阎云翔丨加州大学洛杉矶分校人类学系

【导读】20世纪80年代以来的市场化进程,极大地丰富了中国人的物质生活,但也带来了一系列全新的挑战,“道德变革”即是一例。尤其是近年来,媒体上频现道德负面事件的报道,并往往辅以“道德滑坡”“道德危机”之类的评价。如何理解这一动向?社会道德真的有那么坏吗?本文作者从多个角度客观梳理了中国社会道德变化,提出多个衡量尺度:道德底限、个体主体性、同理心与社会公德。在此基础上,作者分析指出,中国近40年来所经历的其实是一场深刻复杂的道德转型,而不是道德危机,这场转型已经呈现出3条清晰的变革轨迹。文章原刊于《思想战线》2019年第1期,篇幅所限,内容有编删,仅代表作者观点,供诸君思考。

 

导言

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道德危机抑或道德转型?

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伦理话语的转变和道德自我的重塑

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ZHEIXIEDOUSHUYUWOJIANGDELUNLIZHUANXING。ZHUANDAOSHENMEDIFANG?WOBUZHIDAO,HENKENENGWURENZHIDAO,YINWEIWOMENRENGZAIZHUANXINGGUOCHENGZHIZHONG。DANSHI,ZHUANXINGFANGXIANGHENQINGCHU,JIUSHIDAJIAKAISHISIKAOZIWO,BUJINJINSHIZIWOSHIJISHENGHUOZHONGDEWUZHILIYI,ERSHISHENGMINGDEYIYI。DANGWOMENKAISHIZHONGXINSIKAOSHENGMINGDEYIYISHI,GUOQUDEWENHUATIXIXUNUOJIWOMENDEDONGXIXIANRANBIANDECANGBAIWULI。NEIXIEDONGXISHISHENME?JIAOZUOYANCHIDEHUIBAO。WOMENXIANZAIDEFUMUZAIMOUZHONGCHENGDUSHANGRENGRANZUNXUNNEIXIEDONGXI,XINXINKUKU,PANZHEERNVGUODEHAO,SHENZHIJIELEHUNYIHOUHAIYAOJIXUZIZHUMAIFANG、MAICHE,ZIJISHENGCHIJIANYONG。WEIDESHISHENME?TASHIJISHANGSHIYAOLAOLEYIHOU,ZAIWENHUAYIYIHONGTUOXIADENEIZHONGYANCHIHUIBAO,MINJIANSHUOFASHIYOUGENIANXIANG。ZHEIZAICHUANTONGSHEHUIJIUSHIZUXIANWENHUA,SHIYOUZISUNHOUDAIJINISHAOXIANGSHANGGONG,RANGNIDELINGHUNDEDAOYONGSHENG;XIANZAISHIWANGZICHENGLONG,WANGSUNCHENGLONG。

DANGLUNLIZHUANXINGFASHENGZHIHOU,YUELAIYUEMINGXIANDESHIWOMENTONGSHIYEYAOQIULISHIDEHUIBAO。WOJINTIANZUOLENULI,MINGTIANJIUYINGGAIYOUHUIBAO,ZHEIYESHIWOMENLUNLIGUIFANTIXIZHONGXINCHUXIANDEXIANXIANG。ZHEIGEXIANXIANGSHIYIGEBUDUANXIANGXIASHENTOUDEGUOCHENG。ZIWOFAZHANSHIZUIZHONGYAODE,ERWOMENCHUANTONGLUNLISHUO,NIYAODUOZUOSHAOSHUO、QIANXUJINSHEN。CHUANTONGLUNLIFANGZAIXIANZAIYUJINGZHONGJIUBIANCHENGLEQUEDIAN,DOUBUZAIZHONGYAO。ZHONGYAODESHISHIZIWOBIAODADENENGLI。DANGLIYUCHUNCHENGWEIYIZHONGSHEHUIXIANXIANG,BEIHOUTOUSHEDELUNLIHANYI,SHIZHIYOUZHAODAOZUISHIHEDEBIAODAFANGSHI,BAZIJICHONGFENDIBIAODACHULAI,BIERENCAINENGRENSHINI,RANHOUNICAINENGDEDAOFAZHANDEJIHUI。ZAIGUOQUDELUNLITIXILI,ZHEIXIEDONGXIBUDANBUSHOUZHONGSHI,SHENZHIHUIBEISHOUYIYI。

CONG20SHIJI80NIANDAIWANGHOU,LUNLIZHUANXINGJINCHENGJIUJIAKUAILE,YIGEZIWOCUIDONGDEJIZHICHUXIAN。XINDELUNLIGUIFANTIXIDAOZHIXINDEZIWODECHUXIAN,NEIZHONGYUELAIYUEJIAOJIDIYAOZHUIQIUZIWOFAZHAN、ZIWOLIYIDEXINZIWODECHUXIAN。WOMENGUOQUHENDUODESHUOFADOUSUIZHIGUOSHI。WOMENSHUOANPINLEDAO、LAOSHIZHONGYONG,XIANZAILAOSHIDERENLIANDUIXIANGDOUZHAOBUDAO。QUERDAIZHIDESHIYINGZHETONGCHI,SHILANGDAO。DANGNIAN《LANGTUTENG》ZHEIBENXIAOSHUOFENGXINGYISHI,BEIHOUHANYIHENSHENKE。SHUNBIANSHUOYIJU,WOJUEDE《LANGTUTENG》JIANGDESHIJITIZHUYI,BUSHIGETIZHUYI;TAQIANGDIAODESHIYIZHONGJITIZHUYIKUANGJIAXIADEGETIZIWOXISHENGDEYINGXIONGZHUYI,YUGONGCHANZHUYILUNLIGUANYOUXIANGTONGZHICHU。

WOMENDUIRENSHANGREN、RENXIARENDEZHONGXINTIQI,SHILINGWAIYIGEZHIDEZHUYIDEXIANXIANG。ZHEIXIECIZAI20SHIJI50NIANDAIZHONGGUOGEMINGCHENGGONGZHIHOU,SHISHOUXIANBEIPIPANDEDONGXI。ZUIMINGXIANDEBIAOZHIJIUSHI“TONGZHI”ZHEIGECI,YONG“TONGZHI”ZHIDAILESUOYOUREN,TIXIANLEDUISHEHUIPINGDENGDEZHUIQIU。DANJISHINIANLAIPINFUCHAJULADA,SHEHUIBUPINGDENGRIYIYANZHONG,SHIDERENSHANGREN、RENXIARENDEGUANNIANZHONGXINLIUXING。

侠客棋牌WOQIANMIANSHUODETUPODAODEDIXIANDEXINGWEI,XIANGZUOHAOSHIBEIE、YOUYISHIDEZHIZAOYOUDUSHIPINMAIJITAREN,SUOYOUZHEIXIEDONGXIDOUSHIGENZHENGGELUNLIZHUANXINGFENBUKAIDE。CONGJITIZHUYILUNLIXIANGGETIZHUYILUNLIZHUANXINGDEGUOCHENGZHONG,JIYOUHAODEFAZHAN,YEYOUBUHAODEFAZHAN。WOQIANMIANDEJINGYANYANJIUJIZHONGZAIFUMIANGEAN,ERWOGENGJIAZHONGSHIDESHIWEISHENMEZHEIXIERENHUITUPODIXIAN。

WOGANXINGQUDESHIWOQIANMIANJIANGDEYIGEGAINIAN,JIAOZUOMoralreasoning,JIDANGSHIRENZENMEJIESHIZIJIDEXINGWEI。LIRU,YANGSHI《JIAODIANFANGTAN》LANMUZUDIAOCHASHANDONGMOUDIDEWENTICHANPINSHIYONGJIAO。ZHEIXIESHIYONGJIAODEYUANLIAODALIANGCAIYONGSHOULAIDEFEIJIUPILIAO,ZUIHOUTONGGUOHUAXUECHENGXUBIANCHENGSHIYONGJIAO。YANGSHIJIZHEWEN:“NIZHEIGEDONGXIHAOXIANGBUTAIFUHEDAODEBA?”RANHOUZHEIXIERENHUIDA:“BUFUHEDAODEYOUZENMELE?TAMENYOUBUSHISHUREN,ZAIWOMENBENDIYOUMEIYOURENCHIZHEIGEDONGXI。”ZHEIZHONGXIANXIANGDAOXIANZAIRENGRANCUNZAI。HEBEIMOUDISHENGCHANJIUCAI,WEILEFANGZHIBINGCHONGHAI,DANGDINONGMINCONGYIKAISHIJIUDUIJIUCAIDA“3059”,YIZHONGTEBIELIHAIDENONGYAO。DANGDIDEGUANYUANSHUO:“DUIWOLAISHUOZUIGAODEDAODEJIUSHIRANGWODEJIAXIANGFUQILAI。”ZHATINGQILAIBUNENGSHUOZHEIMINGGUANYUANHENBUDAODE,TAZHIDAOZIJIZUOWEIYIFANGFUMUGUAN,YAORANGJIAXIANGFUQILAI,DANNINFUQILAIBIERENZENMEBAN?NEIBUZAITADEKAOLVFANWEI,YINWEIBIERENTABURENSHI。ZHEIJIUSHIWOQIANMIANSHUODE,RUHESHANDAIMOSHENGREN,SHIWOMENMIANLINDEJUDATIAOZHAN。

DANGWOMENYISHIDAOZHEIGEWENTIDESHIHOU,WOMENJUEDECHUXIANLELUNLIHUAPO、DAODEWEIJI。DANTONGSHIHENDUORENGENMOSHENGRENDAJIAODAODESHIHOU,ZIJIYEHUARUTONGYIGEXIANJING,JIUSHIDUIMOSHENGRENHESHURENSHIYONGBUTONGDEDAODEBIAOZHUN。ZAILIXIANGZHUANGTAIXIA,WOMENYINGGAIDUIZHONGJIZHENLIHUODAODEBIAOZHUNYOUYIZHONGJINHUXINYANGSHIDEJIESHOU。ZHEIBUJINJINSHIYONGYUZHONGGUO,YESHIYONGYUSUOYOUXIANDAISHEHUI。DANSHI,XIANDAIXINGDAILAIDESHIDUIGETIGANSHOUDEZHUIPENGQUDAILEXINYANG,DUIGETIHUADUOYANGHUADEZHUIQIUDAOZHICHUANTONGDAODEQUANWEIDEBENGTA。WENTISHI,JIUQUANWEIBUFUCUNZAIZHIHOU,XINDEDAODEQUANWEIZAINALI?RUGUOMEIYOUYIGEDAODEQUANWEIDEHUA,WOMENZENMEYANGZIWOGUIFAN?

 

伦理话语和道德实践的多样化

ZHEISHEJIDAODAODEBIANQIANDEDIERGEGUIJI。DAODEQUANWEIDEBENGTAYIJIDAOZHIDEJIEGUO,BUGUANGSHIFUMIANDEJIEGUO,RUSHANGSUOSHU。DANSHI,TAYEYOUZHENGMIANDEJIEGUO,JIUSHIZHENGGESHEHUIHEDAODEJINGGUANDEDUOYUANHUA。

侠客棋牌RANGWOMENXIANLAIHUIGU1988NIANDE“SHEKOUFENGBO”。1980NIANDERENSHENGYIYIDATAOLUNJIEJUELEYIGEWENTI,JIZHUIQIUGERENLIYISHIKEYIJIESHOUDE。DANKEYIJIESHOUBUDENGYUSHIDAODEDE,SHIWANQUANHEFAHUADE;ZHISHAODANGSHIDESIXIANGJIAOYUZHUANJIAMENDOUBURENKE。1988NIAN,3WEIZHEIYANGDEZHUANJIADAOSHEKOUZUOLIXINGDEYANJIANG。LIYANJIE,BEIJINGSHIFANDAXUEDEYIWEIDEYUXUELINGYUJIAOSHOUZUOWEIYIGEQINGNIANJIAOYUXUEZHUANJIA,YANJIANGDEZHUTIJIUSHIRUHEJIAOYUQINGNIANCHENGWEIYOUDAODE、YOULIXIANGDEREN。QUXIAO,ZHIQIANWUPANDEYIGEYOUPAI,PINGFANZHIHOUCHUXINBUGAI,RENGRANDUIGEMINGLIXIANGBAOYOUJIDADERECHEN。LINGWAIYIGERENJIAOPENGYIQING,YEYOUHENQIANGDEZHENGTONGSIXIANG。TAMENDEYANJIANGYIKAISHIHAITINGSHUNLI,BASHEKOUQINGNIANKUALEYITONG,RANHOUZAIJIANGWENTI。QUXIAOSHUOHENDUOQINGNIANDAOSHEKOUSHILAITAOJIN,JIUSHIWEIZHUANQIAN、WEIZIJI、WEILEQIANDUOCAILAI。SHEKOUQINGNIANTINGLEJIUJUEDEHENCIER,SHUOWOMENPINGZIJIDELAODONGZHUANQIAN,CUOZAIHECHU?TONGSHIZHIJIEZHIYITAMEN3RENYOUSHENMEZILIPAODAOSHEKOUZHISHOUHUAJIAO,TAMENGENBENJIUBUDONGSHEKOUJINGJITEQUDESHEHUI,HAICHENJINZAIJIUDEYISHIXINGTAIZHONG。ZHEI3RENDANGTIANWANSHANGJIZHENGFUDALEYIGEBAOGAO,SHUOSHEKOUCHUXIANLEYIZHONGFEICHANGBUJIANKANGDEQINGXIANG。MEITIFAXIANZHEIFENBAOGAOZHIHOU,YOUKAISHITUIDONGXINDETAOLUN。TAOLUNXIANSHICONG《SHEKOUTEQUBAO》KAISHI,YIKAISHIDEBAODAOTIMUSHI《QINGNIANJIAOYUJIAYUDAOQINGNIANJIAOYUTIAOZHAN》,1GEYUEZHIHOUJIUBIANCHENGLE《CHENFUSHUOJIAOYUXIANDAIYISHIDEYICIJILIEJIAOFENG》,JIEZHEDAO8YUEFEN,《“SHEKOUFENGBO”DAWENLU》YIPIAN8000ZIDEBAODAODENGCHU,YINQIQUANGUOFANWEINEIDEDATAOLUN。

侠客棋牌“SHEKOUFENGBO”ZHONGYEYOU2GEHEXINWENTI。DIYIGERENGRANSHIZIWOLIYIDEZHUIQIUHEBUHEFA?HEBUHEDAODE?JINGGUO“SHEKOUFENGBO”HOUDEDATAOLUN,ZHEIGEWENTIJIUWANQUANJIEJUELE。DIERGEWENTISHISHEIYOUDAODEQUANWEILAIJIAODAOBIEREN?“SHEKOUFENGBO”ZHONGGENGZHONGYAODESHIZHEIYIDIAN。JINGGUOZHEICIJIAOFENGZHIHOU,WOMENYUANXIANDEDEYUZHUANJIASHIQULEDAODEQUANWEI,SUODAILAIDEJIEGUOSHIWOMENKEYISHEXIANGDE。

LIYANJIE、QUXIAOTAMENDAIBIAODESHI20SHIJIWULIUSHINIANDAIYIZHIDAO“WENGE”QIANXIPEIYANGDENEILIANGDAIREN,YICHENGSHEHUIZHUYIXINREN。TAMENXIANGXINJITIZHUYILUNLIGUAN,RENWEIRENSHENGYIYIQUANZAIZHEISHANGMIAN。ZAINEIGENIANDAI,RENMENCENGJINGRUCIZHENCHENGDIXIANGXINZHEIXIEDONGXI,YERUCIZHENCHENGDIZAIZHUIQIUZHEIXIEDONGXI。SUOYILIYANJIETAMENQUJIAOYUXINYIDAIQINGNIAN,BINGBUSHIQUZUOBIAOYAN,YINWEITAMENXIANGXINZHEIXIE;YEZHENGYINWEITAMENXIANGXINZHEIXIE,“SHEKOUFENGBO”CAIYOUZHEIMEDADEYINGXIANG。

侠客棋牌YAOXIANGLIJIE“SHEKOUFENGBO”DESHENKEHANYI,WOMENHAIYAOZAIHUISU10NIAN,JIUSHI1978NIANFASHENGDEYIJIANGENGZHONGYAODESHI,JIAOZUO“ZHENLIBIAOZHUNDATAOLUN”。ZHEICHANGZAIHUYAOBANGDEZHUCHIXIAKAIZHANDEDATAOLUN,JIELUNZAIKAISHIZHIQIANBIANYIJINGDECHU,JIUSHI“SHIJIANSHIJIANYANZHENLIDEWEIYIBIAOZHUN”。ZHEIGEJIELUNCHENGWEISUIHOUJISHINIANGAIGEKAIFANGDEHEXINLINIAN。DANSHI,ZHEIBAHEXINLINIANYOUGEQUEKOU,JIUSHI“WEIYI”ZHEILIANGGEZI;SUIZHESHIJIANDETUIYI,“WEIYI”DEQIANZAIFUMIANZUOYONGJIUHUIXIANXIAN。RUGUOJIANYANZHENLIDEWEIYIBIAOZHUNSHISHIJIANDEHUA,WOMENHENRONGYIHUAXIANGSHIYONGZHUYI。ZAILUNLIXUEYIYISHANGSHENJIUZHEIGEWENTIDEHUA,YOUXIEZHENLISHIWUFAJIANYANDE。BUSHISUOYOUDEZHENLIDOUSHINENGNASHIJIANLAIHENGLIANGDE,DANSHIWOMENDEGAIGEJIUJIANLIZAIZHEIGESHANGMIAN,SUOYI“SHEKOUFENGBO”CAIDAOZHILEZHEIMEDADEYINGXIANG。DANGSHEKOUQINGNIANSUODAIBIAODEXIANDAIHUALILIANG,SHUONEITAOCHENFUSHUOJIAOGENWOMENSHIYOUCHONGTUDE,RUGUOANZHAONEITAOCHENFUSHUOJIAO,WOMENSUOYOUDEGONGZUODOUMEIBANFAJIXUJINXING,SHUOJIAOJIUZHIYOURANGBU。

侠客棋牌DANGZHEIZHONGJUYOUCHAOYUEYIYIDEZHENLIBEIWANQUANPAOZAIYIBIANDESHIHOU,SHICHANGLUOJIJIUZHANLESHANGFENG。SHICHANGLUOJIZHANSHANGFENG,HENRONGYIDAOZHIDEJIEGUOJIUSHIDUOYUANHUA。SHICHANGLUOJIHENJIANDAN,WOMENZENMEYANGNENGRANGRENMENDUOMAIDONGXI;ZHIYOUDUOMAICAINENGDUOSHENGCHAN,CAINENGMAICHUQU。XIAOFEIZHUYIBEIHOUDEZUIJIANDANLUOJI,JIUSHIRANGNIXIANGXINNIDERENHEXUQIUDOUSHIZHENGDANGDE,ERQIENIYINGGAIGENBIERENYOUBUTONGDEXUQIU。ZUIMINGXIANDEBIAOXIANJIUSHISHISHANG,MEIGERENDOUXIANGXINZIJIDUISHISHANGDEZHUIQIUSHIZUIYOUPINWEIDE。RUGUONICHUANDEKUZIYOUDIANHOULE,WOJIUYAOCHUANYIGEJIAHOUDEKUZI,JIEGUOJIUSHIDUOYANGHUA。DUOYANGHUADAOZHILESHICHANGDEPENGBOFAZHAN,JIUNENGDUOMAI。DANSHISHICHANGDEFAZHANBUKEBIMIANDIHUIDUISHEHUIQITAFANGMIANCHANSHENGYINGXIANG。

ZAIWOMENDEYUJINGXIA,TUIDONGDUOYUANHUAZUIZHUYAODELILIANGSHISHICHANG。SHICHANGLUOJI、SHANGPINCHONGBAI,DAOZHILEWOMENDUIDUOYUANHUAYUELAIYUEDUODERONGREN。LIRU,WOMENSHIBUSHIDOUYOUTONGYANGDESHENGHUOJIHUI?DANGRAN,BUNENGJIADINGMEIYIGEGETIDOUYOUTONGYANGDESHENGHUONENGLI,DANSHIYINGGAIJUYOUTONGYANGDEJIHUI。YOULEJIHUIMEIZHUADAOSHIZISHENDEWENTI。SHICHANGLUOJITUIDONGDEDUOYUANHUABUKAOLVSHENGHUOJIHUISHIFOUPINGDENGDEWENTI,TAKAOLVDESHIGOUMAINENGLIDEDAXIAOHEYOUWUDEWENTI。ZHEISHIGUOQU40NIANFASHENGDEZHONGDABIANHUA。QIANXIENIANZHONGGUODEXIAOFEIYUNDONGPENGBOFAZHAN,YEFUHEZHEIGELUOJI。

DAOLEZHEIBUZHIHOU,WOMENDEGETIYUWANGDEDAOLEHEFAHUA。2008NIANCHUXIANLE“FANPAOPAO”XIANXIANG。ZHEIZHONGSHIQINGZAI20SHIJILIUQISHINIANDAIJIUBUKENENGFASHENG。DUOYUANHUADELINGWAIYIGEBIAOXIANSHI,YOUZHENGYIDEDAODEXINGWEI(Contestedmoral behavior)MOSHIDECHUXIAN。PIRU,HUNQIANXINGXINGWEIZAI20SHIJILIUQISHINIANDAIBUJINWEIFANDAODE,ERQIESHIKEYIPANXINGDE,RUGUOGANSHANG1983NIANDE“YANDA”YUNDONG,SHUOBUDINGBAMINGDOUDAJINQU;XIANZAI,ZHANGQIWEIHUNTONGJUDOUCHENGWEIYIJIANBIJIAOPINGCHANGDESHIQING。ZAIBIRUBUJIEHUN、DALINGSHENGNV,ZHEIXIEXIANXIANGKAISHICHUXIAN,BIANDEYOUZHENGYI,BEIHOUFANYINGDESHIJIZHONGBUTONGDAODEGUANDIANZHIJIANDEZHANGLI。

 

侠客棋牌ZAIWOMENDEWENHUATIXIZHONG,HENDUOYINWEILUNLIGUANBUTONGERFASHENGZHENGYIDEDAODEXINGWEI,DOUFASHENGZAIZHEIGECENGMIAN,JIGERENCENGMIAN。JIEXIALAISHIGONGGONGCENGMIAN,DAJIASHUZHIDEGUANGCHANGWUYINQIDEZHONGZHONGZHENGYI,YEYINQILEBUTONGDEYANLUN。GETICENGCISHANGYOUCHONGTU,SHEHUICENGCISHANGYOUCHONGTU,YOUDESHIHOUYIGERENDEXINLINGSHENCHU,BUTONGDEDAODEGUANYEYOUCHONGTU。

 

 公德意义的凸显与发展

XIANZAIJIANGDISANGEGUIJI,JIGONGDEDEFAZHAN。ZAIGUOQUDE40NIANZHONG,GONGDEDEYIYIYUELAIYUEZHONGYAO,ZHEISIHUYISHIGONGSHI。TONGSHI,YEZHENGSHIMOUXIEFANGMIANDEGONGDECHULEWENTI,DAOZHIHENDUORENDUIZHONGGUODAODEJINGGUANCHANSHENGHENBEIGUANDEPANDUAN。

侠客棋牌WOMENCHUANTONGDERUJIALUNLI,JIBENSHANGSHISIDELUNLI,ZHENGGE“WULUN”CHULIDEDOUSHISIDEWENTI,SHIYONGSIDECHULIGONGGONGSHIWU,SUOWEIYIXIAOZHIGUO。ZAI19SHIJI20SHIJIZHIJIAO,LIANGQICHAONEIYIDAIRENMINRUIDIYISHIDAOZHEIGEWENTI。LIANGQICHAODE《XINMINSHUO》ZHIZAIFAZHANGONGDE,GOUJIANXINDEGONGMIN。QIZHONGTATIDEYIGEJIANYIJIUSHIGOUJIANDILIULUN“QUNJI”GUANXI,GETIHEQUNTIDEGUANXI。ZHEILIDEGETISHIDULIZILIDEGONGMIN,“QUNJI”GUANXISHIZAIPINGDENGGONGMINDEJICHUSHANG,GETIYUQITAGETIDEHEZUOGUANXIYIJIGETIHEGONGTONGTIDEGUANXI,ERBUSHIYIGE“WULUN”KUANGJIAXIADELISHUGUANXI,XIANGJUNCHEN、FUZINEIYANGDEGUANXI。HUADEZHANGQIYUGENBENTIAOZHAN。

侠客棋牌1949NIANYIHOU,GONGCHANZHUYILUNLICHULIDERENGRANSHIRUHEGAIZAOCHUANTONGLUNLI,JIANLIXINDEGONGDETIXIDEWENTI。WOQIANMIANJIESHAODENEITAOGONGCHANZHUYIJIAZHIGUANTIXI,HENDACHENGDUSHANGJIEJUELEZHEIGEWENTI,ERJIEJUEZHEIGEWENTIKAODESHILEITINGWANJUNDEZHENGZHIYUNDONGCHANSHENGDEYALI。ZHEITAOTIXIJIUSHIQIANGDIAOHAOBULIJI,ZHUANMENLIREN,SUOYOUJITIDESHIDOUSHIZHONGYAODESHI,JITIDEMUTOUJIUZHIDENIXISHENGZIJIDESHENGMING。ZHEITAOLUNLITIXINENGCHIXUDUOJIU,SHIYIGEHENDADEYIWEN。RUGUOYIGEXINLUNLITIXISHUOGETICAIZUIZHONGYAO,ZUOWEIGETI,NIDELIYIHEZIWOFAZHANDOUTEBIEZHONGYAO;ERQIETASHUOGETIDESHENGMINGBIJITIDECAICHANGENGZHONGYAO。JIEGUOHUIZENYANG?GONGCHANZHUYILUNLIZAIHENDUANSHIQINEI,QUDELEJUDACHENGJIU,DANHENKUAIJIUBEIYIGEXINDEGETIZHUYILUNLITIXISUOCHONGJI。ZHIHOU,WOMENMIANLINDEBIANSHIRUHEZHONGJIANSHEHUIGONGDEDEWENTI。

GONGDEFENLIANGDALEI。GONGDETINGQILAIHENGAOSHANG,SHIJISHANGYEFENLIANGLEI,DIYILEISHIDIXIANHUOZHEXIAOJIGONGDE。SHIJISHANGHENJIANDAN,JIUSHIZAIGONGGONGKONGJIAN、GONGGONGLINGYUBUZUOSHANGHAIBIERENDESHI,BUZUOSHANGHAIGONGGONGLIYIDESHI,ZHEIJIUSHIYOUGONGDE。WENMINGLIMAOYESHIDIXIANGONGDEDEYIBUFEN。GONGDEHAIYOUYIGEGENGGAODECENGCI,WOBATAJIAOZUOJIJIDEGONGDE。TABAOKUOGONGGONGCANYU、CISHANSHIYE、RUHEWEITARENWEISHEHUIZUOGENGDUOYOUYIYIDESHIQING,RUHEZAIGONGGONGKONGJIANJIANSHELIANGSHANDESHEHUISHENGHUO。WOMENZAIGUANYULUNLIWEIJI、DAODETIXIDETAOLUNZHONG,TAIQIANGDIAODIERTIAO,TAIQIANGDIAOJIJIGONGDE,ERSHIJISHENGHUOZHONGBUSHISUOYOURENDOUNENGZUODAO,YEBUSHISUOYOURENDOUYAOJIJIDITOURUDAOJIJIGONGDEZHONG。

WOMENSUOWEIDAODEWEIJI、DAODEHUAPODEHENDUOBEIGUANPANDUAN,DOUSHIYUANYUGONGDEDEKUIFAYUZAOYUTIAOZHANERCHANSHENGDE。DANSHI,LISHIDIKAN,WOJUEDEZAIGUOQU40NIAN,WOMENZAIGONGDEFANGMIANYEYOULEZHANGZUDEJINZHAN,CHUXIANLEHENDUOXINDEXIANXIANG。BIFANGSHUO,SHOUZHIXUDEXIANXIANGHAIYOUDUIYUGONGGONGCHANGSUODEAIHU。

侠客棋牌DIERGEZHONGYAODEJINZHAN,SHIDUISHENGMINGBENSHENDEZHONGSHI。GUOQURENWEIJITICAICHANBIRENHAIZHONGYAO,NEIGEJIUSHIDUISHENGMINGJIAZHIDEFOUDING。YIDANGETIDESHENGMINGBENSHENDEDAOZHONGSHI,HUODENEIZAIDULIDEJIAZHIZHIHOU,HUICHANSHENGYIXILIELUNLIGUANNIANDEBIANHUAYIJIYOUCIERLAIDEDAODEXINGWEIFANGMIANDEBIANHUA。2008NIANWENCHUANDIZHENHOU,DAZHONGMEITIHEGONGGONGYULUNDUIYU“ZHUJIANQIANG”DEBAODAOHEGUANZHU,BIANSHIYIGEHENYOUYISIDELIZI。PENGQIAOJINNIANSHIWENCHUANDIZHEN10ZHOUNIAN,ZHEIWEI“ZHUJIANQIANG”RENGRANJIANZAI,ZAICICHENGWEIXINWEN“RENWU”。YOURU,2010NIANSHANGHAIJIAOZHOULUYIDONGDALOUSHIHUO,SILEHENDUOREN。ZHIHOUJIANGJIN20WANSHANGHAISHIMINZIFAQIANQUHUOZAIDIDIAN,BIAODATAMENDEAISIHEDUISIZHEDEJINGYI;SHANGHAICHENGSHIJIAOXIANGLETUANDECHENGYUANZAIPANGBIANYANZOUBIAODAAISIDEYINLE。ZHEIXIESHIMINDEXINGWEIDUIZHENGFUYOULEZHIJIEDECUJINZUOYONG,ZHENGFUMASHANGZUOCHULEHENDUOZHENGMIANDEFANYING。

SUOYOUZHEIXIEDONGXIJIAZAIYIQI,WOJUEDESHIWOMENZHUJIANCONGCHUANTONGYIYISHANGDETONGQINGXIN(sympathy)WANGXIANDAIYIYISHANGDETONGLIXIN(empathy)DEFAZHAN。WOMENXIANZAIHENDUODEZHIYUANZHEHUODONGDOUSHIJIYUTONGLIXIN,BIRUNEI25WANWENCHUANJIUZAIZHIYUANZHE,TAMENKANDAODIANSHISHANGNEIXIEZAIMINKUNKUDEZHUANGKUANGERSHENYOUTONGGAN,MEIYOUDUOXIANGJIUQULEZAIQU。ZHEIJIUSHIDIANXINGDETONGLIXIN。TAMENSHEXIANGTONGYANGZUOWEIREN,RUGUOWOSHOUDAOZHEIYANGDEZAINAN,WOHUIYOUDUONANSHOU。TONGLIXINNENGGOUFAZHANDEZHONGYAOQIANTI,SHICHENGRENRENZISHENDENEIZAIJIAZHIHEJINGSHENCENGMIANSHANGGETIZHIJIANDEPINGDENG。

GONGDEDEFAZHANYOUBUTONGDEFANGSHI。JINNIANLAIJICENGZHENGFUYEJIJITUIDONGSHEQUDAODEJIANSHE。ZUICHANGJIANDEJUBANDAODEDAJIANGTANG,KAIZHANXUANCHUANHUODONG。LIRU,SHANDONGSHENGMOUSHIDE“DAODEZAISHENBIAN,JINGDIANYONGLIUCHUAN”DAODEJIANGTANG,YI“SIGEYI”WEIZHUXIAN,JIKANYIBUDAODEDUANPIAN、JIANGYIGEDAODEGUSHI、SONGYIDUANDAODEJINGDIAN、ZUOYIFANDAODEGANWU。ZAIZHEIZHONGBIJIAOCHENGSHIHUADEXUANJIANGHUODONGZHONG,ZUIHOUDEDAODEGANWUHUODAODEGANXIANGHENRONGYILIUYUGAINIANHUADEBIAOJUEXIN。ZHEIZHONGKAIZHANDAODEFUXINGYUNDONGDEFANGSHI,LEISIYU20SHIJIWULIUSHINIANDAIJIANSHESHEHUIZHUYIXINRENDEFANGSHI。ZHEISHILAOMASHITU、HENRONGYIDEYIZHONGFANGSHI。SHIJIXIAOGUOZENMEYANG,WOMENHAIBUZHIDAO。

HAIYOULINGWAIYIZHONGFANGSHI,SHIMOUXIEDIFANGTUIXINGDE“DAODEYINXING”“DAODECHAOSHI”DENG,TONGGUOLIYIJIAOHUANDEYUANZELAIGULISHEHUIHUZHUXINGWEI。JUMEITIBAODAO,ZHEJIANGMOUDIYUNONGSHANGXINGHEZUO,SHIDIANJIANQI“DAODEYINXING”。YOUNONGSHANGXINGTIGONGZHINONG、HUINONGZHENGCE,HUOPING“DAODEZHIXING”DEREN,KEXIANGSHOUMIANDANBAO、DILILV、GAOEDUDEDAIKUANYOUHUI,RANGHAORENGANHAOSHIYOUJIANGLI。DANSHI,LIYONGSHICHANGJIAOHUANLUOJILAITUIDONGDAODE,ZAILUNLIYIYISHANGDAODEMA?ZHEIYIDIANWOHAIMEIXIANGMINGBAI。

 

结语

侠客棋牌WORENWEIWOMENZI20SHIJI80NIANDAIYILAISUOJINGLIDE,SHIYICHANGSHENKEFUZADEDAODEZHUANXING,ERBUSHIDAODEWEIJI。ZHEIGEZHUANXINGGUOCHENGYIJINGCHENGXIANCHU3TIAOQINGXIKEJIANDEGUIJI。

DIYISHICONGGUOQUQIANGDIAOZERENHEZIWOXISHENGDEJITIZHUYILUNLI,XIANGQIANGDIAOQUANLIHEZIWOFAZHANDEGETIZHUYILUNLIDEZHUANBIAN,YIJIYOUCIERLAIDEDAODEZIWODEZHONGXINSUZAO。

DIERSHIDANYIDEDAODEQUANWEIDEBENGTADAOZHILUNLIJIAZHIGUANHEDAODEXINGWEIDEDUOYANGHUA,YIJIYOUCIERLAIDEZHUDUOZHENGYI,KUNHUOHECHONGTU。

侠客棋牌DISANSHISHEHUIGONGDEDEZHONGYAOYIYIRIYITUXIAN,XINDEGONGDEBUDUANCHUXIAN,TONGSHIYEDAILAIXINDEGONGGONGYITI。

侠客棋牌SHANGSHU3TIAOGUIJIDEBIANHUA,YEWEIWOMENDESHEHUIDAILAIZHUDUOXINDETIAOZHAN。ZENMEJIJIYINGDUIZHEIXIETIAOZHAN,SHUNLIWANCHENGZHEICHANGDAODEZHUANXING,SHIGEJUDAERFUZADEWENTI。

JIUXUEZHELAISHUO,XUYAOJINXINGDALIANGZHASHI、XIZHIDEDIAOCHAYANJIU,DUIDANGQIANDELUNLIHUAYUYUDAODESHIJIANYOUYIGEKEGUAN、QUANMIANDEPANDUAN。WOGERENRENWEI,“CONGJITIZHUYIZERENLUNLIXIANGGETIZHUYIQUANLILUNLIDEZHUANXING”ZHEIYANGYIGEXUESHUSHIJIAO,NENGGOUBANGZHUWOMENYOUXIAODILIJIEDANGDAIZHONGGUODEDAODESHIJIE。BUGUO,ZHEIRENGRANSHIGEXUESHUJIASHUO,JIUJINGSHIFOUZHENSHI、YOUXIAO,RENGYOUDAIYUDALIANGDESHIZHENGYANJIULAIJIANYAN。

DUIDAZHONGLAISHUO,ZUIZHONGYAODESHI“ZIWOZHENCHENG”,GETISHOUXIANYAODUIZIWOZHENCHENG,ZUODAOBIAOLIRUYIHEYANXINGYIZHI,RANHOUYOUJITUIREN。JIJIZHUDONGDEDAODEGAIGE,YINGGAICONGMEIYIGETIDEZISHENKAISHI。DUIGUANFANGHESHEHUILAISHUO,XUYAOCHENGRENGETIZHUYIDEZHENGDANGXING,ZHENGSHIGETIZHUYIDEFENGFUNEIHAN。BUYAOCHUYUDUIGETIZHUYIDEZHONGGUOSHILIJIE,BATADENGTONGYUZISIZILIHEFANSHEHUI,JIANGGETIZHUYIHEJITIZHUYIWANQUANDUILIQILAI。ZAIZHENCHENGDEJICHUZHISHANG,CAIYOUKENENGGOUJIANSHENHOUDESHEHUIXINREN。ERZHENZHENGWANCHENGDAODEZHUANXING,ZEXUYAOGUOJIA、SHEHUIHEGEJIECENGRENQUNZHIJIANZHANGQIDEGOUTONG、XIESHANGHENULI。YUCHUANTONGDEYIYUANHUALUNLIXIANGBI,ZHEIZHONGDUOYUANHUADEGOUTONG、XIESHANGHEGONGTONGNULIDESHEHUIFAZHANGUOCHENGBENSHEN,BIANYIJINGSHILEBUQIDEDAODEGAIGE,YINWEITANENGGOUZUIDAXIANDUDIBAORONGGETIHUA、DUOYUANHUADEXINJIAZHIGUANYUXINDAODEXINGWEI。