAIBIAN。

侠客棋牌XUYAOTEBIEZHONGSHIJICENGSHEHUIZUZHIDELIANJIE、BIHU、XIEDIAO、YINGZEHEDAIBIAOJINENGDEZUOYONG。SHEHUIBIANQIANSHIYIXIECHUANTONGZUZHISHIQUYUANYOUJINENGDEYUANYIN,ZAIXINSHEHUITIAOJIANXIAJINJINHUIFUZHEIXIEZUZHI,ERBUSHIZAIJIANZHEIXIEJINENG,WUFAJIEJUEXINWENTI。

侠客棋牌(ZUOZHEDANWEI:BEIJINGDAXUESHEHUIXUEXI)

注释:

*本文系根据张静教授2016年9月10日《文化纵横》读者沙龙学术报告的录音文字稿,及其发表在《复旦政治学评论》第16辑(2016年7月)一文,综合编辑而成。

[1]到2013年,国营和集体企业就业人数,只占城镇就业人数的18%。截至到2012 年,在机关行政事业单位就业的人数,占城镇就业人数的4.5%。国家统计局官网:http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/。

[2] 《中国青年报》记者采访统计。

[3] 根据全国社会心态调查2015年数据,国家统计局统计,问卷填写者可以多选。

[4] 唐文方:《个人意见的公共性:中国六城市居民调查》,《北京大学社会学刊》2004年第一辑。