张志强丨中国社科院哲学所

侠客棋牌【导读】随着中国的全球角色日益凸显,中国人不仅面临着重新认识世界的问题,更面临着如何认识中国自身的问题。本文作者认为,从古至今,中国一直基于其规模政治和外部世界的变化,调整着自身意义和文化系统。在当下中国的叙述套路中,既有崇外贬内、好古讽今的一味批判,也有基于发展成绩而对本国模式的自我辩护,但这两种解读不足以适应中国的现实状况。具有中国规模的历史问题的解决,实际上要从中国原理的再次提振中才能真正创生出新的方案。而如何重构一个能够适应新历史条件的文化象征系统这样一个文化任务,终于成为所有问题当中最大的政治问题,因为这个问题真正关乎未来中国的本质。

 

▍认识中国所应有的态度

DUIYUDANGQIANDEZHONGGUOERYAN,RUHELIJIEZHONGGUOSHIYIGEJUYOUGAODUZHENGZHIXINGYIWEIDEZHISHIXINGWEI。WEIRAOZHERUHERENSHIZHONGGUO,ZAIXUESHUSIXIANGJIELILAIYOUGEZHONGGEYANGDESHUOFA,DANSHIZHEIXIESHUOFADOUCHONGMANLEGEZHONGGEYANGDEYISHIXINGTAIYUSHE。WOMENDAZHIKEYICONGDANGDAIDEYUJINGCHUFA,JIANGZHEIXIEXUSHUZHONGGUODEMOSHIGAIKUOWEILIANGZHONGLEIXING,YIZHONGSHISUOWEIZIBAOZIQIDEMOSHI,YIZHONGSHISUOWEIZIWOBIANHUDEMOSHI。

WOBANEIZHONGZHANZAISUOWEIGENGGAODEWENMINGJIAZHIDELICHANGSHANGPIPINGZHONGGUODEMOSHI,CHENGZHIWEIZIBAOZIQIDEMOSHI。ZAIJINTIANDEYUJINGLI,BUGUANSHISUOWEI“GONGZHI”HAISHI“PIPANZHISHIFENZI”,DAGAIDOUSHUYUZHEIZHONGMOSHI。

侠客棋牌WEISHENMESHUOTAMENSHIZIBAOZIQIMOSHINI?YINWEITAMENPIPINGZHONGGUODEFANGSHI,YIJINGJIANJIANBIANCHENGLEXUNZHAOZHONGGUOBUSHIDEFAXIE。

DUONIANLAIDAJIAWANGWANGXIGUANYUCONGFANFENGJIANDELICHANGSHANG、CONGSUOWEIXIANDAIDEJIAZHICHUFALAIPIPINGZHONGGUO,ERZHEIXIENIANZEYOUFAZHANCHULELINGYIZHONGPIPANZHONGGUODEFANGSHI,NEIJIUSHICONGCHUANTONGCHUFADUIDANGDAIZHONGGUODEGONGJI。RUGUOSHUOZAIDANGDAIYUJINGLICONGXIANDAICHUFADUIZHONGGUODEGONGJI,GENGDUOSHIYIXIFANGHEMEIGUOWEIBEIJINGDEHUA;NEIMECONGCHUANTONGCHUFADUIZHONGGUODEGONGJI,ZEGENGDUOSHIYIRIHANHEWOGUOTAIWANDIQUWEIBEIJINGDE。

ZHEIXIENIANDE“MINGUORE”LIMIAN,QISHIJIUJIZHONGYUNHANZHEDUIDANGDAIZHONGGUODEZHEILIANGZHONGBUMANQINGXU,ZAI“MINGUORE”(GENGDUODIQISHISHIYIZHI“WOGUOTAIWANDIQU”)DEYINGZHAOXIA,DANGDAIZHONGGUOSHIJIBU“CHUANTONG”YOUBU“XIANDAI”。YINGGAISHUOZHEIZHONGPIPANDEQINGXUYUYANYULIE,YICHAOYUELEZHENGZHIDEPIPAN,ERYANBIANCHENGDUIDANGDAIZHONGGUOSHEHUIHEWENHUADEZHENGTIXINGFOUDING,ZAIYIDINGYIYISHANG,SHENZHIBIANCHENGDUIDANGDAIZHONGGUORENDEPIPAN。

BIAOMIANKANQILAIZHEISHIYIZHONGNEIBUDEZIWOPIPING,YINWEIZHONGGUOQUESHIYOUZHONGZHONGBUZU,PIPINGZHONGGUODANGRANSHIWEILERANGZHONGGUOBIANDEGENGHAO,KEQIZHONGSUOYUNHANDEQINGXU,QUESIHUYIJINGCHAOYUELELIXINGDITONGGUOPIPINGJIEJUEWENTIDECENGMIAN,BIANCHENGLEYIZHONGFENNUHEZIYANDEQINGXU,ERZHEIZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGQIAQIAYINGHEZHEDANGQIANSHIJIEXINGDEDUIZHONGGUODEMOHEIYUNDONG。ERZHESHIXIANGHUHUYINGDE,RUGUOWOMENZHEIYANGDUIDAIZIJI,SHIFEICHANGKEPADE,TAYOUKENENGWAJIEWOMENGUOJIAZILIDEGENBEN。

侠客棋牌ZHEIZHONGZIBAOZIQIDETAIDU,QIAQIAKENENGSHIZHONGGUOSHEHUIDEZHENZHENGWENTISUOZAI。ZHEIZHONGTAIDUYIDINGHUIDAILAIJIDUANDEBIAOXIAN,YISHIJIDUDEZIBEI,ERJIDUDEZIBEIYIDINGHUIDAILAIBIANTAIDEJIDUZIZUN。ZHEIHUIZAIMINZUZHUYICHONGTUFASHENGSHIJISUDIYANBIANWEIYIZHONGFEILIXINGDE、BAOLIHUADEJIDUANMINZUZHUYITAIDU。YIGEJUYOURUCISHENHOUDELISHIHEWENMINGJILEIDEGUOJIA,QUERUCIQUEFAWENMINGHEZHENGZHIDEDINGLI,YOUQISHIGUOJIAZHIFU?

DIERGETAIDUSHIZIWOBIANHUDETAIDU。ZHEIXIENIANYOUGUANZHONGGUOMOSHIDETAOLUNFEICHANGDUO,YESHIZUOYOUDUIZHIDEJIAOLICHANGZHIYI。KENDINGZHONGGUOMOSHILUNDEDADUOSHI“ZUOPAI”,ZHEIZHONGLUNSHUDECHUFADIANSHILIZUYUDANGDAIZHONGGUODEJINGJIFAZHANCHENGJIU,LAIWEIZHONGGUOCHENGGONGDEJINGYANJINXINGBIANHU,CONGYIJINGHUODEDECHENGJIUCHUFAHUITOUJIANTAOZHONGGUOZHISUOYIHUODEZHEIGECHENGJIUDEGENJUHELIYOU。ZAIWOMENKANLAI,ZHEIZHONGFANGSHIHAOXIANGBUGOUWANZHENG,YINWEITAJIBENSHANGZHISHIDUICHENGGONGJINGYANDEZONGJIE,KANBUDAOZHONGGUOJINGYANBEIHOUDESUOWEIZHONGGUODAOLUDENEIZAILUOJIHEDONGLI,YIJIWEIRAOZHEIGELUOJIHEDONGLIZHANKAIDELISHIGUOCHENGDEQUZHEYUDUNCUO。ZHEIGEQUZHEYUDUNCUOCAISHIXUYAOQUANMIANLIJIEDE,ERBUSHIJINJINZHEYANYUSUOWEICHENGGONGJINGYANDEBIANHUJIUKEYIWANQUANQIEQINGCHUDIJIAYISHUOMINGDE。

侠客棋牌NEIME,WOMENYINGGAIYONGSHENMEYANGDETAIDULAIDUIDAIDANGQIANZHEILIANGZHONGYULUNNI?WOYIZHIRENWEI,RUHERENSHIZHONGGUOJIQIXIANDAI,SHUODAODISHIYIGEDANGDAIZHONGGUORENRUHEZHONGXINZUOYIGEZHONGGUORENDEWENTI。YEJIUSHISHUO,DUIZHONGGUODERENSHI,JIBENSHANGSHIYAODAKAIZAIDANGXIACHUJINGLIMIANDEXIAOWO,QUZHUDONGDIYUJUYOUWUQIANNIANDELISHI,JUYOURUCIDAGUIMODEGUOJIA、MINZU、WENMINGDELISHIJINGYANFASHENGSHENKEDEGUANLIANGAN,YUMINZUDEMINGYUNFASHENGYIZHONGGONGGOUDEGUANXI。

YEJIUSHISHUO,ZHEIYANGYIGERENSHIZHONGGUODERENWU,HERIBENREN、MEIGUORENRENSHIZHONGGUOSHIWANQUANBUTONGDE,SUIRANWOMENZAIJUTIZHISHIDEJIELUNSHANGKENENGSHIYIYANGDE,KEWOMENDETAIDUYINGGAISHIWANQUANBUYIYANGDE。YINWEIZHEISHIZHONGGUORENDUIZIJIGUOJIADERENSHI,TABEIHOUYOUYIGEQINGGANWENTI。

侠客棋牌DANGRAN,DAJIAHUIYIWEN,ZHEIZHONGQINGGANTAIDUSHIBUSHIHUIZHANGBIWOMENDUIWENTIDEKEGUANRENSHI?WOMENJIESHOUDESHIZHENGZHUYIXUNLIANJIBENSHANGSHIYIDINGYAOBAZHUTITAOKONGZHIHOUQUMIANDUICAILIAO、DUIXIANG,SIHUZHEIYANGCAINENGDECHUKEGUANZHENQIEDERENSHI。

DANWOYOUWANQUANXIANGFANDEYIJIAN。WOMENZUORENWENSHEHUIKEXUE,MIANDUIDESHIJIE、RENSHIDEDUIXIANG,QISHIBUSHIYIGENINGGUDE、BUHUISHUOHUADE、MEIYOUYIYIDEDUIXIANG,ERSHIYIGEYIYISHIJIEHEYOUYIWEIDEDUIXIANG。DANGWOMENMIANDUIYIYIDUIXIANGDESHIHOU,QIAQIAXUYAOYIGECHONGMANYIYIGANDEZHUTIQUFASHENGGONGMINGGONGZHEN,QUXIANGHUGANFA。DANGWOMENZHENDEYONGYIGERENWENXUEDETAIDUQUDUIDAISHIJIEDESHIHOU,JIUHUIFAXIAN,QISHIDUIXIANGCONGLAIDOUSHIJUEDINGFANGFADE。FANGFAZHIYOUGENJUDUIXIANGDETESHUXINGLAIJIAYITESHUDEXUANZEHESHEJI,CAINENGGOUHUODESUOWEIZHENZHENGFUHEDUIXIANGDERENSHI,ZHIYOUYUDUIXIANGXIANGCHENGDEFANGFACAISHIKEGUANXINGDEZHENZHENGBAOZHANG。

YINCI,QINGGANDETAIDUBUJINBUHUIZHANGBIWOMENDUIZIJIGUOJIADERENSHI,FANERQIAQIAKEYIDAOYINCHUYIGEFEICHANGKEGUANDERENSHILAI。ZHEIGEYOUDUIXIANGSUOJUEDINGDEFANGFABEIHOUQISHIGENQINGGANSHIJUEBUCHONGTUDE,GENYIYISHIJUEBUCHONGTUDE,SUOYIWOMENYAOJIANLIDUIYUZHONGGUODERENSHI,JIUYAOYOUZHEIYANGYIGETAIDUHEFANGFA,ERBUSHILONGTONGXIYONGYIZHONGSUOWEI“XUEWUZHONGXI”DEPUBIANZHUYIFANGFALUN,YIWEIKEYIYONGYIZHONGFANGFAQUMIANDUIYIQIERENSHIDUIXIANG,JIEJUEYIQIEWENTI。

 

▍中国原理之所在

RUHELIJIEZHONGGUO,DUIWOLAIJIANGJIUSHIQUTANQIUZHONGGUOZHISUOYIWEIZHONGGUODEYUANLI。YEJIUSHISHUO,DUIZHONGGUOYUANLIDETANQIU,BUSHIWOMENZAILISHILIMIANQUXUNZHAOYIXIEYAOSU,BAZHEIXIEYAOSUYONGYIGELILUNDEFANGSHIJIAYIBIANZHI,CHENGWEIYIGELILUNXINGDEBIAOSHU;ERSHIYAOCAIYONGYIZHONG“YUANLIUHUZHI”DEFANGFALUN,LISHIXINGDE、DONGTAIDEBAWOZHONGGUODEYUANLI。

DUIWOLAIJIANG,ZHONGGUOZHISUOYIWEIZHONGGUODEYUANLIQISHISHIYAOCONGZHONGGUOCHUANGSHENGDENEIGESHIKEJIANGQIDE。NEIMEZHEIGECHUANGSHENGDESHIKESHISHENME?DUIYUZHONGGUOWENMINGDEQIYUANYOUGEZHONGGEYANGDEKAOGUXUEYANJIU,LIBOQIANXIANSHENGYOUYIGEQUFENFEICHANGHAO,TASHUO,WENMINGYINSUDEQIYUANHEWENMINGDEXINGCHENGSHILIANGGECENGCIDEWENTI,YIYOUDEHENDUOTAOLUNSHIDUIWENMINGYINSUQIYUANDETAOLUN,BINGBUSHIDUIZHONGGUOWENMINGXINGCHENGDETAOLUN。YEJIUSHISHUO,QISHIZAIZHONGGUOZHEIKUAITUDISHANGCENGJINGYOUXUDUORENLEIWENMINGYAOSUDEFASHENG,KEZHEIXIEWENMINGYAOSUDEFASHENGYOUSHIZAISHENMEYIYISHANGCAICHENGDESHANGSHIZHONGGUOWENMINGDEFASHENG,QUEXUYAOJINYIBUTANJIU。ZHEISHILIANGGECENGCIDEWENTI。

侠客棋牌SUBINGQIXIANSHENGYEYOUYIGETEBIEHAODEJIANGFA,TASHUOZHIYOUYIGEJUYOUZHONGGUOYIYIDEZHENGZHITIXINGCHENGDESHIHOU,TACAIKEYICHENGWEIZHONGGUOWENMINGDEQIYUAN。BEIHOUDEYISISHISHUO,ZHONGGUODECHANSHENGQISHISHILAIZIYIGEDUIZHONGGUOGUIMOWENTIDEZHENGZHIJIEJUE。“ZHONGGUO”SHIWEILEJIEJUE“ZHONGGUO”GUIMODEWENTI,CONGZHENGZHIZHIXUDECHUANGSHENGZHONGCHANSHENGCHUDEZIWOYISHI。SUOYISUBINGQISHUOZAIWUDISHIDAIQISHIJIUYOUYIGEGONGSHIDE“ZHONGGUO”CHUXIANLE,SANDAICAIYOUYIGELIXIANGDE“ZHONGGUO”。ZHONGGUOQISHIYITONGYIZHENGZHITIDECHUXIANWEIBIAOZHI,ZAIZHEIGETONGYITICHUXIANDETONGSHI,HAIBAOHANYIZHONGSHIDEZHEIGEZHIXUCHENGWEIKENENGDEJIAZHIGUANHUAI,JISHIDEZHEIGETONGYITIJUYOUZHENGDANGXINGDEJIAZHIGANHUOJIAZHIGUAN。ZAISHANGDESHIDAI,JIUCHUXIANLETIANMINGDEGUANNIAN,ZHEIGEGUANNIANGEN“ZHONGGUO”DEGAINIANSHIXIANGYINGDE,ZHISHEZHE“ZHONGGUO”BEIHOUDEJIAZHIZHENGDANGXING。

ZHOUSHIYIGEXIAOBANG,DAITISHANGZHIHOU,TONGZHI、GUANLIZHEIMEDADESHANGDEYICHAN,SHOUXIANMIANDUIDEJIUSHILIBUCONGXINDENANTI。ZHENGYINWEILILIANGRUOXIAO,SUOYIZHOUCHUANGZAOLEZONGFAFENGJIANZHIDU。ZONGFAFENGJIANZHIDUBAOHANYIGETEBIEDEYUANLI,JIZHAOGUDUOYUANDEQUANLIFENXIANGJIZHI,TAZAIJIEJUEZHENGZHIKONGZHIWENTIDETONGSHIYEJIEJUELEZHENGQUANZHENGDANGXINGDEWENTI。ZONGFAFENGJIANZHIDEJUTICHUANGSHEBEIHOUYUNHANLEYIZHONGJUYOUPUBIANYIYIDEJIAZHIYIHAN,YIJITONGGUOCHAYIDEXIEDIAO,ERFEICHAYIDEQUXIAO,LAIDACHENGTONGYIDEZHIXU。

侠客棋牌CONGYUANTOUSHANGLAIKAN“ZHONGGUO”ZHISUOYIWEI“ZHONGGUO”DEYUANLIYOUJIGETEZHENG:DIYI,CONGZHENGZHIXIAOGUOSHANGLAIJIANGSHIDAYITONG,ZHEISHIWEILEJIEJUEZHONGGUOGUIMODEWENTISUOXU,SHIZHONGGUOGUIMODEWENTITUIDONGLE“ZHONGGUO”ZHEIYIWENMINGHEZHENGZHIZHIXUDEXINGCHENG;

侠客棋牌DIER,ZAIJIAZHIXINGYIYISHANGLAIJIANGYOUYIGETIANMINGGUAN,JISHISHIZAI“TIANMINGJUANCHONG”DEGUANNIANDANGZHONG,“TIANMING”DECHENGLIYEBIXUYITIANMINGFENXIANGDEYISHIWEIQIANTI。ZHEIJIUCHENGWEIZHENGZHIZHENGDANGXINGDEJUYOUPUBIANYIYIDEJIAZHILAIYUAN;

DISAN,ZONGFAFENGJIANZHIDECHUANGZHIZEBAZHEIZHONGTIANMINGFENXIANGDEGUANNIANYUTIANMINGJUANCHONGDEGUANNIANGENGJIABIANZHENGDIJIEHEQILAI,ZAIZHAOYINGZHENGZHIXIANSHIDEQIANTIXIACHENGWEIYIZHONGJUYOUYUANLIXINGDECHUANGZHI,ZHEIJIUSHILIZHIYUANZEDEJIBENJINGSHEN,JIZHENGDANGXINGFENXIANGDEYUANZE,YIJITONGGUOCHAYIDEXIEDIAOERFEICHAYIDEQUXIAOLAISHIXIANZHENGZHIZHIXU。ZHOUDAIZAIJIEJUEJUTIZHENGZHIWENTIZHONGCHUANGZHILELIZHIYUANLI,YINCICHENGWEILEZHUDAO“ZHONGGUO”HOUXUZHENGZHIHELISHIZHANKAIDANGZHONGSUOYUNHANDEJIAZHIYUANLI,JINGUANMEIGESHIDAISUOZAOYUDEJUTILISHIWENTIGEYOUBUTONG,DANZHEIYIJIAZHIYUANLIQUESHIZHONGCHENGWEIDAOYINZHONGGUOLISHIDEJIAZHIYUANZE。

YINCI,WOMENKEYISHUO,DANGZHONGGUOZUOWEIZHONGGUOCHUANGSHENGZHIHOU,ZHONGGUODELISHIZHANKAIJIUSHIZHONGZAILIANGGECENGCIDEYUANLIZHIJIANHUDONGHEBOYI。YIFANGMIAN,LISHIDEFAZHANDONGLIZONGSHIJUYOUYINGUOXINGDE,TASHIYOUXIANSHIDELIYIHEQINGGANSUOJUEDINGDE;DANLINGYIFANGMIANLISHIFAZHANQUEBUNENGTUOLIJIAZHIDUILISHIYINGUOLVDEDAOYINZUOYONG。

RENDEJIAZHIZHUIQIUJINGUANBUSHILISHIYINGUODEDONGLI,DANQUESHIZHONGZUOWEILISHIYINGUODEMUDEERCUNZAI。YINCI,ZHONGGUOLISHISHANGDUIXINDELISHIWENTIDEJIEJUE,DOUXUYAODUILIZHIYUANZEBEIHOUDEJIAZHIYUANLIJINXINGYICICHUANGZAOXINGDEJIFA,SHIQINENGGOUDAOYINLISHIWENTIJIEJUEDEFANGXIANG。ZHENGSHIZHEIZHONGJIAZHIDAOYINDEYIYI,ZHONGGUOLISHIDEJINGYANCAIKEYICUNXU,YINWEINEISHISHIDEZHONGGUOGUIMOWENTIDEJIEJUEJUYOUZHONGGUOWENMINGYIYIDEJINGYAN。

ZHEIXIEJINGYANJUYOURUXIAYIBANXINGDENEIHAN,(1)“DAYITONG”SHIJIEJUEZHONGGUOGUIMOWENTIDEBAOZHENG;(2)“DAYITONG”BIXUYIXIEDIAOCHAYIDE“REN”DEJINGSHENZUOWEINEIHAN,FOUZEBIANWUFACONGGENBENSHANGJIEJUEZHONGGUOGUIMODEWENTI;(3)“REN”DEJINGSHENZHIDAOXIADELIZHIYUANZEZHIMUDE,SHITONGGUOCHAYIDEXIEDIAOLAISHIXIANHEWEICHIGONGTONGTIDECUNXUYUFANRONG。

WOMENZHIDAOZAIGUXILAHELUOMADIGUO,DUIDAICHAYIDEFANGSHIGENWOMENZHEIZHONGXIEDIAOCHAYIHEZHENGDANGXINGFENXIANGDEFANGSHISHIBUTONGDE,XILACHENGBANGNEIBUDEMINZHUBINGBUBIRANDAILAICHENGBANGJIANDEMINZHU,ZAICHENGBANGZHIJIANFANERSHIYIZHONGZHANGUOZHUANGTAI,BUSHICHUXIANBAZHUZHENGZHI。ERLUOMADIGUOBUGUOSHILUOMACHENGBANGDUIDIGUODEZHIPEI,ZHENGRUQIANMUXIANSHENGSUOXINGRONG,LUOMADIGUOHAOBIYIGEZHONGXINDENGZHU,YIDANXIMIEZEDIGUOBIRANWAJIE,ERZHONGGUOZEMANTIANDENGHUO,YIDENGSUIYOUMIE,RANZHONGDENGSHANGMING。

FUSHANCENGSHUOGUOYIJUJIAOWEIJINLIDEHUA,TASHUOHUOBUSISUOXIANGXIANGDEZHENGZHIDEQIYUAN、SHEHUIDEQIYUANQISHISHIBUTAIFUHERENLEIXUESHIJIDE。GENJURENLEIXUEDEFAXIAN,RENLEICONGLAIDOUSHIZAIYIGETUANTILIMIAN,YINCIRENHERENZHIJIANBINGBUYIDINGSHIDOUZHENGDE,DANSHITUANTIHETUANTIZHIJIANKENENGSHIDOUZHENGDE,YINWEIRENBIXUZAITUANTILIMIANCAINENGGOUSHENGCUN,YINCI“RENSHIYIGESHEHUIXINGDEDONGWU”,CONGMOUZHONGYIYISHANGSHIDUIDE,RENBIXUZAIQUNTILICUNZAI,JUEDUIBUSHIYIGEBEIXIANGXIANGCHULAIDEGUDUDEJUEDUIGETI。ZHONGGUODEYUANLI,GENGFUHERENLEIDESHIJIZHUANGKUANG,YEFUHERENLEIZHENGZHIQIYUANDESHIJI。

 

▍如何理解现代中国

侠客棋牌XIANZAIKEYIKANDAO,BUGUANSHIGEMINGSHIHAISHIXIANDAIHUADEXUSHULIMIAN,DOUBA1840NIANDEYAPIANZHANZHENGZUOWEIJINDAIDEQIDIAN。RENWEIZHEISHIXILIDONGQINDEKAISHI,JIYIQIANYIZHITINGZHIBUQIANDEZHONGGUOSHEHUI,DAILAIGENBENDEBIANHUA,ERZHEIGEBIANHUADAILAIZHONGGUOJINBUDEDONGNENG。ZHEISHIGEMINGSHIXUSHUYUXIANDAIHUAXUSHUDEYIGEJIBENYUSHE。YINCI,DUIYUZHONGGUOXIANDAIDELIJIEBEIHOU,YOUYIGELAIZIXIFANGXIANDAIXINGGUIFANZUOZHICHENGDEYUSHE。

ZAIWOKANLAI,QIAQIAZHIDEZHUIWENDEZHENGSHIZHEIGEYUSHE,ZHONGGUOZHEIMEDUORENKOU,ZHEIMEDADEGUIMO,TAZENMEKENENGBUZAISHIJIEDANGZHONG?YINCI,GUANJIANZAIYUZHONGGUOCUNZAIYUSHIJIEZHONGDEFANGSHIYIJICUNZAIYUYIGEZENYANGDESHIJIEDANGZHONG。ZHONGGUODANGRANBINGBUSHIZAI1840NIANCAIBEITUORUSHIJIESHIDE,ZHONGGUOSHIZHONGJIUZAISHIJIEDANGZHONG,ERQIESHISHIJIESHIBUKEHUOQUEDEYIBUFEN,DANGENGWEIZHONGYAODESHI,ZHONGGUOHAICENGJINGSHINEIGESHIJIESHIDEHEXINDONGLIZHIYI,CENGSHINEIGESUOWEIQIANXIANDAISHIJIEDEZHONGXIN。

ZHENGSHIZAICIYIYISHANG,WOMENJIUBUNENGBAZHONGGUODEJINDAIJIANDANKANCHENGSHILAIZIWAILIZUOYONGDEHOUGUO,JISHISHIWAIYINYEBIXUTONGGUONEIYINERFASHENGZUOYONG。DANGRAN,ZHEIGEWAILIZUOYONGQUESHIYOUYIGEHOUGUO,KESHIZHEIYIHOUGUODEYIYISHISHENME,QUEZHIDEZHONGXINPINGGU。WORENWEI,QISHIBAZHEIYIGELISHISHIKEKANZUOZHONGGUOSHIBEITUORUXIANDAILISHIGUOCHENGDEYIYI,BUGUOSHIQIANGDIAOYIOUZHOUWEIZHONGXINDEXIANDAISHIJIETIXIDUIYIZHONGGUOHEYINDUWEIZHONGXINDEQIANXIANDAISHIJIETIXIDEQUDAI。RUGUOZAIZHEIYANGYIGEDADE、LISHIDE、JIEGOUXINGDESHIYELIMIANKANZHONGGUOXIANDAISHI,JIUHUIBAZHONGGUOXIANDAISHIJINLIANGLAKAI,SHANGJIEDAOGUDAIQU,TEBIESHIYAOCONGYUANDAIDUIZHONGGUOLISHISHANGDEGONGXIANCHUFALAILIJIEZHONGGUOXIANDAI。

侠客棋牌SUOWEIQIANXIANDAISHIJIETIXISHIGENYUANDAIDEQUELIYOUGUANXIDE。YUANDAIYOULIANGGEZUIZHONGYAODELISHIGONGXIAN:YISHIJIANLIQIYIGEHENGKUAOUYADALUDEDIGUO,DATONGLEOUYANEILUSHICHANG,SHIDEMAOYICHENGBENDADAJIANGDILE;ERSHIDUIZHONGGUOLISHILAISHUO,YUANDAIDAPOLEZIANSHIZHILUANYILAI“TIANXIANNANBEI”DEZHENGZHIFENLIEZHUANGKUANG,ZHONGXINTONGYILEYUNEI。

侠客棋牌ZAIZHONGGUOLISHISHANGDUIZHONGGUOSHIDEXUSHUZHONGYOUYIGEZHENGTONGLUNDEGUANNIAN,YOUYIGEZONGXIANGDELISHIXUSHU。SONGDAIXINRUXUEDEXINGQI,CHENGSHULEYIZHONGDAOTONGLUNDEZHENGTONGGUAN。GENJUZHEIZHONGDAOTONGLUNDEZHENGTONGGUANLAIXUSHULISHI,RENWEISONGSHICHENGZITANGDEZHENGTONG。

侠客棋牌BUGUO,ZHEIZHONGZONGXIANGDEZHENGTONGLISHIGUANLIMIANQISHIHUSHILEYUSONGTONGSHICUNZAIDELIAOJINXIA,LIAO、JIN、XIAGENSONGSHICUOLUOGONGCUNDE,YEJIUSHISHUOZHISHAOZAIYIGESHIQILIMIANHUIYOUSANGEGUGUOTONGSHICUNZAI。ERZHEISANGEGUGUOSUIRANSHISHAOSHUMINZUZHENGQUAN,DANDOUSHIRUJIAOTIZHI、ZHONGHUATIZHI。ANZHAODAOTONGLUNDEZHENGTONGGUANLAIKANDAISONGDAILISHIDESHIHOU,WOMENJIUHUSHILELIAOJINXIADELISHIDIWEI。YUANDAIDEZHONGYAOYIYIQISHIJIUZAIYU,KAOYIZHONGXUEQIHEMANLIBASANGEXIAOGUOBINGLIDEJUMIANDACHENGYITI,CHEDITONGYILETANGDAIANSHIZHILUANZHIHOUWUBAINIANDEFENLIEJUMIAN,ZAICIDAZAOCHUYIGEDAZHONGHUADEJUMIAN。

侠客棋牌DAOLEMINGDAI,YAOMIANDUIDESHIYIGEYUANDAICENGJINGKONGZHIGUODEJUMIAN,YAOBAYIQIANLIAOHEJINDEDIYUDOUNADAOZIJIDEBANTULIMIANQU,ZHEISHIMINGDAIDENANTI。TONGSHIYUANDAIJIANLIQIYIGESHIJIETIXI,DAILAIDESHIZHONGGUONEIBUJINGJISHEHUIDONGNENGDEDAGUIMOSHIFANG,BASONGDAIJIUYIJINGDADAFAZHANDESHANGPINJINGJIGENGDAGUIMODIKUOZHANLE,SHEHUIDELIUDONGXINGDEDAOLEKONGQIANDEFAZHAN。YINCI,CHUYUQIANXIANDAISHIJIETIXIHEXIANDAISHIJIETIXIZHIJIANDEJIAFENGZHONGDEMINGDAI,TADELISHIRENWUSHIJIANJUDE,TABIXUMIANDUISHEHUIDONGNENGKONGQIANSHIFANGDELISHIJUMIAN,ZAIWEICHIFANRONGDEQIANTIXIA,HAIDAILAILEYIGEXINDECHIXUWENDINGDEZHENGZHIJUMIAN。

YANGESHUOLAI,MINGDAISUOZAOYUDENEIXIEWENTIJINTIANRENGRANCUNZAI,YINGGAISHUOCONGSAN、SIBAINIANQIANKAISHIDEZHEIGESHIDAIDAOJINTIANHAIMEIYOUJIESHU。NEIME,WOMENGAIZENMEKANDAIMINGDAIMIANLINDENEIXIELISHINANTINI?

SHOUXIAN,MINGDAIZHENGZHIDEYIGEFEICHANGZHONGYAODETEDIANSHIJUNQUANGAODUJIZHONG。ZHIQIANDUIMINGDAIZHENGZHIQUANLIDEJIZHONGYOUYIGESHUOFA,RENWEIZHEISHIJUNZHUZHUANZHIJIAQIANG,BUGUANSHIGEMINGSHIHAISHIXIANDAIHUADEXUSHUDOUJIANGZHIMIAOSHUWEIYIZHONGLISHIFANDONG。ZAIWOKANLAI,PAOKAIJIAZHIYUSHEDELICHANG,MINGDAIZHENGZHIZHISUOYIRUCIFAZHAN,QIAQIAKENENGSHIZHENGZHIHELIXINGFAZHANDEYIZHONGTIXIAN。YINWEIMIANDUIYIGESHEHUIDONGNENGCHIXUSHIFANGDESHEHUI,ZHENGZHISHANGDEDIYIFANYINGKENDINGSHIJIAQIANGKONGZHI。YINCIMINGDAIDENANTISHIZHIBUZAIYUJUNQUANJIZHONG,ERZAIYUYIFANGMIANJUNQUANDEDAOGAODUJIZHONG,ERLINGYIFANGMIANJUNQUANQUEBUDUANJIANRUOZHEIYANGYIGELISHIBEILUN。

CONGQINSHIHUANGYILAI,HUANGDIZHIDUQISHISHIYIGELISHIDEJINBU,DAILAILEDAYITONGDEJUMIAN,DAILAINEIBUDEWENDING。KESHIHUANGDIZHIDUYOUYIGEXIANTIANDEQUEXIAN,JIUSHITADEZHENGZHIJICHUBORUO,HUANGDILIANZONGQINDOUBUNENGXINREN,SHIRENSHIYIGEJIHEZUOYILAIYOUXUYAOTIFANGHEPAICHIDEQUNTI。LILAIHUANGDIZHIZAIZHENGZHIHELIXINGFAZHANLIMIANZUIZHONGYAODEYIGEBORUODIANJIUSHIMEIYOUGUANGFANDEQUANLIJICHU,DAOMINGDAIZHEIYIDIANBIAOXIANDEGENGTUCHULE。

侠客棋牌DIER,SHEHUIDONGNENGDECHIXUSHIFANGDAILAIYIGEGENGZHONGYAODESHEHUIHOUGUO,MINGDAIDESHIHOUMEIZHOUDEYIXIEZUOWUJINRUZHONGGUO,YUMIDEZHONGZHIJIEJUELEZHONGGUORENDEKOULIANGBUZUWENTI,RENKOUKAISHIDAGUIMOZENGJIA。YIQIANDEMINGDAIRENKOUTONGJIHENDUOSHIHOUDUIJUNHUDEJISUANBUZHUNQUE,SHIJISHANGMINGDAIRENKOUYIJINGYOULEYIGEBAOZHAXINGDEZENGZHANG。ZHEIZHONGZENGZHANG,DAILAIRENKOUDELIUDONG,YUSHIBIANCHUXIANLEYIGELIUMINHEYIMINDESHEHUI。LIUMINHEYIMINSHEHUIDETEDIAN,SHIDUIJIUDELUNLIZHIXUDETUOXU。

侠客棋牌WOMENZHIDAO,MINGZHONGYEYIHOU,GUOJIAYUNXUJISISHIQIANZHIZU,ZONGZULILIANGDEDAOGUANGFANDEFAZHAN,LIJIAOXIAYI,ZONGZUGUANGFANSHENTOUDAOZHONGGUODEJICENG。TONGSHI,MINGQINGSHIDAIZONGZUDEFAZHAN,HAIBANSUIZHELINGWAIYIZHONGXIANXIANG,JIUSHIMINJIANZONGJIAODEFAYU。MINJIANZONGJIAOHEZONGZUSHEHUIDEJIANSHE,YOUZHEYIGEWENDINGJICENGZHIXUDEZHENGZHISHEHUIGONGNENG。SUOYITAGENDACHUANTONGWANQUANSHIPEITAODE,BUSHITUOLIDACHUANTONGDE。

侠客棋牌ERYIMINHELIUMINSHEHUI,YINWEITUOLILEZHEIGEZONGZUZHIXU,YINWEIYOUZUZHIDEXUYAO,BIANCHUXIANLEXUEYUANNIZHIDEZUZHIJIANSHE,BIANCHUXIANLEWOCHENGZHIWEI“SHUMINZONGJIAO”DEMINJIANZUZHI。“SHUMINZONGJIAO”ZHIDESHINEIXIETUOLIJIUZHIXUZHIHOUDEGETI,CHUYUHUZHULIANDAIDEXUYAOERXINGCHENGDEZUZHI。GUANDIXINYANGJIUSHIZUIDIANXINGDESHUMINZONGJIAOXINGSHI,BAILIANJIAODENGZONGJIAOZUZHISHIZUIDIANXINGDESHUMINZONGJIAOZUZHI。

侠客棋牌SHUMINDECHANSHENG,SHUMINSHEHUIDEFAYU,BIANCHENGWEIYIGEGUOJIABIXUYAOMIANDUIDEWENTI。YUYIWANGSHIDAIDELIUMINWENTIBUTONG,MINGDAICHUXIANDESHUMINSHEHUIGUIMOZHIDA,YIJINGBUSHIGUOJIAJIANGQIZAICIQIMINHUAJIUKEYIYOUXIAOJIEJUEDE,BIXUJISHUMINSHEHUIYIGEXINDEZHIXU,WOJUEDEZHEISHIMINGDAIBIXUYAOMIANLINDEYIGEWENTI。

侠客棋牌SHUMINSHEHUICHENGZHANGZHONGYOUYIGEFEICHANGZHONGYAODEXIANXIANG,JIUSHISHUMINLIMIANYOUYIZHONGJIAOSHIMIN,WOBUCONGXIANDAISHIMINSHEHUI、GONGMINSHEHUIJIAODULAILIJIESHIMIN,ERSHIZHIJUZHUZAISHIZHENLIMIANDESHUMIN,TAMENYIJINGTUOLIJIUDELUNLIZHIXU。SHIMINSHEHUIDECHUXIANQISHISHIYIGEFEICHANGZHONGYAODEXIANXIANG。SHIMINYIJINGSHIYIGEGULIDEGETI,TUOLILELUNLIZHIXUJIUBIANCHENGYIGEQINGYUZHUTI,NEIZENMEJITAANDUN,RUHEZHONGXINZAIGUOYIZHONGYOUYIYIDERENSHENG?TAMENSHOUXIANHUIXUANZEFOJIAO,YINWEIFOJIAODEYEBAOLUNHUIGUANNIANTIGONGLEYIZHONGDUIRENDEXINGWEIZUIWEIZHIJIEDEZHIYUEXING。ZAIMINGDAI,FOJIAOJINRUSANGLISHIYIGEFEICHANGZHONGYAODESHIDAIHESHEHUIDEZHENGHOUXINGFANYING。

ZHEIXIECONGTIANLIZHIXUANPAIDANGZHONGTUOYICHULAIDEGETI,RUHEZAIZIJINEIBUZHONGXINFAXIANRENLUNDEKENENGXING,WOJUEDEZHEISHIMINGDAIXUESHUSIXIANGBIXUYAOMIANDUIDEWENTI,YESHIMINGDAIJINGSHENWENHUAFAZHANBIXUYAOJIEJUEDEYIGENANTI。JIBENSHANGWOMENDAZHIKEYICONGZHENGZHI/SHEHUI/JINGSHENSANGEFANGMIANLAIJIANGMINGDAIDENANTI。DUIYUZHEISANGENANTIDEHUIYINGGOUCHENGLEMINGDAIYANGMINGXUEZHONGYAODENEIRONG,YEZHENGYINCIWOMENBAYANGMINGXUEZUOWEIXIANDAISIXIANGDEQIYUAN。YANGMINGXUESHIDUIZHEIXIENANTIDEQUANMIANHUIYING,TEBIESHIDUIHOULIANGGEWENTIJIYULETEBIEDESIKAO:YIGESHISHUMINSHEHUIDEZHIXUZAIBIANCHENGWENTI;YIGESHIRUHEZAIGUDUDEGETISHENSHANGZHONGXINFAXIANRENLUNKENENGXINGDEWENTI,ERZHEIZHENGSHISUOWEILIANGZHIFAXIANDEWENTI。

LIANGZHIDEFAXIAN,JIBENSHANGSHIZHONGGUOWENHUAFAZHANDEYIGEFEICHANGGAOCHAODEBIAOXIAN,LIANGZHIDEFAXIANYIWEIZHEWOMENBUZAIYILAIRENHEWAIZAIDEJIAZHIGENYUAN,ERSHIYAOCONGSHICUNDEGETISHENSHANGZHIJIEZHAODAOJIAZHIDEZHICHENG。LIANGZHIDEFAXIANJIUSHIYAOCONGBEIGULIHUADEGETISHENSHANGQUXUNZHAOLUNLIDEKENENG。DUIYANGMINGLAIJIANGLIANGZHIHAIYOULINGWAIYICENGYIYI,DANGWOMENFAXIANLIANGZHIZHIHOU,YOURUHEQUGOUXIANGYIGEYOULIANGZHIGOUZAODESHEHUI。ZHEIJIUSHIXIANDAISIXIANGFEICHANGZHONGYAODEYIGEGENYUAN:WOMENBUJINYAOZAIGETISHENSHANGFAXIANLIANGZHI,TONGSHIHAIYAOZAILIANGZHIDEJICHUSHANGQUSHEXIANGYIZHONGSHEHUIGOUZAODEKENENGXING。

侠客棋牌NEIME,YOULIANGZHIGOUZAODESHEHUIJUYOUZENYANGDETEDIANNI?NEIJIUSHIJIANGJIUPINGDENG。YANGMINGYOUYIPIANTEBIEZHONGYAODEWENZHANG,JIAO《BABENSAIYUANLUN》,QIZHONGJIUJIANGDAOLIXIANGSHEHUIDEGOUCHENGTEDIAN。ZAITAKANLAI,XINDELIXIANGSHEHUIGOUCHENGBIXUMANZUYIGEQIANTI,NEIJIUSHIBIXUZHONGXINXIUZHENGGUANYUSHENGRENDEGUANNIAN。YANGMINGQIANGDIAOSHUO,SHENGRENSHI“ZHILUNCHENGSE,BULUNJINLIANG”DE,YISISHISHUO,BUYONGWAIZAISHIYEZUOWEIHENGLIANGSHENGRENZIGEDEBIAOZHUN,ERZHICONGDEXINGSHANGLAIHENGLIANGSHENGREN,ZHIYAOZAIDEXINGSHANGCHENGSEZUGOU,JIUKEYICHENGWEISHENGREN,ERBUZAIQIGONGYEZHIDAXIAO。ZHEIYEZHENGSHI“MANJIEYAOSHUN”SHUOFADEGENJU。

ZHENGSHIZAIZHEIYIDIANSHANGYANGMINGXUEDADATUIJINLEZHUZIXUE。YIBANLAIJIANG,ZHUZIXUERENGRANSHISHIRENDEJINGSHENJIAOYANG,SHIRENTONGGUODAODEDEZIWOXIUYANGLAICUSHIZIJICHENGWEISHEHUIDEBIAOLV,ERZHEIZHONGSHEHUIBIAOLVBENSHENQISHIYOUJUYOUZHONGYAODEZHENGZHIGONGNENG,SHIXIANSUOWEIDEYIDAODEZHITIANXIADEZHILIXIAOGUO。YINCIZHUZIXUESHITONGGUOSHIRENZISHENDEDAODEWANSHANLAIDAZHIZHENGZHIJIAOHUADEZUOYONG。

DUIYUYANGMINGLAIJIANG,RUGUOSHENGRENSHIZHILUNCHENGSEBULUNJINLIANGDE,NEIJIUYIWEIZHETABUZHISHIZHENDUISHIRENERYANDEDAODE,ERSHIYAOMIANDUISHISHUDEZHENGTI,SHIZHENDUISUOYOURENERLAIDEJIAOSHUO,QIANGDIAOLESUOYOURENDOUYOUCHENGSHENGDEKENENGXING。ZHUZIXUEJIANG“ZUNDEXINGERDAOWENXUE”,DAOLEYANGMINGDESHIDAI,TAYOUYIGESHUOFAJIAOZUO“ZUNDEXINGDEXUEWEN”,ZHEIYIWEIZHE“DEXING”HE“XUEWEN”ZHIJIANBUZAISHIBINGLIDEGUANXI,ERCHUXIANLEYIZHONGCHUNCUIDEXUEWENXINGTAI,NEIJIUSHIGUANYUDEXINGDEXUEWEN,YIZHONGCHUNCUIDECHENGDEZHIXUE。WOJUEDEZHEISHIYANGMINGXUEDEYIGEGONGXIAN,TABARUXUEDEMOUXIEMIANXIANGCHEDIHUAHECHUNCUIHUAWEIYIZHONGCHENGDEDEXUEWEN。

ZAIYANGMINGDEXUEWENXINGTAILIMIANYINGGAISHUOBINGMEIYOUDULICHULAIYIZHONGGUANYUZHENGZHIDEXUEWEN,ZAITAKANLAI,ZHENGZHIDE“YUNYONGZHIMIAO”SHI“CUNHUYIXIN”DE,ZHENGZHIZHISHILIANGZHISHISHANGMOLIANYUNYONGDELINGYUERYI。ZHEIZHONGYILIXUEJUYOUYIZHONGZHENGZHISHEHUIDEYIYI,QIZHONGHAIYUNHANYOUYIZHONGZHENGZHISHEHUIDEGOUXIANG,KETAZISHENBINGWEIDULICHULAIYIGE“DAOWENXUE”DEXUEWENXITONG。YEZHENGYINCI,YANGMINGXUEHOUXUDEFAZHANZHONGCHUXIANDEZHULUDIAOHEWENTI,ZAIYIDINGYIYISHANGZHENGSHIZAIYANGMINGXUE“ZUNDEXINGDEXUEWEN”ZHIWAI,TANSUOYIZHONGDULIDE“DAOWENXUEDEXUEWEN”DEKENENGXING。WANMINGGUTINGLIN、WANGCHUANSHANHEHUANGZONGXIJIUSHIZAIZHEIYANGDESIXIANGSHILILUDANGZHONGZHANKAIZIJIDEGONGZUODE。ZAILINGYIZHONGYIYISHANG,HOUSHIJUSHIFOJIAOZHONGDE“KONGFOHUITONG”YUNDONG,ZESHIZAIYANGMINGXUE“ZUNDEXINGDEXUEWEN”DEJICHUSHANGSHENZHANKAILAIDE。

侠客棋牌ZHENGSHIZAIYISHANGTIJIDEYIYISHANG,WOMENKEYISHUOYANGMINGXUEZHANGXIANLEZHONGGUOXINWENHUAFAZHANDEFANGXIANG。YIFANGMIANTABIPOCHULEKEGUANMIANDUIZHENGZHILINGYUDEXUEWENKENENGXING,ERLINGYIFANGMIANZEYIQIMIANDUISHISHUZHENGTIDECHUNCUICHENGDEZHIXUE,WEIYIZHONGRUXUEDEZONGJIAOXINGFAZHANDIANDINGLEFANGXIANG。YANGMINGXUEDEFAZHANYUSHEZHEZAIXINDELISHITIAOJIANXIADUIJIUDERUJIAOTIZHIDEXINDIAOZHENG。YISHANGLIANGGEFANGXIANGZHENGSHIZHEIZHONGRUJIAOTIZHIDIAOZHENGDELIANGGEXIANGDU。YANGESHUOLAI,RUJIAOTIZHISHIZAIBUDUANHUIYINGXINDEJUYOUZHONGGUOGUIMODELISHITIAOZHANDANGZHONG,BUDUANDUIZISHENJINXINGZHESHIYINGSHIDAIXUYAODEDIAOSHI,ERMEIYICIDIAOSHIDOUZONGYAOZAICILUOSHIDUIRUXUEJIBENJIAZHIYUANLIDEQUEREN,YINWEIZHIYOURUCI,CAIKENENGBAOZHENGDUIZHONGGUOGUIMOWENTIDEHUIYINGJUYOUZHONGGUOYIYI。

侠客棋牌YINGGAISHUO,MINGDAIZHIHOUDELISHIFAZHANDOUSHIZAIYANGMINGXUESUOKAIQIDEXIANGDULIZHANKAIDE。QINGDAIDEYIGEZHONGYAOGONGXIANJIUSHIZHONGXINDAZAOLEYIGENENGGOUBAOHANFUZADEDUOYUANZHENGZHIXITONGDEXINDERUJIAOTIZHI。ZAIZHEIGERUJIATIZHIDANGZHONG,SHENZHIZANGCHUANFOJIAOYEFAHUILEZHONGYAODEZHENGZHIJIAOHUAGONGNENG。TONGSHI,ZUOWEIYIGEBUZUZHENGQUAN,TAZAIKEGUANSHANGYEKUODALEZHENGQUANDEZHENGZHIJICHU。

GENGWEIZHONGYAODESHI,WEILEQIANGHUAZISHENDEZHENGZHIZHENGDANGXING,KANGXIHEQIANLONGHAIKAIZHANLEYIGESHITUJIANGDAOTONGHEZHENGTONGWANHEWEIYIDESIXIANGHEZHENGZHIYUNDONG,ZHEISHIDUIZHENGJIAOHEYITIZHIDEJINYIBUFAZHAN。ZAIYIDINGYIYISHANG,WOMENKEYISHUOQINGCHAOSHUNYINGLEMINGDAIYILAIDELISHIFAZHANCHAOLIU,ERQIEYEDUIRUJIAOTIZHIJINXINGLESHIDANGDEGENGHUA,ZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGHUANJIELEMINGDAIYILAIDESHEHUIZHENGZHIWENTI,DANQINGCHAOTIGONGDERUJIAOTIZHIBINGBUNENGCHEDIJIEJUEMINGDAIYILAIDELISHIWENTI。

DUIDAILISHIBUNENGZHANZAIJIAZHIZHIGAODIANSHANGJINXINGPINGPAN,ERSHIYAONENGGOUSHENRUQIZHONGLIJIEQISHIJIFASHENGDETIAOJIANHEDAOLI,ERSUOWEILISHIWENTI,YEMEIYOUYILAOYONGYIDECHEDIJIEJUE,WOMENZONGSHIXUYAOBUDUANYINGJIEXINDELISHITIAOZHAN。

 

▍小结与讨论

ZUIHOUWOMENYAOTANYIXIASUOWEI“GONGHEWEIJI”DEWENTI。ZAIWANQINGSHIDAI,TEBIESHICONG1840NIANYILAI,YOUYUXILIDONGQINDEYINGXIANG,JIASHENHETUOKUANLEMINGDAIYILAIZHONGGUOSHEHUILISHIWENTIDEYANZHONGXING。ZAIDUILISHIWENTIDECHULIGUOCHENGZHONGYOUHUIBUDUANCHANSHENGCHUXINDEWENTI,ZHEIBENLAISHILISHIDECHANGTAI。DANWANQINGSIXIANGJIAZAIDUIDAIZHEIXIELISHIWENTISHI,QUECAIQULEYIZHONGJIJINDEFANGSHI,ZHEIJIUSHIGONGHEGEMINGDEFANGSHI,ERZHEIYIFANGSHIQUETONGSHIDAILAILEJIGEFANGMIANDEWENTI:

DIYI,“GONGHE”SHIFOUJIEJUELEZHENGZHIHELIXINGFAZHANLIMIANDEZHENGZHIJICHUDEWENDINGHEKUODAWENTINI?DIER,“GONGHE”SHIFOUZHONGXINDAZAOLEYIGEWENDINGDEZHENGZHIZHONGXIN?HAIYOUGENGZHONGYAODEYIDIAN,NEIJIUSHIDISAN,“GONGHE”ZAITUIFANHUANGDIZHIDUDETONGSHI,YELIANDAITUIFANLEHUANGDIZHIDUBEIHOUSUOJITUODENEIGEWENHUAXIANGZHENGXITONG。

NEIME,“GONGHE”SHIFOUTONGSHIYECHUANGZAOLEYIGENENGGOUGUANTONGQUANSHEHUIDEXINDEWENHUAXIANGZHENGXITONGNI?WOMENRENWEI,“GONGHE”DEWEIJIQIAQIAZAIYUBUJINWUFAJIEJUEYISHANGWENTI,ZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGQUEJINYIBUJIASHENJIAZHONGLEYISHANGWENTI。WOMENBUSHIFANDUIGONGHEBEIHOUDEJIAZHI,DANGRANGENGBUSHIWEIHUANGDIZHIDUBIANHU,WOMENZHISHICONGYIGELISHIHELIXINGDEJIAODU,CONGZHONGGUOGUIMOWENTIDEJIEJUEJIAODULAITICHUZHEIXIEZHIYI。

侠客棋牌ZAIWOMENKANLAI,HUOXULISHIYEHAIYOULINGWAIDEKENENGXING,NEIJIUSHIJIANYUHUANGDIZHIDUZHONGZHONGLISHIBUHELIXING,WOMENTUIFANTADEMUDE,YINGGAISHIWEILEJIEJUEJIUTIZHISUOWUFAJIEJUEDELISHINANTI,ERNEIZHONGDUIXIANSHIZHONGDEJIUTIZHIDEGAIZAO,QUELIANTONGTIZHIBEIHOUDEYUANLIYEYITONGFOUDINGDEJIJINTAIDU,QIHOUGUOJIANGSHIBISHIDEDUIZHONGGUOWENTIDEJIEJUE,WUFABAOZHENGQISHIZHONGSHIZAIZHONGGUOGUIMOSHANGDEJIEJUE,CONGERDAILAIZHENZHENGDEZHONGGUOWEIJI。

ZHEIXIEJUYOUZHONGGUOGUIMODELISHINANTIDEJIEJUE,SHIJISHANGSHIXUYAOCONGZHONGGUOYUANLIDEZAICITIZHENZHONGCAINENGZHENZHENGCHUANGSHENGCHUXINDELISHIFANGAN,ZHEISHIJIEJUEZHONGGUOGUIMOWENTIDEXUYAO。DUIYUJINTIANDEZHONGGUOERYAN,RUHEZHONGJIANYIGENENGGOUSHIYINGXINLISHITIAOJIANDEWENHUAXIANGZHENGXITONGZHEIYANGYIGEWENHUARENWU,ZHONGYUCHENGWEISUOYOUZHENGZHIWENTIDANGZHONGZUIDADEZHENGZHIWENTI,YINWEIZHEIGEWENTIZHENZHENGGUANHUWEILAIZHONGGUODEBENZHI。

 

侠客棋牌(BENWENWEIZUOZHEZAIBEIJINGDAXUERUXINGSHEDEYANJIANGZHAIYAOJILUZHENGLIGAO,YUANFABIAOYU《WENHUAZONGHENG》2014NIANDI1QI。PIANFUSUOXIAN,YOUSUOBIANJI。TUPIANLAIYUANYUWANGLUO,HUANYINGGERENFENXIANG,MEITIZHUANZAIQINGLIANXIBANQUANFANG。)