XINGSHIZHUYIHEGUANLIAOZHUYI,SHIDANGQIANZHENGZHISHENGTAIZHONGTEBIETUCHUDEXIANXIANG。XIJINPINGZONGSHUJIZAI“BUWANGCHUXIN、LAOJISHIMING”ZHUTIJIAOYUGONGZUOHUIYISHANGZHICHU,“YAOLIJIEXINGSHIZHUYI、GUANLIAOZHUYI,JIAOYUYINDAODANGYUANGANBUSHULIZHENGQUEZHENGJIGUAN,ZHENZHUASHIGAN、ZHUANBIANZUOFENG。”

官僚主义问题,古今中外皆有,不是一个新问题。自打人类社会创造官僚制度以来,官僚主义便成为官僚制度如影随形的伴生物。中国是个有着几千年文官制度传统的皇权-官僚国家,又在近代移植了有着强大官僚传统的前苏联计划体制。在现代工业化进程中,中国庞大的官僚体系一方面有效地运转着国家的经济社会生活,一方面也必然遗留着传统中国和前苏联体制的官僚主义弊端,并为现实生活带来种种困扰。

 

官僚主义在不同的时代有着不同的表现形式。侠客棋牌在今天,官僚主义特别集中地表现为形式主义、不作为、阳奉阴违等弊端,其要害就是逃避责任、不愿担责。对于这一轮官僚主义之风如此普遍蔓延的缘由,有各种解释和分析,比如一刀切式的行政指挥,比如官员问责制度建立后的避责心理。但究其根本,还应该从官员动力机制的调整和为官出仕的心理预期变化入手进行分析。

侠客棋牌GUANLIAOTIXI,BENZHISHANGSHIYONGYISHIXIANTONGZHIJIEJIZHENGZHIYITUHEZHANLVEMUBIAODEGONGJU。WEILEYOUXIAOGUANCHETONGZHIYITU,LIDAITONGZHIZHEJUNCONGYISHIXINGTAI、DAODELUNLI、ZHIDUANPAI、JIANCHADUBANDENGFANGMIAN,ZHESHOUJIANSHEGUANYUANDUIWUDEGUANZHITIXI,QIMUDESHISHIGUANLIAOJIECENGSHANGXIAYIXIN,QUELIQINGMINGDEGUANCHANGFENGQIHEYOUWEIDEDONGLIJIZHI,JINERDADAORUBEISHIZHIDEXINGZHENGYUNZUOXIAONENG。GUANLIAOTIXIDEYOUXUYUNZUOHUOWUXUWENLUAN,GURANQUJUEYUZHIDUBIANQIAN、TIZHISHEJI、CELVEDIAOSHIDENGZHONGDUOYINSU,DANZUIZHONGDEJUEDINGYINSURENGZAIYUGUANYUANDUIWUNEIZAIDONGLIJIZHIDEJIANKANGJIJIHEGANGJIANYOUWEI。

 

从动力机制上考虑,当代中国社会生活中的官僚主义,有着明显不同于改革开放前30年的时代特点。在1978年以前,毛泽东时代曾发动多次运动,目的均在于消除官僚主义的顽疾。但那个时代的官员主体阶层为官出仕的动力机制并未出现太大问题,强大的社会主义意识形态和为人民服务的价值伦理,塑造着广大人民包括官员阶层的价值观,并构成他们行为方式的潜在前提。当时的官僚主义,更多地表现为脱离群众、贪图享受的种种弊端,但对于主流社会强调的价值观,官员群体整体上则是坚信不疑的。

1978NIANZHIHOUDEGUANLIAOZHUYI,YOUYUSHIJIESHEHUIZHUYIYUNDONGZAOYUQUZHE,YOUYUSHICHANGHUA、HUOBIHUADEGAIGEJINCHENG,YOUYUYISHIXINGTAIJIANSHEDEZHANGQIRUANRUOHUANSANJUMIAN,CHUXIANLEXUDUOYUQIAN30NIANDABUXIANGTONGDEXINBIANHUA,QIJIBENTEZHENGJIZAIYULIXIANGXINNIANDEPUBIANQUESHI,YIJIYOUCIDAOZHIWEIGUANCHUSHIDONGLIJIZHIDEBEIZHIHUAN。GONGCHANDANGRENDELIDANGZONGZHIHEXIANJINJIAZHIGUANQIAORANLIUSHI,CHUANTONGZHONGGUODEJIUGUANCHANGLUOJIHESHICHANGJINGJIDELIYIJIAOHUANYUANZEKAISHIZUOYOUZHEGUANYUANDUIWUDEDONGLIJIZHI。

 

一般而言,当时的官员动力机制大致可归为三类:

YILEISHIPOSUDE“WEIGUANYIREN、ZAOFUYIFANG”DEXINLI,XIWANGWEIJIAXIANGFULAOHEGUOJIAFAZHANZUOCHUGONGXIAN,ZHEISHIZHONGGUOWENHUAZHONGYOUJIUDECHUSHICHUANTONG;

侠客棋牌QIERSHIHUODEGENGDUOSHENGQIANDEJIHUI,WEILESHENGGUAN,SHENMEYANGDEFANGSHIKEYIHUODECHENGGONG,BIANCAIYONGSHENMEYANGDEFANGSHI(BAOKUOPAOGUANYAOGUAN、XINGHUISHOUHUI);

侠客棋牌SANSHILIYIJIAOHUANYUANZE,ZAISHICHANGJINGJIGERENLIYIPUBIANHELIHUADESHEHUIFENGQIZHIXIA,JIANGSHOUZHONGDEQUANLIZUOWEILIYIJIAOHUANDEGONGJU,YIBUWEIFANFALVWEIQIANTI,ZHUIZHUGERENLIYIHEGERENZIYUANDEZUIDAHUA。

侠客棋牌ZHEIZHONGDONGLIJIZHIDEZHIHUAN,YIFANGMIANDAILAIJINGJIZENGZHANGDEJUDADONGLI,LINGYIFANGMIANYEZHUJIANGAIBIANLEGUANCHANGFENGQI。GONGCHANDANGREN“LIDANGWEIGONG”DEZONGZHIDANMOLE,GERENLIYICHENGWEIZHUYAODEZHUIQIU;“BUWEISHANG、BUWEISHU、ZHIWEISHI”DEDANGYUANGANBUFENGGUBUJIANLE,“DANGGENGDADEGUAN”CHENGWEIGUANYUANDENEIZAIDONGJI;SHANGXIAPINGDENG、MINZHUJIZHONGDESHEHUIZHUYIXIANJINWENHUABUJIANLE,RENSHENYIFU、AYUFENGYINGDEJIUGUANCHANGFUXIUFENGQIKAISHIMANYAN。

 

十八大以来,上述官场风气开始遭到有力校正——

FANFUCHANGLIAN,DADIAOLEYIDAPITANFUGUANLI,DANGZHONGYANGDEMUBIAOSHIDAZAO“BUGANFU,BUNENGFU,BUXIANGFU”DEZHIDUHUANJINGHESHEHUIHUANJING;CHIXUDEDANGJIANHUODONG,TONGGUOXUEXIJIAOYUSHIJIAN,ZHONGXINQUELIDANGYUANGANBUDELIXIANGXINNIANHEJIAZHILUNLI;JIANCHATIZHIQUANFUGAI,GOUJIANYIGESHANGJIEZHONGGUOCHUANTONG、WAIJIEDANGDAISHIJIECHAOLIUDEJIANCHATIXI,SHIJIANCHAJIANDUCHANGTAIHUA、ZHIDUHUA。

侠客棋牌ZHONGZHONGJIXIANGJUNBIAOMING,SHIBADAYILAIDANGZHONGYANGZHENGZAIQIANGLISUZAOXINDEGUANCHANGFENGQI,DAPOBANSUISHICHANGJINGJITONGSHICHUXIANDELIYIJIAOHUANDEGUANCHANGQIANGUIZE,ZUDUANHUOBIJIAZHIXIANGDANGYUANGANBUQUNTIDEYANSHENHESHENTOU。YINGGAISHUO,ZHEISHIYICIZAISHEHUIZHUYISHICHANGJINGJITIAOJIANXIAZHONGJIANGUANYUANQUNTILIXIANGXINNIANHEJIAZHITIXIDEZHONGDAGONGCHENG。

KEYIXIANGJIAN,ZHEIYANGDENULIHUIZAOYUDUOMEJUDADETIAOZHAN,TABIRANHUIDAOZHIYIWANG30NIANYEYIXINGCHENGSHITOUDEYIGERENLIYIZUIDAHUAWEIZHUYAODONGLIJIZHIDEGUANLIAOJIECENGDEQIANGLIEBUSHIYING,YEBIRANHUIZAOYUBUFENGUANYUANQUNTIDEXIAOJIFANKANG。MUQIANZHENGSINVEDEGUANLIAOZHUYI、XINGSHIZHUYI、BUZUOWEI、GAOJIHEIDENGZHONGZHONGGUANCHANGXIANXIANG,QISHENCENGDEYUANYIN,JIZAIYUDONGLIJIZHIDEZHOURANZHIHUANSUOYINFADEJULIEZHENDANG,ZAIYUMIANDUIXINSHIDAIJULIEZHUANZHEQISUOCHUXIANDEGUANYUANJIECENGDEDIAOSHIZHENTONG。ZAIZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIDELILUNTIXI、JIAZHITIXI、YISHIXINGTAITIXIRENGRANCHUZAIJIANKUTANSUOSHIJIANGUOCHENGZHONGSHI,ZHEIZHONGYOUYUZISHANGERXIAYALIERBEIPOJINXINGDIAOZHENGDEGUANYUANXINGWEILUOJI,BIDINGCHONGMANZHEZHONGZHONGGUAIZHANGBIANXING,YEBIRANJINGLIZHANGSHIDUANDEQUZHEFANFU,JUEFEIYICHAOYIXIKEYICHEDINIUZHUAN。

 

侠客棋牌ZHONGGUOGONGCHANDANGSHIYIGESHIMINGXINGZHENGDANG,QILIDANGZONGZHI,JUEDINGLETABUKENENGQUFUYUZICHANJIEJIDELIYIZHENGZHIYUANZE,TONGSHIYEJUEDINGLETABIRANBUDUANYIGENGGAODEDANGXINGBIAOZHUNYAOQIUTADEDANGYUANQUNTI。DANGQIANMIMANYUGUANCHANGDEXINGSHIZHUYIYUGUANLIAOZHUYI,JIUQIBENZHI,NAIZAIYUXIANGDANGYIDUANSHIQILIXIANGXINNIANSANGSHISUODAOZHIDEGUANYUANQUNTIDONGLIJIZHIDENIUQU,ZAIYUBUFENGUANYUANQUNTIDUISHIBADAYILAIXINSHIDAIXINRENWUDEBULIJIEHEBUSHIYING。DUIYUZHEIZHONGXINGSHIZHUYIHEGUANLIAOZHUYI,TUOXIEHETUIRANGSHIXINGBUTONGDE,BIXUYIJIANDINGDEJUEXIN、CHIJIUDEYILI,JIANGQINIUZHUANDAOGONGCHANDANG“LIDANGWEIGONG”DEZONGZHISHANGLAI。

新时代中国特色社会主义,意欲开辟一条不同于西方资本主义、也不同于苏式社会主义的崭新道路,这条道路的当代挑战之一,既在于克服新形势下由传统中国旧文化及资本主义商品货币文化所滋生的官僚主义,进而创造出一种崭新的官场文化。侠客棋牌这种新文化,是对前后两个30年的扬弃和超越,也是面向未来和世界的新文化。因此,它特别值得期待,也特别值得为之努力。

 

《WENHUAZONGHENG》BIANJIBU

2019NIAN10YUE

 

—  本期目录  —

 

封面选题:审视官僚主义

DANGQIANZHENGZHISHENGHUOZHONGDEGUANLIAOZHUYIYUXINGSHIZHUYIWENTI,BUJINSHISHEHUIZIXIAERSHANGDETONGGAN,YESHIZHIZHENGDANGZISHANGERXIASUOYAOKEFUDENANTI:CICI“BUWANGCHUXIN、LAOJISHIMING”ZHUTIJIAOYUHUODONG,BALIJIEXINGSHIZHUYI、GUANLIAOZHUYIZUOWEIZHONGYAONEIRONG。MIANDUIZHONGGUOGUANLIAOTIXIDEYOUSHIYUWENTI,ZHISHIJIESHOUXIANXUJIANGQIZUOWEIDANGDAIZHENGZHIKEXUEDEZHONGYAOYANJIUDUIXIANG,POUXIZHONGGUOGUANLIAOTIXIDEPUBIANXINGHETESHUXING,JINERZHAODAOKEFUGUANLIAOZHUYIWENTIDEYOUXIAOBANFA,TANSUOGUOJIAZHILIXIANDAIHUADEXINLUJING。

克服县域治理中的官僚主义 

CAODONGBO SONG RUI

形式主义向社会延伸  

LUWEIJING

价值缺失与过度有为:从古今异同看当前官僚制的困境

ZHAODINGXIN

官僚制的内在矛盾与官僚主义的多重面向     

KEGUIFU

官僚体制与传统中国的政治运行

LI LEI

 

学术评论

现代政治权力的异化与政治思维的实体化——从丸山真男对斯大林批判的讨论谈起 

SUN GE

 

县域研究

作为方法的县

LIU YUE

 中西部县域的“去工业化”及其社会影响 

ANYONGJUN

 

趋势

数字化时代的场景主义

XIA SHU

 

笔谈:中国精神

精神从历史中淬炼

SHA YE

“中国精神”与《中国精神读本》

WANGSHAOGUANG

经史互译 重建史观——写在《中国精神读本》出版之际

YANG PING

政策

我们需要什么样的基础研究——从科学与技术的关系说起

SUN XI DOUXIAOJIAN

 

▍历史观

作为国家建设的历史教育:钱穆史学的启示

WANG RUI

 

▍世界观

日本传统工匠向现代工业的转型

ZHOUFEIFEI

 

▍在民间

电商经济与中国软实力

QIANLINLIANG