SONGNIANSHEN

DIGUOXINGSUYUBIANJIANG,ZHEISHIYIGEYUELAIYUEWEIRENSUOSHUZHIDEGUANDIAN。ERZAIDIGUOXIANGSUOWEIXIANDAIMINZUGUOJIAZHUANXINGDEGUOCHENGZHONG,BIANJIANGTONGYANGBANYANZHEJIWEIGUANJIANDEJIAOSE。YINWEICHUYUBUTONGZHENGZHI、JINGJI、SHEHUI、WENHUAXIANGHUJIAODIE、XIANGHUYINGXIANGDEDIDAI,BIANJIANGDEXIANDAIYANHUACHENGXIANWEIGEZHONGKUAJIESHILIDEXINA、RONGHE、PAICHIHEZHONGZU。BIANJIEYIFANGMIANBEIDAPO,YIFANGMIANBEIZHONGSU,BIANJIANGJIANGOU(frontier building)QIAYUWOMENSHUZHIDEMINZUGOUJIAN(nation-building)HEGUOJIAGOUJIAN(state-building)XIANGHUCHANRAO,ERLISHIDEYANXUXINGHEDUANLIEXING,JIUZAIBIANYUANDIDAITONGSHIXIANXIANCHULAI。JINDAIZHONGGUODEBIANJIANGJIANGOULICHENG,YUZHONGGUOYINGDUIXIANDAIHUATIAOZHAN、ZHONGXINZHENGHENEIBUZIYUAN、NEIHUAWAILAIZIYUAN、BINGZUIZHONGZHONGSU“ZHONGGUO”DEGUOCHENGLIANXIJINMI。

侠客棋牌ZAIXIANDAIZHONGGUOBIANJIANGJIANSHEDETAOLUNZHONG,YANBIANSHIGERONGYIBEIHUSHIDEDIFANG:YIFANGMIAN,ZAI19〜20SHIJIQINGDIGUODESIDANEIYABIANJIANGZHONG,YANBIANSUOZAIDEDONGBEIDIQU,QINEIDIHUAGUOCHENGKANSHANGQUZUIWEICHENGGONG;LINGYIFANGMIAN,YUCHAOXIANBANDAOGETUMENJIANGXIANGLIN、ZONGMIANJILVEDAYUTAIWANDEYANBIAN,YOUSHUYUDONGBEINEIBUXIANGDUIWENDINGDEBIANCHUIDIQU。YINCIYANBIANDE“NEIHUA”HUODUOHUOSHAODIHUIBEISHIZUOLISUODANGRAN。DANJIEYOULISHISHULIKEZHI,YANBIANCENGJINGBAOFADEMAODUNHECHONGTU(LINGTU、MINZUHEGUOJI),QIJILIEHEFUZACHENGDUBINGBUYAYUXIBU。YINCI,ZHEIZHONGXIANGDUIDE“CHENGGONG”HE“WENDING”BEIHOU,QIAQIAJIESHICHUJINDAIZHONGGUOBIANJIANGJIANGOUHEMINZUGUOJIAJIANSHEDEMOUZHONGDUTEJINGYAN。BENWENTANTAODE,BINGFEIYANBIANDIQURUHECHENGWEI(JINGTAIDE)“ZHONGGUO”DEYIBUFEN。XIANGFAN,BENWENSHITUBA“ZHONGGUO”KANZUOYIGEZAIDIGUOHEMINZUGUOJIAJIANDONGTAIYANHUADEGUOCHENG,BINGKAOCHACIGUOCHENGSHIRUHEZAIYANBIANFASHENGHEZHANKAIDE。

延边作为多边边疆

20SHIJICHU,“YANBIAN”YIMINGSHANGBUCUNZAI。TUMENJIANGYIBEIDEGUANGKUODIYU,YINPILINZHANGBAISHAN,CENGSHIQINGDIGUOFENGJINZHENGCEDEHEXINDIDAI。ZHENGGEJILINZHILIYIBAQIZHIDUWEIZHUDAO,YANBIANDIQUSHUHUNCHUNXIELING,XIAYUNINGGUTAFUDOUTONG。1860NIAN,QINGTINGBEIPOJIANGWUSULIJIANGYIDONGQIYUSHAEHOU,WEIQIANGHUADIFANGFANGYU,SHENGHUNCHUNXIELINGWEIFUDOUTONG。1880NIANDAIQI,ZHEILIBEIPIWEIJINFANGZHIDI,QINGTINGWEIRENWUDACHENGFUZENINGGUTABIANWU。HANRENGUANYUANJIERU“LONGXINGZHIDI”DEGUANLI,MINZHENGJIGOUYIKAISHISHEZHI。1902NIAN,QINGTINGZAICIDIJIANYANJITING。ERHOU“YANBIAN”YICI,YIZHIZUOWEIFEIZHENGSHIYONGYU,FANZHIDANGSHITUMENJIANGBIANDEYANJI、HELONG、WANGQING、HUNCHUNYIDAI。ZHIDAOKANGZHANJIESHUYIHOU,“YANBIAN”ZUOWEIZHENGSHIXINGZHENGQUHUAMINGCHENGCAIZHUBUGUDING。

YOUQINGYIDAI,DONGBEIJISHIMANZHOUDEGENBENZHONGDI,YOUSHIDIYUSHAEKUOZHANGDEQIANYAN,DUINEI(HANREN)DUIWAI(EREN)JIEXUFANGFAN。SHIZHIJINDAI,EGUOTUOZHIDAOTUMENJIANGKOU,RIBENZETONGGUOCHAOXIANBANDAODAKAITONGXIANGDONGBEIDEDONGXIANMENHU,QINGCHAOWEIGUBIANSHOUBEN,BUDEBUCHIJINZHAOKEN,GULIHANRENYIZHU,DANGDIDEJINGJIHESHEHUISHENGTAISUIZHIJUBIAN。YANBIANDIQUDICHUZHONG、RI、CHAO、EJIAJIAO,YOUYOUCHAO、MAN、HAN、HUIZACHU,SHIZAISHIYIGEDUOBIANDEBIANJIANG,YEKEWEISHIYIGE“KUATIXISHEHUI”。JINTIANDEYANBIANSHICHAOXIANZUZIZHIZHOU,YINCITANDAOYANBIANSHEHUI,XUEJIEDUOTI“KUAJINGMINZU”。ZHEIDANGRANMEIYOUCUO,BUGUOYAOLIJIEZHEIGEKUAJINGSHEHUIDEXINGCHENG,WOMENBUNENGJINJUXIANYUZHONGCHAOBIANJING,YINWEIBENDISHEHUIDEQIYUANHEZHANKAI,CONGLAIBUZHIYUZHONGCHAOLIANGGUOXIANGGUAN,ERSHIDAIYOUJIQIANGDEQUYUXINGHEQUANQIUXING。

侠客棋牌1870NIANDAI,CHAOXIANXIANJINGDAOPINMINKAISHIDAGUIMODIYUEJIANGKENHUANG,ZHEISHIZHENGZHIEGUOTUNBINGLEZHENGGEWUSULIJIANGYIDONGDEQINGCHAOLINGTU。LIANGZHEDETONGSHIFASHENGBINGFEIOURAN:SHAEZAIYUYINGGUODEZHONGYADABOYIZHONGSHILI,ZHUANTOUXIANGDONG,BINGLIYONGQINGCHAODENEIYOUWAIHUAN,DEDAODONGBEIOUYATAIPINGYANGYANANDEDAPIANLINGTU。EGUOWEILEGONGGUDIGUODEXINBIANJIANG,DAGUIMOZHENGZHAOCHAOXIANPINMINKENZHI。ERCISHICHAOXIANJIRUO,GENGSHITIANZAIRENHUOBUJUE,ZHEIYICUSHIPINMINMAOSIYUEBIAN。QIZHONGXIANGDANGYIBUFENREN,JIULIUZAIYANBIANDIQU,CHENGWEIZUIZAOYIPINONGYEJUMIN。JIAWUYIHOU,RIBENJIASUZHIMINCHAOXIAN,GENGTIAOQIRIEDAZHAN,RIBENDUTUNBANDAO,JIYUMANMENG。YISHANGGOUCHENG20SHIJICHAOXIANRENYIMINDONGBEI(TEBIESHIYANBIANDIQU)DEZUIDATUILI。TUNBINGHANGUOHOU,RIBENZHIMINSHILIHEZIBENSHILILIANSHOU,JIANGCHAOXIANBANDAODAZAOCHENGDIGUONONGYEJIDI,YILAIDAPIRIBENNONGMIN。SHIDIDECHAOXIANNONGMINZHIHAOYIWANGMANZHOU,JIANCITIANBURIBENDIGUODEXIAYIGEBIANJIANG。

侠客棋牌DIGUOZHUYIDEDIYUANZHENGDUO,YIJIZIBENZHUYIDEQINRU,SHIDEQINGTINGZAIYEWUFAWEICHI“LONGXINGZHIDI”DEQISHEZHIFENG。DONGBEIZUOWEIMANRENDEGUXIANG,YUELAIYUEZHICUNZAIYUSHENHUAHEXIANGXIANGDANGZHONG。QISHIMANZHOUTEZHIDESHUAILUO,ZAOZAIYANXINGFENGJINSHIJIUYIJINGKAISHILE。BAQIZHULIJIUJUZHONGYUAN,JIHUWURENYUANQIANJUGUANWAI、SHUSHOUKUHANBIANDI。NINGGUTA、HUNCHUNDIFANGQIREN,TUNKENRIJIU,YEZHUJIANNONGYEHUA,YUANYOUQIDIYIDALIANGDILIUYUMINRENZHISHOU。ZHIYUHANRENTOUYUELIUTIAOBIAN,HUOTAOJINFAMU、WEIJINKAIHUANG,HUOTOULIECAICAN、XIAOJUSHANLIN,GENGSHIWANQINGDONGBEIZHILIDEYIDANANTI。19SHIJIHOUQI,HUNCHUNXIAQUDABANKAIFANG。FEIWODETUDIHEYOUYUEDEDILIWEIZHI,HENKUAIRANGHUNCHUNCHENGWEIYIGEKUAJINGNONGYE、SHANGYEZHONGXIN。TUMENJIANGBEIDEMIGUSHOUCHENGSHICHAOXIANBEIBUZHONGYAODESHIPINLAIYUAN;HUNCHUNCHENGYICHENGWEIQUYUSHANGYEZHONGZHEN,SHIRENKOUYIDUJINCIYUJILINCHENGDEJILINDIERDASHIZHEN。ZHEIFANGUOLAIYEGENGJIACIJILEDIYUANZHENGZHIHEZIBENDEZHENGDUO。ZAIMOUZHONGYIYISHANG,YANBIANSHIQINGDAIDONGBEIZHUJIAN“QUMANZHOUHUA”、BEIQIANGXINGNARUXINDIGUOZHUYITIXIHEZIBENZHUYISHIJIETIXIDESUOYING。

YINCIYANBIANZAOQILISHI,YIKAISHIJIUDAIYOUDUOBIANJINGZHENG、DIGUOXIAOZHANGDEFUZAZHUTI。DANGRAN,ZHEIYIXINGZHIBINGFEIYANBIANDIQUSUODUYOU,SUOYINGZHUYIDESHI,ZHEIGEDUOBIANBIANJIANGRUHEXIAOHUAZHEIXIEZHUTI,BINGZAICIGUOCHENGZHONG,ZHONGXINDINGYIRENMIN、TUDI、GUOJIA,JINERKUOZHANLE“ZHONGGUO”ZHEIYIGAINIAN。

断裂与延续:从“垦民”到朝鲜族

JINDAIZHONGGUODEXIANGGUANLISHIXUSHUDUOZAIQIANGDIAOLISHIDEDUANLIE。DANJIASHIZHIKANDAODUANLIE,QISHIJIUSHINA“ZHONGGUO”ZHEIYIJIJURENXINGDEFAZHANGUOCHENG,QUSHIYING“XIANDAIHUA”ZHEIYIDUANSHIXINGDE、MUDEXINGJIQIANGDEKUANGJIA。ZHEIYANGYILAI,GUYUJIN,JIUYUXIN,NEIYUWAI,WANGWANGHUWEIFANZHENG、NANYITONGYUE。TANGRUOBAZHEITAOXUSHIZHUXIANSHIZHIYUBIANYUANDIQU、SHAOSHUZUQUN,ZEGENGYIBAYUANBENZUOWEILISHIGAINIANDEDUANLIESHIZHIYUXIANSHI;BASHIJIANDEQUGE(QIANXIANDAI/XIANDAI)BIANCHENGKONGJIANDEQUGE(ZHONGYUAN/BIANJIANG)。ERRUGUOCONGBIANJIANGCHUFAKANZHONGGUO,YEXUKEYIFAXIANDUANLIEZHIWAIDELINGYIMIAN。

侠客棋牌JINDAIGUOZUXUSHI,BENSHIYIZHONGZISHANGERXIADE、DUILISHIJINXINGDAOTUIDELIJIE。YINCIHUIYOUXUEZHEBADONGBEICHAOXIAN“ZU”DELISHI,SHANGSUZHIHUANGTAIJILULVEDECHAOXIANBINGMIN。DANZHEIZHONGRENKOULIUDONGHEJINDAIMINZUJIANGOUDEJILIWANQUANBUTONG。“CHAOXIAN”CHENGWEI“ZU”,CHANSHENGYUDONGBEIJINDAIHUADEGUOCHENGZHONG。ZHONGGUOCHAOXIANZUSHIXIANDAIZHONGGUOMINZUTIXIZHONGXINGCHENGJIAOWANDEZUQUN,SHIZAIBAIWANRENKOUYISHANGMINZUZHONG,ZUIWANCAIZAIZHONGGUOJINGNEIXINGCHENG“XIAOJUJU”DE,QIQUELIWEIYIZUDEGUOCHENGYEPOWEIQUZHE。

侠客棋牌1880NIANDAICHU,FUZEHUNCHUNFANGJINDEQINGCHAOGUANYUANFAXIAN,TUMENJIANGBEIANYOUSHUQIANCHAOXIANBIANMINYUEKEN,YIKAIHUANGDI2000SHANG。ANZHAOQINGCHAOFALVHEGUANLI,YIDANFAXIANYUEJINGBIANMIN,YINGLIJISHUAHAI、YANCHENG。DANPOYUKENMINRENSHUZHONGDUO,KUANGQIEELUOSIDEWEIXIEJINZAIYANQIAN,WUDACHENGYUJILINJIANGJUNMINGANSHANGZOU,JIANYIJIANGZHEIXIEYUEKENPINMINJIUDIANZHI。JIANYUZHEIYICHUANGXINXINGJUCUOYUYANJINYUEJIEDELVLIBUFU,FENGJIANGDALIMENBIXUNACHUCHAOYUELVLIDEZHENGZHIYUANZE,JIANGQIHELIHUA。ZAIZOUZHEZHONGTAMENQIANGDIAO,CHAOXIANBENSHIQINGCHAOFANFU,CHAOMINYITIANCHAOCHIZI,ER“JIZHONGZHONGYUANZHIDI,JIWEIZHONGYUANZHIMIN”。YEJIUSHISHUO,ZAIXIANDAIGUOJIGAINIANSHANGBUCUNZAIDESHIHOU,BIANJIEBINGBUCHENGWEIQUFENBICIDEJUEDUITIAOJIAN,“TIANXIA”GAINIANHE“ZONGFAN”ZHENGZHIYUANZE,ZAIBIYAODEQINGKUANGXIAKEYICHAOYUEDILIQUGE。GENGZHONGYAODESHI,ZAITAMENDEHUAYUBIAOSHUZHONG,YANBIANDIQU(SHENZHIKEYISHUOZHENGGEDONGBEI),DOUKEBEIBINIWEI“ZHONGYUAN”,NEIMEBUDANQINGCHAOYUFANSHUDEJIEXIANKEYIKUAYUE,DIGUOFUDIYUBIANJIANGDEJIEXIAN,YEDUNSHIXIAOSHI。

DANCHAOXIANBIJINGBUSHIQINGCHAOZHIJIEGUANXIADEDIYU,CHAOXIANWULUNZENYANG“RUTONGNEIFU”,BIJINGBUSHIDAQINGFUYU。WUDACHENGDENGRENBINGFEIWANQUANQUXIAOBIWOJIEXIAN,TAMENTICHU,YAOJIDINGQIXIAN,RANGCHAOMIN“YIWOGUANFU、ZUNWOZHENGJIAO”,JIYITIFAYIFUHEWENHUAZHIDU,LAIZHONGXINJIANLINEIWAIQUGE。ZHIBUGUOZHEIXIEKEYICONGHUAN,“GUZHAOYUNGUIMIAOREN,ZANCONGGEBIAN”,JIBAQINGDIGUOCHULIXINANBIANJIANGDINGJUMIAOMINDEMOSHI,YONGLAICHULIDONGBEIBIANJIANGYIJUKENMINDEWENTI,JITICHUZHANGYUANMUBIAO,YECHENGRENBINGYUNXUDANGQIANDECHAYI。

ZONGFANHUAYUSUOTIGONGDEHEFAXING,BUDANWEIQINGCHAOGUANYUANSUOYONG,YETONGYANGWEIZAOQICHAOXIANKENMINSUOYONG。TAMENSUIRANBIANJIESHUO,ZIJIKUAYUEDEJIEXIAN(DOUMANJIANG,JITUMENJIANG)BINGFEILIANGGUOBIANJIE,JIANGBEIYIDAINAICHAOXIANDEXIANHUANGZHIDI(YOUCIYINFACHUZHANGDASHUSHINIANDELINGTUZHENGDUAN),DANRENGJIE“LVTUZHIBINMOFEIWANGCHEN”DERUJIAZHENGZHILINIAN,KENQING“TIANCHAO”KAIEN,ZHUNXUTAMENDINGJUYUCI。CIHOU,WEIRAOCHAOXIANKENMINSHENFENDEBOYI,DAZHIYANZHESHITIFAYIFUHAISHIBAOCHICHAOXIANRENXINLI、SHEHUI、WENHUAXISUDEFANGXIANGZHANKAI。ZAICIGUOCHENGZHONG,KENMINHEDIFANGZHENGFUZHIJIANXINGCHENGMOUZHONGMOQI,JIKENMINYIJIAZHANGYIRENTIFAERBIANRUQINGCHAOMINJI、HUANQUTUDIQUANYI,DIFANGGUANYUANZEMOXUQITARENBAOLIUYUANYOUXISU。ZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGYIZHIWEICHIDAOQINGMOMINCHU,CISHIYANBIANDIQUDECHAOXIANRENZENGJIADAOJIN30WAN。

RIBENTUNBINGCHAOXIANHOU,YIXIANDAIGUOJIFAYUANZE,QIANGXINGRENDINGHAIWAICHAOXIANRENWEIRIBENGUOMIN,BINGJIEYOUYANBIANDEWAIJIAO、JINRONGDENGJIGOUSHENTOUJILIN,CANSHIZHUQUAN。“GUOJI”CHENGWEIDONGBEIDIFANGGUANYUANHEYANBIANCHAOXIANYIMINPOQIEXUYAOMIANDUIDEYIGEWENTI。JINDAIZHONGGUODEGUOJITIAOLI,ZUICHUSHIWEIGUIFANHAIWAIHANRENYIMINDEGUANXIAQUAN,DANYANBIANDIQUZESHIYIGETELI,QIZHUYAOWENTISHIQUEDINGDUI“WAIGUOREN”RUJIZHONGGUODEGUANLI。WEICIDONGBEIDIFANGDANGJUZAIZHONGYANGZHENGFUGUIDINGDEYUANZEXIA,LINGHUOBIANTONG,YIMIANQIANGHUADUIKENMINRUJIDEYAOQIU,BINGJIANHUASHOUXU、GULIRUJI,YIMIANCAIQUGEZHONGSHOUDUANZUZHIWEIRUJIDECHAOXIANRENYONGYOUTUDI。

侠客棋牌CISHIDEYANBIANDIQU,XINYIMINDALIANGYONGRU,QIZHONGBUSHAORENYOUZHEXIANGDUIXIANMINGDEFANRIDULIYISHI。YANBIANBUDANCHENGWEIZUIDADEHAIWAICHAOXIANRENJUJUQU,ERQIESHIFANRIDULIYUNDONGDEZUIDAJIDI。YOUYUCHAOXIANZUOWEIGUOJIAYIRANBUCUN,YIPIYIMINCHUYUSHENGCUNXUYAOHUOFANRIMUDE,ZHUDONGSHENQINGJIARUZHONGGUOGUOJI。DANZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGBINGBUSHIZHULIU,DUOSHUPUTONGCHAOXIANYIMINDESHENGCUNCELVE,SHIJIYUYUZHONGRIZHENGDUOZHIJIAN,ZAIGUOJIWENTISHANGBAOCHIMOHUXING。YUSHIZAI19SHIJIDE“RUJI”(HUJI)HE20SHIJIDE“RUJI”(GUOJI)ZHIJIAN,YANBIANDIQUCHAOXIANRENRENGRANBAOCHIQIZUIJIBENDESHENFENRENTONG,JIZUOWEICHAOXIANRENDE“ZUJI”。ZHEIYEFANYINGZAIMINGUODONGBEIDIFANGGUANYUANBIANZUANDEFANGZHIZHONG,ZAI1920NIANDAIDE《HUNCHUNXIANZHI》LI,“KENMIN”YU“HANZU”、“MANZU”、“HUIZU”JI “QIAOMIN”(QIAOJUBENDIDERIEREN)BINGLIE,CHUXIANZAI“MINZU”YIXIANGTONGJIZHONG。CISHISUIWU“CHAOXIANZU”DECHENGWEI,DAN“KENMIN”JIUSHIZHICHAOXIANYIMIN(BAOKUOGUIHUARUJIZHEHEWEIRUJIZHE),QIWEIZHIJIEHU“(WO)ZU”YU“(WAI)QIAO”ZHIJIAN。ZHONGGUOGONGCHANDANG,ZAI1928NIANDILIUCIQUANGUODAIBIAODAHUI《GUANYUMINZUWENTIDEJUEYIAN》ZHONG,ZEYIJIANG“MANZHOUZHIGAOLIREN”KANZUO“ZHONGGUOJINGNEISHAOSHUMINZU”,ZHEIKEBEISHIZUOZHONGGONGCHUZHIDONGBEICHAOXIANRENSILUDEQIDIAN。

1931NIANRIBENFADONGJIUYIBASHIBIAN,BINGFUZHIQIMANZHOUGUO,DONGBEICHAOXIANRENGUOJIWENTIZANSHIGEZHI。DANZAIZHENGGERIZHANQIJIAN,YOUBUSHAOCHAOXIANRENCANJIADAODONGBEIJIQUANGUODIQUDEKANGRIYUNDONGZHONG,SHENZHIZAIDONGBEIDEKANGRIWUZHUANGLI,CHAOXIANRENZHANLEDADUOSHU。CHAOXIANDEGONGCHANDANGREN,ZAIGONGCHANGUOJIZHISHIXIA,YEYIGERENMINGYIJIARUZHONGGUOGONGCHANDANG,YOUZHONGGONGMANZHOUSHENGWEIGUANXIA。CONGQUANGUOFANWEIKAN,CISHIMANZHOUSUIRANBEIRIBENKONGZHI,DANDONGBEIZUOWEIZHONGGUOYIBUFENDEGUANNIAN,ZAIQUANTIGUORENZHONGDADADIQIANGHUA。ZHIZHIRIBENTOUJIANG、DONGBEIJICHAOXIANGUANGFU,CHAOXIANRENDEGUOJIWENTICAIZAICICHENGWEIJIAODIAN。YUGUOMINDANGZONGTISHIDONGBEICHAOXIANRENWEIYUJUDE“QIAOMIN”BUTONG,GONGCHANDANGYUNXUTAMENZIYOUXUANZEGUOJIHEQULIU,LIUZAIZHONGGUODEJIWEIJINGNEIMINZU,XIANGYOUTUDIQUANYI。DABUFENYANBIANCHAOXIANRENYIJINGZAIZHONGGUOSHENGHUOLEER、SANDAI,JIAYUANHEGUGUOZHIJIANYOULEJIAOWEIMINGQUEDEQUFEN。CHAOGUOBAIWANDECHAOXIANRENZUIZHONGXUANZELIUZAIDONGBEI,BINGHEHANZUNONGMINYIYANG,ZAIZHIHOUDETUDIGAIGEHEJIEFANGZHANZHENGZHONG,CHENGWEIZHONGGUOGEMINGZUIYOULIDEZHICHIZHE。DONGBEIJIEFANGYIHOU,GUANYUYANBIANDIQUDEMINZUZIZHIFANGSHICENGYOUBUTONGYIJIAN,ZAIYANBIANZHANGDA、CANJIAKANGZHANDECHAOXIANZUGEMINGJIAZHUDEHAILIPAIZHONGYI,QUEDINGSHISHIQUYUZIZHIZHIDU。1952NIAN,“YANBIANCHAOXIANZUZIZHIQU”CHENGLI(HOUGAIWEIZIZHIZHOU),CHENGWEIZHONGGUOZUIZAODEMINZUZIZHIQUYUZHIYI。

侠客棋牌CHAOXIANRENCONG“YITIANCHAOCHIZI”,DAO“(RUJI)WAIGUOREN”,ZAIDAO“CHAOXIANZU”,SHITEDINGLISHIQINGJINGXIABOYI、XUANZEDEJIEGUO。“CHAOXIANZU”DEXINGCHENGJIBAOHANQIANJINDAITIANXIAGUANNIANDEYILIU,YOUSHIJINDAIZHIMINYUFANZHIMINDOUZHENGDECHANWU,GENGTIXIANNONGMINJIEJIDUIJIAYUANDERENTONGHEDUITUDIQUANLIDEZHUIQIU,BINGBUDANCHUNSHIYOUSHANGCENGJINGYINGMENDEGUOZUXIANGXIANGYANSHENGERLAI。FANERSHI“ZHONGGUOCHAOXIANZU”GAINIANDEZIWOQUELI,SHIDEZUOWEIXIANDAIJIANGOUDE“ZHONGHUAMINZU”,YOULEGENGFENGFUJUTIDEHANYI。

矛盾与统一:从“存储地”到现代主权

RENDEGUISHUGANWANGWANGYUTUDIMIBUKEFEN,TUDIQUANYIZAICONG“KENMIN”DAO“CHAOXIANZU”DEZHUANBIANGUOCHENGZHONGQIZHEZHIGUANZHONGYAODEZUOYONG。ERYANBIANCONGYIKUAIHUANGJIAJINDICHENGWEIXIANDAIMINZUGUOJIADEZHUQUANJIANGYU,YEFANYINGCHULINGTUHEGUOJIAGUANNIANDEJINDAIZHONGGOU。

1880NIANDAICHU,ZAICHAOXIANBIANMINYUEKEN、MINGANHEWUDACHENGDENGRENLIZHUJILINKAIJINDETONGSHI,GUANGXUHUANGDIHAIZAIYICHUZHUPIZHONGQIANGDIAO,JILINWEIQIRENDEGENBENZHONGDI,YINGZUIZHONGQISHE,CIZHONGFANGMU,ERNONGYEWEIZUIMO。LIYOUSHIFANGJINHUIDAOZHIJIANMINJUJI,BINGLINGBENDICHUNPOFENGSHANGJIANSHI。CISHIDEDONGBEI,ZHISHAOZAIHUANGZUXINZHONG,RENGBEIKANZUOYIKUAIYUNZANGDIGUOQIYUNDE“CHUCUNDI”。DANZAIZIBENZHUYIQIANGSHICHONGJIXIA,SHIZHIKONGXUDE“LONGXINGZHIDI”YIWUFABEIJIXUXUEZANG。FENGJINSHUBAINIANZHIHOUDEKAIFANGHEKAIFA,HENKUAIDAOZHISUOYOUQUANDEJIUFEN。WUDACHENGHEHUNCHUNFUDOUTONGYIKETANGA,JULIZHENGHUIELUOSIQINZHANDETUMENJIANGKOUHEIDINGZIDIQU,DANYUCITONGSHI,TUMENJIANGZUOWEIZHONGHANBIANJIE,XIANSHIBEIYUEKENDECHAOXIANPINMINZHIYI,JINERZAODAOGANGGANGJINRUTIAOYUETIXIDECHAOXIANZHENGFUFOUREN。QINGTINGYUCHAOXIANDEHUAJIETANPAN,RENGRANKESHOUZONGFANYUANZE,DANZUIZHONGMEIYOUXINGCHENGWANQUANYIZHIDEYIJIAN。JIAWUZHANZHENGYIHOU,DONGYATIANXIAZHIXUCHEDIJIETI,RIBENLIYONGZHONGCHAOLINGTUZHENGYI,TIAOQI“JIANDAO”ZHENGDUAN,BINGYUYIXIANDAIZHUQUANGUANNIAN,FOUDINGDONGBEIDEZHONGGUOSHUXING。

ZAIYANBIANDIQUDEXIANDAIZHUQUANHUAGUOCHENGZHONG,WANQINGDEMANHANDACHEN、FANQINGGEMINGDANGRENYIJIBEIYANGZHENGZHIJITUANZHEIJIGECHUANTONGJINDAISHIXUSHIZHONGJIZHONGYAOYOUJINGWEIFENMINGDEQUNTI,QINULIFANGXIANGQUEBIAOXIANCHUXIANGDANGDEYIZHIXING。CONGBIANJIANGQUYUCHUFA,CUSHIWOMENZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGFANSI、DIAOZHENGYIWANGYISUNZHONGSHANGEMINGWEIZHONGXIN、JUJIAOYUZHONGYUANDEXUSHUZHUXIAN。

侠客棋牌YANBIANDIQUHEDONGBEICONG“GENBENZHONGDI”DE“QUMEI”,SHOUXIANBIAOXIANZAIDUIELUOSIKUOZHANGDEFANYING。1870NIANDAI,ZAISHENGJINGJIANGJUNCHONGSHIDECHANGDAOXIA,QINGTINGDEDONGBEIZHILIKAISHIXIANGQIMINSHUANGZHONGGUANLITIZHIZHUANXING。MINGAN、XIYUAN、ZHANGSHUNDENGJIRENJILINJIANGJUN,YIJIWUDACHENGDENGBIANWUDACHEN,DOULIZHUYIMINSHIBIAN,BINGZHONGZHENGJUNBEI、CHUANGSHEMINZHENG、KAIBANCHANGKUANG、JIANLIXUEXIAO,SHIDEJILINZHEIYISHEHUIJINGJIYIYISHANGDEBIANYUANDIDAI,KAISHIYUNEIDIDEZIQIANGGAIGESHENGXIXIANGTONG。ZUICHULAIDAODONGJIANGDEHANRENGUANLI,DUOWEILIHONGZHANGHUAIXIJIBEIYANGXIGELIAO,ZHEIXIERENHENDUOYOUCHULICHAOXIANWENTIDEJINGLI,DUIDONGJIANGDERENSHIHELEJIEXIANGDUISHENKE。JIZHI1907NIANDONGBEISHESHENG,XUSHICHANGCHENGWEISHOURENDONGSANSHENGZONGDU,TANGSHAOYI、ZHUJIABAO、CHENGDEQUANSHULIFENGTIAN、JILIN、HEILONGJIANGZHENGWU。ZAIQIRENNEI,XUSHICHANGJIANGTALIZHUDEXINZHENGGAIGESHIYUDONGBEI,DALIZHENGDUNBIANWU。BEIYANGXIRENWUJICHENGQIANQINGZHENGZHIBANTU,BUDANCHIXUWANSHANGUANLIAOTIXI,QIEZAIZHUQUANWENTISHANGTAIDUXIANMING。

ZICIZHIZHIDONGBEIYIZHI、JIUYIBASHIBIAN,DONGBEIJUNZHENGDAQUAN,DATIZHANGWOZAIBEIYANGXIRENWUSHOUZHONG,ZHEIZAIKEGUANSHANGSHIDEDONGBEIZHENGWUXIANGDUIWENDING、ZHUQUANJIANSHEXIANGDUIYANXU。XINHAIGEMING、QINGDIXUNWEI、MINGUOZHAOSHIDENGHUASHIDAISHIJIAN,DUIDONGBEIZHENGJUDECHONGJIBINGBUSUANDA,DUIYUYANBIANDEYINGXIANGGENGXIAO。QINGMODAOMINCHUYANJIDIQUDEZUIGAOXINGZHENGZHANGGUAN、ZHEJIANGRENTAOBIN,ZIGUANGXUSANSHISANNIAN(1907)SHUYANJITINGTONGZHI,ZHANGQIZHUZHENGGAIDI(ZHONGJIANJINDUANQIWAIDIAO),ZHIMINGUOSHIQINIAN(1928)ZAIYANJIDAOYINRENSHANGBINGSHI。TAYIMIANJINLIFANGZURIBENQINSHI,YIMIANDALIXINGXUEFUMIN,ZAI20SHIJIZAOQIYANBIANDIQUDEZHUQUANJIANSHEFANGMIANGONGXIANZHUOZHU。

侠客棋牌ERTANDAODUIRIBENCANSHIYANBIANDEDIKANG,GENGYAOTIJIWULUZHEN、SONGJIAORENDENGGEMINGDANGRENDEYEJI。YUSUNZHONGSHAN、HUANGXINGDENGZAIBIANJIANGWENTISHANGBIAOXIANDEAIMEITAIDUBUTONG,WU、SONGZHEILIANGWEILIUXUERIBENDEGEMINGJIA,DUIRIDIDECANSHIYITUZAOYOUDONGCHA,DUIYANBIANDEJINGJI、ZHANLVEZHONGYAOXINGRENSHIDUDAO,ZAIHANWEIDONGJIANGZHUQUANSHANGJIANJUEZUOWEI。WULUZHENQIANFUXINJUNNEI,SHENHUOXUSHICHANGXINREN,SHOUMINGCHURENQINGTINGZHIYANJIBIANWUBANGBAN,YURIBENZHIMINJIGOUZHENFENGXIANGDUI,CUNBUBURANG;BINGTONGGUOSHIDITACHA,ZHUANXIE《YANJIBIANWUBAOGAO》,LIZHENGTUMENJIANGBEIWEIZHONGGUOLINGTU。SONGJIAORENZELIYONGRIBENSOUJIDEDALIANGLISHIDILIZILIAO,YIGUOJIFAWEILILUNWUQI,ZHUANXIE《JIANDAOWENTI》,HUAMINGJIAOYUQINGZHENGFU,YILIWAIJIAO。LIANGRENZAICONGSHIFANQINGGEMINGDETONGSHI,BINGBUSHIMANZHOUWAIZAIYUZHONGGUO。YICONGDIFANGSHIJIAN、YICONGWAIJIAOHUAYU,DUIYANBIANXIANDAIZHUQUANDEQUELIQIDAOJUDAZUOYONG。YANBIANZAITAMENYANZHONGBUJINSHIMANRENGUTU,HAISHIZHONGGUOZAIZHENGGEDONGYADIYUANJINGZHENGKUANGJIAXIADEZHANLVEYAOCHONG。

TONGGUOSHANGSHURENWUDESHIJIAN,YANBIANDIQUWANCHENGLECONG“LONGXINGZHIDI”DAOGUOJIFAYIYISHANGDEZHUQUANZHIDIDE“ZAILINGTUHUA”(re-territorialization)ZHUANBIAN。ERZHEIYISHILI,QISHISHIZHONGGUOCONG“TIANXIA”DAOMINZUGUOJIABIANHUADEYIGEJUTIGEAN。QIGUOCHENGCONGWANQINGYIZHICHIXUDAOJIUYIBASHIBIANQIAN,QIZHONGBUTONGDEZHENGZHIJITUANSUIRANDUI“ZHONGGUO”BAOYOUDAXIANGJINGTINGDERENZHIHEYUANJING,CHONGTUBUKEWEIBUJILIE,DANYUDONGBEIBIANJIANGZHILISHANGQUEXINGCHENGXIANGDANGDETONGYIXING。DANGRAN,ZHEIZHONGTONGYIBUDIAODECHUXIANYOUQIOURAN,ZAIQITANEIYABIANJIANGYESHISHAOJIANDE。

从延边看现代东亚

YANBIANDIQUSHIXIANDAIZHONGGUODEFASHENGDIZHIYI。ERZUOWEIDUOBIANBIANJIANG,DUITADEJINGYINGHEGOUXIANG,YESHEJIRIBENDEDIGUOGOUJIANHECHAOXIANDEMINZUGOUJIAN。SHIJISHANG,ZAIYANBIANZHANKAIDEJINDAILISHIBUJINSHIZHONGGUOLISHIZHONGDEYIZHANG,GENGTIXIANDONGYASHIJIEDEXIANGHUJIUJIE、YINGXIANGHEZHONGGOU,WOMENKANDAO“ZHONGGUO”ZAIZHEIYIBIANJIANGDIQUZHANKAIDETONGSHI,YEKANDAOJINDAIRIBENHECHAOXIANZAICIDIDEZHANKAI。SANZHEXIANGFUXIANGCHENG。

RIBENDUIYANBIANDEZHONGSHI,SHIYURIEZHANZHENG。ZAIRIBENDEDIYUANGOUXIANGZHONG,YANBIANBUJINSHIEZHIEGUODEZHANLVEYAODI,YESHILIANJIECHAOXIANBANDAOHEMANMENGDEBIJINGZHITU。ERQIE,YOUYUTUMENJIANGZHITONGRIBENHAI,WEIRIBENTONGXIANGDONGBEIDEJIEJING,DAGUOTUMENJIANGLIUYU,JIUKEGOUZHURIBENSUOMENGXIANGDELIANTONGRI、HAN、MAN、MENGDEDONGYAJINGJI、JIAOTONG、ZIYUANWANGLUO。YINCI,ZAIRIBENJUNFANGHEYAXIYAZHUYIZHEYANZHONG,YANBIANDIQUZHIJIEGUANXIDAODIGUODEDALUMINGYUN。

ZI20SHIJICHUKAISHI,RIBENJIKAISHILEDUIYANBIAN(“JIANDAO”)DIQUDEKAOCHA,DUIZHEILIDEDILI、LISHI、WUCHAN、QIHOU、JIAOTONG、FENGSUDENGWUBUXIANGXIDIAOCHA。RIHOUZHUMINGDEHANXUEJIA、JINGDOUXUEPAIDAIBIAORENWUNEITENGHUCILANG(HUNAN),JISHICONGJIESHOURIBENWAIBUWEITUODIAOCHABIANJIEZHENGYIKAISHI,ZHENGSHIZHUANXINGZOUSHANGXUESHUDAOLU。NEITENGZAIZUIZHONGTIJIAOJIRIBENWAIBUDE《JIANDAOWENTIZHISIJIAN》ZHONG,DUIYANBIANZHUQUANBIERBUTAN,ZHIQIANGDIAOCIDIDISHIYUJINGJI、TIELUDENGFANGMIANDEGUANLIANXING,RENWEIRUOGAIDISHUYUHANGUO,ZEBISHUYUZHONGGUOGENGWEIBIANLI。TAHAIJIANYI,RUGUOHEZHONGGUOZHENGFUTANPAN,KEYICHENGRENZHONGGUOZHUQUAN,LAIHUANQURIBENZAIMANZHOUDEJINGYINGTEQUAN,BINGBAYANBIANDIQUJIANCHENGRIBENRENHECHAOXIANRENDEJINGJIHESIFATEQU。TADEYIJIANJIJUDAIBIAOXING。YIDIGUOJIAODUSHIZHI,ZHUQUANNAIXUMING,LUKUANGWEISHILI。RIBENCIHOUDUIYANBIANDEJINGYING,DAZHIANZHAOZHEIYIMOSHI。YANBIANBEIKANCHENGSHICHAOXIANZHIMINDIXIANGMANZHOUDEZIRANYANSHEN,SUOYIRIBENZAIJIGOUSHEZHI、RENYUANDIAOPEI、JINGJIZHENGHEGEFANGMIAN,JIEYOUCHAOXIANZONGDUFUHEWAIWUSHENGGONGTONGDANDANG,SHIYIWAIJIAOZHIMINGXINGZHIMINZHISHI。ZHEIDIANYURIBENZAIDONGBEIQITAGECHUDEZHIMIN,DUOJIENANMANTIELUHEGUANDONGJUNSHISHIDEMOSHIHENBUXIANGTONG。

侠客棋牌“MANZHOUGUO”SHIQI,RIBENTICHU“WUZUXIEHE”DEJIANGUOLUNSHU(WUZUZHIMAN、RI、HAN、MENG、CHAO)。YANBIANZIRANCHENGWEISHIJIANZHEIYI“WANGDAOLETU”SIXIANGDEZHONGYAOCHANGYU,SHIDIGUOHEFAXINGDEGUANJIANYIHUAN。“MANZHOUGUO”ZAIYANBIANSHEJIANDAOSHENG,LIRENSHENGZHANGCHUSHOURENCAIYUNSHENGWEIMANREN,QIYUJIEWEIRIREN(5MING)HUOHANREN(2MING),XIANSHIYANBIANZAIZHIMINBANTUZHONGZHANJUDETESHUDIWEI。

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LIANXI20SHIJIQIANQIYANBIANCHAOXIANRENQUNTIZHONGDEMINZUZHUYIJIAOYUHEKANGZHENGYUNDONG,ZHEIYIYUCEBINGFEIXUYAN。CHAOXIANRENXUEXIAOZUIXIANZAIYANBIANPENGBOXINGQI,ZHIHOUKUOSANDAODONGBEISUOYOUCHAOXIANRENSHEQUZHONG,PEIYANGLEDAPIFANRIDULIRENSHI。TAMENHENDUORENHOULAIZOUSHANGWUZHUANGKANGRIDAOLU,CHENGWEIZHENGGEDONGBEIKANGRILILIANGZHONGZHONGYAODEYIZHI。QIZHONGJINRICHENGHETADEKANGLIANBUXIAMEN,GENGSHIZHANHOUCHUANGJIANHEWEIXICHAOXIANRENMINMINZHUZHUYIGONGHEGUODEHEXIN。CONGZHEIGEYIYISHANG,SHUOYANBIANJIDONGBEISHIXIANDAICHAOXIANGUOJIADECEYUANDIZHIYI,BINGBUKUAZHANG。

侠客棋牌WEIRAOYANBIANDETUDIYURENMINDEDUOBIANLISHIYANJIN,ZHANXIANLEZHONGGUOJIZHENGGEDONGYAXIANDAIZHUANBIANDEDUOZHONGZHUTI。WANQIDIZHIYUJINDAIDIGUOZHUYI、ZHIMINZHUYIYUFANKANGXINGMINZUZHUYIBICIDIEJIA;DUOYUANDEZUQUNJIANGOUHEYITIDEGUOZUXIANGXIANGXIANGHUZUOYONG,GOUCHENGYIFUFUZA、HUDONGDEBIANJIANG–GUOJIATUJING。

侠客棋牌LISHIXUEJIADUZANQIZAI《ZHUQUANYUZHENQUEXING》YISHUZHONG,JIANG“MANZHOUGUO”SHIWEIRIBENYIYAZHOUSIXIANGZIYUANZHANKAIXIANDAIMINZUGUOJIAJIANGOUDESHIYANCHANG。XUNZHEZHEIGESILU,WOMENHUOXUKEYISHUO,19〜20SHIJIZAITUMENJIANGLIUYUSUOZHANKAIDEXIANDAIZHONGGUO/RIHANDEGUOJIAYUMINZUGOUJIAN,SHIYIGELAIYUANGENGWEIPANGZA、JIEGUOGENGWEIDUOYUANDESHIYAN。

侠客棋牌DANGRAN,SUOWEIDESHIYAN,SHIJISHISIXIANGHESHIJIANDEJIAOZHI,SHIYIZHONGZAIBUDUANDEYAPOHEFANKANG、CHONGTUHETUOXIEZHONGQIUJIEXIANSHIWENTIDEGUOCHENG。ZAIDUOZHONGDEMAODUNDOUZHENGZHONG,YANBIANYIMIANJICHENGLEDONGYACHUANTONGDEBIANJIANGZHILIHEZONGFANZHENGZHIMOSHI,YIMIANYOUHE20SHIJIFANDI、FANZHIGEMINGDEZHUCHAOGAODUQIHE,SHIZHEIYIBIANJIANGDIQUBUDANYUZHONGGUOZHENGTIJINDAIMINGYUNXIANGTONG,ERQIEYINGSHECHU“ZHONGGUO”RUHEZAIYUQUYUDEHUDONGZHONG,ZHONGXINDINGYIZISHEN。ZAIZHEIGEYIYISHANG,YANBIANWEILIJIEZHONGGUODEMINZU、JIANGYUHEDONGYAGUOJIAJIANGUANXI,TIGONGLEYIGEDUTEDESHIJIAO。

(ZUOZHEDANWEI:MEIGUOWASAXUEYUANLISHIXI)