刘云杉 | 北京大学教育学院

王儒西 | 整理

【导读】今天的中国教育,作为塑造社会分层的核心机制,越来越从“期许”变成“焦虑”。伴随亲历改革、分层明显的八零后逐渐成为社会中坚,各类“二代”已构成当下接受教育的多元主体,这更加剧了教育问题的复杂性。面对诉求多元、竞争严酷、标准国际化三大张力,我们素质教育的标准究竟在由谁决定?一次次考试与招生改革为何大多未能达到预期效果?教育改革应向何处发力,才更有希望纾解焦虑、回应期待?作者认为,素质教育与应试教育之争是一个虚假问题,它们真正共同的敌人是功利主义。在功利主义的侵蚀下,无论是应试还是自主招生,都被挖掘出了各种“套路”。新的选拔方式在功利主义面前不过是一场难度更高的智力体操,并没有发生质变。这是未来改革必须直面的核心症结。2019年5月25日,《文化纵横》与南都观察共同举办一期一会沙龙,特别邀请北京大学教育学院教授刘云杉作专题演讲,与读者共同探讨“素质教育”,理解教育焦虑现状背后的逻辑。本文基于讲座内容整理。

 

“龟兔赛跑”1.0版本

侠客棋牌YINGSHIJIAOYUXIA,XUESHENGFUDANHENZHONG,ZHONGGUODEJIATINGDOUZAIWEIJINGZHENGERXUEXI,“BUNENGSHUZAIQIPAOXIAN”;DANSHIZHONGGUODEXUEXIAOYOUZAIZHILIYURANG“SUOYOUDEXUESHENGYIYANGDEHAO”,ZHEISHIYIGEBEILUN。ZHEIJIUYOULE“GUITUSAIPAO”1.0BANBEN。ZAI2009NIANZHONGGUOSHANGHAICANJIADEPISACESHIZHONG,SHANGHAIXUESHENGDEBIAOZHUNCHABIJIAODI,YEJIUSHISHUOHAOXUESHENGHECHAXUESHENGDEZHENGTICHAJUBUDA,TONGSHIDIJISIWEIXIANGMU(LIJIE、JIYIDENG)FENSHUGAO,ERGAOJISIWEI(PINGJIA、PANDUAN、CHUANGXIN)DENGFENZHIDIYUPINGJUNFENZHI,ZHEIFANYINGLEYINGSHIJIAOYUGUOYUZHONGSHISHUBENXUNLIAN、PAICHIXUESHENGDEQITANENGLIHEJIHUI,ERBIAOZHUNCHADIZEBIAOMINGZHENGTISHANGXUESHENGZHIJIANCHENGJIDECHAYIXIAO。YEJIUSHISHUO,ZAI“GUITUSAIPAO”1.0BANDEJIAOYUSHEJIZHONG,PAODEKUAIDETUZIYUPAODEMANDEWUGUICHAJUHENXIAO,HUOZHESHUOPAODEMANDEWUGUIBUNENGMINGXIANSHUJIPAODEKUAIDETUZI。

侠客棋牌ZAI“GUITUSAIPAO”1.0BANBENZHONG,XUEYEFUDANTAIZHONGLE,JIAOYUKAISHIJIANFU,DANHUAKAOSHI,RANGCHENGXIANGSUOYOUDEHAIZIDOUNENGXIANGSHOUKUAILEDETONGNIAN。RANER,HAIZIKUAILELE,JIAZHANGQUEJIAOLVLE,YINWEIJIANFUHOUDEXIAONEIJIAOYUDEZHIYULIANGDOUYOUSUOXIAHUA,YIJINGNANYIDANDUSHENGRENJIAOXUEYURENDEZHINENG。YUBUDUANDEJIANFUTONGBU,PEIXUNJIGOUDALIANGYONGXIAN,XUEERSI、HAOWEILAIDENGXIAOWAIJIAOYUGONGSISHIZHIBIAOSHENG,SILIXUEXIAODEJIAOYUZHILIANGBUDUANTISHENG。ZHEISHICHUXIANLEWANGRONGJIAOSHOUSUOSHUODE“JIAOYUDELADINGMEIZHOUHUA“,JIJIANFUSHIDEDALIANGZHONGGAOSHOURUDEJIATINGTAOLIGONGGONGJIAOYUTIXI,QUSILIBUMENXUNQIUGENGGAOSHUIZHUNDEFUWU。JINTIANZAIXUDUONANFANGCHENGSHILI,GONGLIXUEXIAOCHENGWEIDILIEJIAOYUJIGOUDEDAIMINGCI。BEIJINGQINGKUANGZEFUZAYIXIE,HAODEDEGONGLIXUEXIAOYUGEZHONGXIAOWAISHICHANG、ZIBENSHICHANGYOUFUZADEQIANTAOGUANXI。

JIAOGAIJIANFUDEBEIHOUSHIYINGSHIJIAOYUHESUZHIJIAOYUDEDUILI。SUZHIJIAOYUZHEIYIGAINIANNEIHANMOHU,GENGZHUNQUEDEDINGWEISHIZUOWEIYINGSHIJIAOYUPIPANDEWUQICUNZAI。WOMENKEYIBUZHIDAOSHENMEJIAOSUZHIJIAOYU,DANSHIZHIYAOTONGGANYUYINGSHIJIAOYUDEYANKE,SUZHIJIAOYUSIHUJIUTIANRANHUODELELUNZHENGYURENTONGDEHEFAXING。

WOGENGYUANYIYONG“BOFANGJIAOYU”HE“JINGYUEJIAOYU”ZHEILIANGGEGAINIANLAIMIAOSHUJIANFUZHIHOUDE“YINGSHIJIAOYU”HE“SUZHIJIAOYU”。ZHEIDUIGAINIANLAIYUANYURENWENZHUYIXUEZHEBAIBIDESUOTICHUDEBOFANGSHIQI(era of expansion)YUJINGYUESHIQI(era of concentration)ZHIJIANDELISHIDEZHONGBAI。SUOWEI“JINGYUEJIAOYU”,SHIJIANDESHIYANGEXUANBAHEXUNLIAN,XINFENGDESHI“CHIDEKUZHONGKU,FANGWEIRENSHANGREN”。SUOWEI“BOFANGJIAOYU”,YIXIEJIAOGAIMINGXIAO,XUANCHENGTIGONGNIGANXINGQUDEYIQIE,CHENGJIUNIXIANGYONGYOUDEYIQIE,FENGXINGTONGQINGKUANRONGDEGERENZHUYI、RENBENZHUYI,QIANGDIAOJIEFANG,SHENZHIWUXUYUWUJILV。XIANSHIZHONG,ZHEILIANGZHONGLINIANXINGCHANGCHANGQIANTAOZAIYIQI,CHENGXIANFUZADEYANGTAI。XUESHENG3DIANBANFANGXUEYIHOU,KENENGZHIJIEDAOXIAOWAIJIAOYUJIGOULIQULE。YEJIUSHISHUO,XUEXIAODEBOFANGSHIJISHANGGAODUYILAIJIATINGYUXIAOWAIDEJINGYUEXUNLIAN。

侠客棋牌JINGYUEJIAOYU,RUYIXIEJIAOYUPINGLUNZHESUOYAN,SHIYAOBAXIANGSHANGDEDONGLIRUTONGYIBUFADONGJIYIYANGANZHIZAIXUESHENGXINZHONG。XUEXIAOYONGYITAOXIZHIYANMIDEZHIDU,QUEBAOXUESHENGFASHENGSHENXINDETUIBIAN,YANGCHENGZHONGSHENSHOUYONGDEXIGUANHEPINZHI,ZAIKUZHONGKUBEIHOUSHIXIGUANYANGCHENG、YIZHIMOLI,SHIGAOZHUODEKUAILE,ZHEISHIYIQIEJINGYINGYOUQISHIPINGMINJINGYINGDEZIWOSUZAODEJIANKULICHENG。ERZAIBOFANGJIAOYUZHONG,XUESHENGBUJINNENGGOUXUANZEXUESHENME,HAINENGXUANZESHENMESHIHOUXUE、ZAINALIXUE、GENSHEIYIQIXUE,YISHENMEFANGSHIXUE;QUXIAOBANJIHEBANZHUREN,CHAIDIAOJIAOSHIZHONGDEJIANGTAI,LAOSHIZHANZAIXUESHENGZHONGJIAN;ZUNZHONGXUESHENGXINGQU、ZHIDINGGEXINGHUADEKEBIAO,WEISIRENDINGZHIWEILAI。

侠客棋牌CONGZHEILIANGZHONGJIAOYULINIANDEDUIBIKEYIKANCHULAI,ZHONGGUOSHEHUIFASHENGLEDUANLIE:DACHENGSHIDESHEHUIZHONGSHANGJIECENGKAISHIXIANGSHOUSUZHIJIAOYUDECHENGGUO,ERZHONGXIAOCHENGSHIYUXIANGCUNDESHEHUIZHONGXIAJIECENGXINRENHEXUANZEDERENGRANSHIYINGSHIJIAOYU。

YEJIUSHISHUO,ZHONGGUOSHEHUIDEZHONGSHANGJIECENGHEZHONGXIAJIECENGZAIDUIJICHENGRENDEPEIYANGTUJINGSHANG、DUIJINGYINGDESUZAOFANGSHISHANG,FASHENGLEMINGXIANDEFENQI。

 

二代崛起:全球故事

ERDAIDEJUEQIBUJINSHIZHONGGUOGUSHI,GENGSHIYIGEQUANQIUGUSHI。SHANGMIANWOMENJIANGLE“GUITUSAIPAO1.0BAN”SHIRANGPAODEMANDEWUGUIBUNENGMINGXIANDISHUJIPAODEKUAIDETUZI。ERERDAIJUEQIHOU,JIAOYUZHEIGEGUITUSAIPAODEJINGSAISHENGJIDAOLE“2.0BAN”,KAIBAOMACHEDEWUGUIRUCHANGLE。

侠客棋牌“ERDAI”SHOUXIANSHIYIZHONGJINGJISHISHI,TADEBEIHOUSHICHENGXIZHIZIBENZHUYI。JINGJIXUELIYOUYIGEKUZINIECIQUXIAN,TAXIANGXINSUIZHEJINGJIZENGZHANGHEJISHUJINBU,SHEHUIBUTONGJIECENGZHIJIANDEBUPINGDENGCHENGDUJIANGZAIZIBENZHUYIFAZHANDEGAOJIJIEDUANZIDONGJIANGDI,BINGZUIZHONGWENDINGZAIYIGEKEYIJIESHOUDESHUIPINGSHANG,MEIGESHEHUIJIECENGDOUKEYIGONGXIANGJINGJIZENGZHANGDEHONGLI。ZAIERZHANHOUYIZHIDAO1970NIANDAI,XIFANGSHEHUIDAZHISHIZHEIYANGYIGEFAZHAN;DAJIAXIANGXIN,ZAIJINGJIZAIDACHAOXIA,SUOYOUDECHUANZHIDOUHUIYANGFANYUANHANG。

侠客棋牌DANSHI,ZAI《21SHIJIZIBENLUN》ZHONG,TUOMASI·PIKAIDIDUIGEGUOLISHIDEYANJIU,ZHICHUZHEIGEQUXIANSHIYOUJUXIANDE,ZHINENGJIESHIYIGETEDINGDESHIQITEDINGDEXIANXIANG。TAJINYIBUJIESHICAIFUDESHENCENGBUPINGDENG,ZHICHUZIBENDAOZHIDEBUPINGDENGBILAODONGDAOZHIDEBUPINGDENGGENGYANZHONG,ZIBENSUOYOUQUAN(JIZIBENSHOURU)DEFENPEIBILAODONGSHOURUDEFENPEIGENGWEIJIZHONG。LAODONGSHOURUDEBUPINGDENGZHISHIWENHEDEBUPINGDENG,ERZIBENSHOURUDEBUPINGDENG(RUFANGDICHANHEJINRONGZICHAN)SHIYIGEJIDUANBUPINGDENG。

皮凯蒂把下层阶层定义为收入最低的50%,中产阶级是中间40%,上层是前10%,这前10%又是由1%和9%构成。在他的数据里面,下面50%的人的劳动收入占所有比例当中25%—33%,中间40%占37到50%;最上面10%的人占到所有比例的25%和30%,这只是温和不平等。而资本收入是极端不平等,下面50%只占5%-10%。中间是25%-40%,前面这10%的人占的比例是大于50%的。
侠客棋牌皮凯蒂也分析了基尼系数的发展趋势。数据显示了资本主义社会分化的不断加剧,教育民主化并没有消除社会不平等。最上层1%的群体足以对整个社会面貌和政治经济秩序产生重大影响。这个超级财富阶层必然有他们自己的教育选择,因为他们需要通过教育将其财富体面地传递到下一代。

SHEHUIDINGCENGDEZHEI1%DAODISHIZENMESHAIXUAN、RUHEPEIYANG?ZUIJINGUANGXISHIDACHUBANSHEJIJIANGCHUBANDE《CHUSHEN:BUPINGDENGDEXUANBAYUJINGYINGJIECENGDEZIWOFUZHI》YISHU,JIUJUJIAOYUMEIGUOSHOURUZUIGAODECHUJIGANGWEI:MAIKENXIZIXUN、SIRENTOUZIYINXINGHUOZHEGAOJILVSHISHIWUSUO,TAMENDEXINSHUISHITONGXIAOCONGSHIQITAGONGZUODEBIYESHENGDE2—4BEI,ZHEISHIYIZHANGTONGWANGSHEHUISHANGCENGDEDANCHENGPIAO。ZHEIXIEDINGJIANTOUXING、GUANLIZIXUNGONGSI、LVSHISHIWUSUOZENMEZHAOPINRENCAI,JIUJUEDINGLEGAOXIAOLIDEDAXUESHENGMENXUYAOJUBEIZENYANGDESUYANG。TAMENSUOKANZHONGDE,DIYICENGSHINIDEXUEXIAODEPAIMING,TAMENRENWEIBUGUANNIXUEDESHISHENMEZHUANYE,ZHEI3DAO5SUODINGJIANXUEXIAODEXUESHENGYIDINGSHIZUICONGMING、SHANGJIN、YOUQUDEREN,ZHEIXIERENCAILIYINGDEDAOGAODIWEIHEGAOSHOURU。ZHEIXIEDINGJIXUEXIAODEXUESHENGJINRUGONGSIYIHOU,YEYOUHENHAODEFUHAOXIAOYING,YINWEIKEHUKANDAOGONGSIDEYUANGONGDOUSHIMINGXIAOBIYESHENG,JIUHUICHANSHENGXINREN。ZHEIYANGJIUJIANLILEGAOCHUSHEN-GAOXIN-GAOPINZHI-GAOFUFEIDESHICHANGLIANTIAO。

DANZHEIHAIBUSHIQUANBU。

ZHEIXIENA6WEISHUHE7WEISHUXINCHOUDEZHAOPINGUAN,YIDINGYAOZHAOHETAQIHEDEREN,YEJIUSHITAMENJUEDEYOUNENGLI、YOUQUDEPENGYOU。GUOQUDERENLIZIBENLILUNSHIKANYIGERENXUELESHENME,YINCINENGZUOSHENME;DANZAIJINTIANDEDINGJIXINGYEZHONG,GENGDUOKANDESHITADEZHENGGEREN,YEJIUSHISUOWEI“RENGEZIBEN”(personal capital),ZHEIQISHIJIUSHIWOMENSUOSHUODE“SUZHI”。MEIGUOBANDE“SUZHI”KANZHONGDESHIJIQIANGDENEIZAIQUDONGLIHEJINQUXIN、FENGFUDEKEWAIXINGQU、CHUSEDESHEJIAOJINENG,YIJIZAIFANDUODEXUEXI、GONGZUO、XINGQUZHIJIANGUANLISHIJIANDENENGLI。ZHEIYANGDERENKEYIZAIYANKEDEGONGZUOHUANJINGZHONGSHENGCUNXIALAI,ERQIEHAINENGGOUSHENGQIBOBO、GUWUBIERENDEDOUZHI。ZHEIXIEDOUSHICONGSHIGAOTIAOZHAN、GAOJINGZHENG、GAOXINCHOUDEGONGZUOSUOBIXUJUBEIDESUZHI。ERQIE,KEWAIXINGQUZUIHAOSHINEIXIEGAODUANDEXIUXIANHUODONG,BIRUMASHU、MAQIU,YINWEIZHEISHIQISUOSHUSHEHUIJIECENGDEXINHAO。“ERDAI”MENJIUSHIKAOZHEIYANGYITAODONGXIBEISHAIXUANCHULAIDE。

WOMENQIANMIANSHUODE“KAIBAOMACHEDEWUGUI”ZOURUXIANSHIZHONG,SHIYIYITAOHELIDE、ZHENGDANGDE、YOUSHIYINXINGYOUSHIYOUZHANGYANGDELUOJIYUNZUODE。MEIGUOSHEHUIKANSIZIYOU,XIANGXINGERENNULI,DANSHIJISHANGYOUYANGEDEERQIEWANGWANGSHIYINXINGDEDENGJIHUAFEN。YIGEYOUNENGLIXIANGSHANGLIUDONGDEREN,XUYAOZAIZAIZHEIYANGYIGEJIYINXINGYOUDENGJISENYANDEZHIXUZHONGSHANGXIAYIDONG,RANGZIJISHIYINGTADEGUIDINGHECHENGXU;XUEHUIZAIMIJIERYINNIDEDENGJIGUANXIZHONGZIRUZHOUXUAN,JINENGHETADESHANGJIQUANWEITAOJINHU,ZUOZAIDAOSHIDESHAFASHANG,YOUNENGYUPUTONGRENDACHENGYIPIAN,KAIFANGQINQIE,ZHEISHIMINZHUSHEHUIDEXINJINGYING。

XINJINGYINGBEIHOUTEBIEJIANGJIUYIZHONGMIANDUIQUANWEIHUOZHESHUOYONGYOUTEQUANSHENGHUOZHONGDEZIRU、DANDING、RUYUDESHUI、BUBEIBUKANGDEQIZHI,ZHEIJIUSHIJIAOYUZHONGSUOPEIYANGDEJIWEIZHONGYAODE“GUANXI”,TAKANSIJIANDAN,DANBIXUCONGXIAOZAIGEZHONGYISHICHANGHEZHONGFANFULIANXI,CAINENGJUANKEZAISHENTIZHONG,LIULUZAIYANTANJUZHIDEXIJIESHANG。ZAIXINXISHIDAI,YOUXINGDEZHISHIYIJINGBIANZHI,FEICHANGYIDE,ZHIYOUZHEIXIEWUXINGDEGUANXICAIJUEDING“NISHISHEI”,ERHOUZHESHIJIATINGYUXUEXIAOANGGUIDETOUZIHOUCAINENGHUODEDE。“ERDAI”XINJINGYINGMENJIUSHIZHEIYANGBUDUANBEIZAISHENGCHANCHULAIDE。

 

多元选择与严苛选拔:制度的隐秘

Ralph TurnerJIANGJIAOYUXUANBAFENWEILIANGZHONG:YISHIJINGZHENGZHI,ZHIXIANGSUOYOURENKAIFANG,CHENGGONGYUFOUBIAOXIANWEIGERENBIAOXIANNENGLI。ERSHIJUJIANZHI,ZHIZHANJUZHONGYAODIWEIDEJINGYINGZHIJIEXUANDINGHUOSHENGZHE,YONGYUZUIDINGJIANDEGONGZUOLINGYU,BIAOMIANSHANGRENRENDOUKEYISHENQING,DANSHIJIZHAOPINZHEZHIKAOLVDANGQIANJINGYINGJUJIANDERENXUAN。MEIGUOYOUTUOFUHESATDEKAOSHI,DANZHEIXIEZHISHIQIANMIANDEJINGZHENGZHI,KAOGUOLEZHISHIGUOGUAN,ERZUIHOULUQUNIDERENKANZHONGDEBUZHISHIFENSHU。

ZHEIJIUSHIKAOSHIXUANBAZHONGDEKEGUANXINGYUZHUGUANXINGZHIJIANDEBOYI,KEGUANXINGDEBIAOZHUNKAOSHINENGSHAIXUANCHUNEIXIEMINGLIEQIANMAODEREN,DANSHIYOUKENENGYILOUXUDUOWEILAIDEGUOJIAJIECHULINGXIUHEYOUXIURENCAI。KEGUANGONGZHENG、XINGSHIKAIFANGDEKAOSHISUOLUQUDERENYUTONGZHIJINGYINGSUOBIHUDERENZHIJIANDECHAYI,SHIHAYEPULUQUZHONGWEIMIAODEZHENGZHI,YOUSHIQIANGDIAOZHILI,YOUSHIYOUQIANGDIAOPINXING。

侠客棋牌HAFODAXUEXIAOZHANGKENANTEJIANCHIKAIFANG。TACENGSHUO,JIAOYUZUIZHONGYAODERENWUSHIYAOCONGGEGEJIECENGZHONGJINGXUANCHUNEIXIEYONGYOUCAIHUAHEDEXINGDE“ZIRANGUIZU”,BINGLIYONGGONGGONGZHICHU、WEILEGONGGONGLIYIERTONGGUOJIAOYULAIZAOJIUTAMEN。YAORANGNEIXIEYOUJIECHUNENGLIDANYEXUNANGZHONGXIUSEDENIANQINGRENNENGGOUJIUDU,ZHIYOUZHEIYANG,TONGXIANGDINGCENGDETONGDAOCAINENGCHANGKAI,RANGMINZHUDEJINGSHENCHONGYINGYUWOMENDEXUEXIDIANTANG。

ERYELUDAXUEZEFAXIAN,YIDANXINDELUQUZHENGCEWANQUANSHIYIJUXUESHUSHUIPINGLAILUQUXINSHENG,XUEXIAOBIANZAIWUDUOSHAOLIZHUIZHIDILIUJITAMENZIJIDEHAIZI,ERSHIKENENGSHILINGWAIYIXIEREN,YOUQISHINEIXIECHENGJITEBIEHAODEYOUTAIREN。YINCIYELUDELINGDAODUIXUESHUSHANGDEXUANXIANJUNENG(YEJIUSHIMEIGUOBANDEYINGSHIJIAOYU)BIAOSHIMINGQUEDEFANDUI,RENWEIYAODAIZHIYISHANGCENGSHEHUICHUANTONGDELINIAN——LUQUSHIYAOKANZHONGSHIFOUYOUFUWUGUOJIADEPINXINGHELINGDAOLIZHEIXIESUZHI。

LEISIDI,LUODEJIANGXUEJINDEPINGXUANBIAOZHUNSHIYAOJUYOUYANGGANGQIZHIDEJIDUTUPINGEYUGONGGONGFUWUDEJINGSHEN,ERBUSHISHUDAIZI。TAYAOYOUNENGLIDEREN,YAOYOUNANRENWEIDEREN,YAOZAISHANZHANGHUWAIYUNDONGTONGSHIHAIYOUDIANCANBAODEXUEZHE,ZHEIYANGDERENCAIJUYOURENGEDELILIANG,CAIJUYOU“GANYUWANCHENGSHIMINGDEYONGQI”。DUIZHEIXIEPINZHI、PINXINGYUGEXINGDEZHONGSHI,JIUSHIMEIGUODE“SUZHIJIAOYU”。TADAPOLEWEIFENSHULUN,DANSHIYEWEIFUBAI、PIANJIANHEQISHIDAKAILEHOUMEN。

 

中国“二代”及其教育期待

侠客棋牌GAIGEKAIFANG40NIANYILAI,WOMENQUDELEKUAISUDEJINGJIZENGZHANG。PUTONGZHONGGUORENYIJINGXIGUANLEXIANGDASHANGZIDONGSHANGXINGFUTIYIYANG,SUIZHEJINGJIDEDACHAOBUDUANGAISHANZIJIDESHENGHUO。YINCI,ZHEIQIJIANDEJIAOYUZHENGTILAISHUOSHIJIATINGDIWEIYUCAICHANDEBAOHUJIZHI。JINTIAN,ZAIJINGJIGAODUFAZHAN40NIANHOU,YIFANGMIANSHEHUIJIEGOUYIJINGQUYUWENDING,LINGYIFANGMIANCAIFUJIECENGCHUXIAN,“ERDAI”JUEQI。ZHEISHIJINTIANZHONGGUOJIAOYUMIANLINDEFUZASHEHUIQINGJING。

LINGWAI,ZHONGGUOTEYOUDEDUSHENGZINVZHENGCEXIA,80HOUSHIDIYIDAIDUSHENGZINV,RUJINTAMENDEHAIZI——DIERDAIDUSHENGZINVYEYIJINGJINRUXUEXIAO,DUSHENGZINVJIATINGFUMUCHONGMANJIAOLV,BUYUNXUZINVSHIBAI,SHENZHIBUNENGJIESHOUTAPINGYONG。ZHEISHIJIAOYUYIJINGBUZAISHIJIAOYULE,JIAOYUYIBIANWEIXIANDAISHEHUIHEXINLIYIFENPEIDEQUANWEIDAILI,YIJISHEHUIDIWEIDEDAIJICHUANDIDEZHUYAOQUDAO。JIAOYU,HAOXIANGKANQILAISHIGERENFENSHU、GERENCHENGJIU,DANTASHIJISHANGYILAIYUYIJIAZUWEIDANWEIDEJILEIYUTOURU。

ZHEIJIUSHIBUDIESUOSHUODE“SHEHUILIANJINSHU”DEHEXIN,TACHENGGONGDIJIANGXIANFUDETEQUANDIWEIYUHOUTIANHUOZHIDECHENGJIUXINGYINSUJIEHEZAIYIQI,YONGHOUZHEYANSHIQIANZHE,CONGERWEIXIANFUDEDIWEITEQUANLIUXIALEJIYINMIYOUDUOYUANDEBOYIKONGJIAN。

ZHONGGUOSHEHUIDUIYUJIAOYU、PINGDENGYOUSHENHOUDELISHICHUANTONG。

QIANMUXIANSHENGZAI《LIDAIZHENGZHIDEDEYUSHI》LIJIANG,ZHONGGUODECHUANTONGZHENGZHI,YIZAOCHENGSHEHUIGEJIECENGYITIANTIANQUYUPINGDENG。ZHONGGUOSHEHUIYISONGYIXIA,YIJINGZAOCHENGLEYIGEPINGPUDESHEHUI。FENGJIANGUIZUGONGJUEBOJUEZHILEIZAOJIUFEIQU,GUANLIBUNENGSHIXI,ZHENGQUANPUBIANGONGKAI,KAOSHIHETIAOJIANDESHEIYEKEYIRUSHITU。PINHANCHUSHEN,PINGDIBAQI,ZHIDUOSANDAI(FUBUGUOSAN,GUIBUGUOSAN),QIXIANYIGEQINGENGKUDUDERENCHULAIWENSHI,YIZHIFEIHUANGTENGDA;ERTADEXIAYIDAI,HENKUAIYOUBIANCHENGWANKUZIDILE。YUSHIYOULINGYIGEJIATINGLIQINGENGKUDUDERENWU,YOUZAIANGQITOULAI。

侠客棋牌LIANGSHUMINGXIANSHENGZAI《ZHONGGUOWENHUAYAOYI》ZHICHU,ZAICISHEHUIZHONG,FEIWUPINFU、GUIJIANZHICHA,DANSHENGCHENBUDING,LIUZHUANXIANGTONG,DUILIZHISHIBUCHENG,SIBUWEIZHIJIEJISHEHUIER。ZAIZHONGGUOSHEHUILI,YIGERENSHENGXIALAIQIMINGYUNDOUWUYIDING,WEISHI、WEINONG、WEIGONG、WEISHANG,JINKEZIZE,CHUWUXIANZHI。ER“XINGXINGCHUZHUANGYUAN”,DUSHURENGUKEYIZHISHENTONGXIAN;NONG、GONG、SHANGYEYEDOUKEYIBAISHOUQIJIA;FUGUI、PINJIAN、SHENGCHENBUDING,LIUZHUANXIANGTONG。JIXIANTEQUAN,YOUWUZHUANLI,YICHANPINGFEN,TUDI、ZICAIZHUANSHUNYOUJUERSAN。DAJIABICIDOUWUKEPINGCHI,ERDUMINGYUNYUSHENSHOU。DESHI、CHENGBAIJIEYOUTANPINGDADAO,RENRENSUOGONGJIAN,RENRENSUOGONGXIN,JIANZHISHITIANCAIDESHIYANCHANG、PINXINGDEZHENBIEDI。ZHEISHI“YIDAI”DEJINGKUANG,XUEXIAOYUKAOSHIDEGONGNENG,ZHENGSHI“DUMINGYUNYUSHENSHOU”DETIANCAISHIYANCHANG、PINXINGZHENBIEDIJIAOYUYUGONGMINGXIANGLIAN、SHEHUIDEKAIFANGXINGYUJIAOYUDEGONGLIXINGJINMIXIANGLIAN。

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教育改革:症结与限度

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