[导读]近日,因浙江大学教授关于研究生性别比例的言论,将长期隐蔽的“性别平等”议题推至公众视野。随着经济发展,相较传统的经济自给自足的年代,女性渐渐走出家庭,进入社会。但也因此,越来越多的女性被要求同时承担社会生产、家务劳动两个职能,形成新的“不友善”模式。身兼母职的职场女性,不仅对外要完成自己的工作,对内也承担了更多的养育责任。面对各执一词的社会争议,《文化纵横》联合南都观察,邀请到了中国农业大学社会学系潘璐副教授、界面新闻·正午故事记者淡豹,一起探讨“性别友善”议题。

 

2017NIAN10YUE22RIXIAWU,YOU《WENHUAZONGHENG》ZAZHI、NANDOUGUANCHAZHUBANDEWENHUAZONGHENGSHALONGZAIBEIJINGCOYARDJUBAN,CICISHALONGYAOQINGDAOZHONGGUONONGYEDAXUERENWENYUFAZHANXUEYUANFUJIAOSHOUPANLUHE“JIEMIANXINWEN·ZHENGWUGUSHI”JIZHEDANBAO,YI“RUHEGOUJIANYIGEXINGBIEYOUSHANDESHEHUI”WEITICHANSHUGEZIZAIYANJIU、RICHANGLINGYUZHONGDESUOSISUODE。XIANCHANGQIFENRELIE,CANYURENSHUZHONGDUO,BUJINYOU《WENHUAZONGHENG》DEZHONGSHIDUZHE,YEYOUGUANZHUSHEHUIXINGBIEYITIDEGEXINGYERENSHI。

 

潘璐:双重强制——“虚空”村庄中的留守妇女与家庭

ZHILIYUNONGCUNLIUSHOURENKOUYANJIUDEPANLULAOSHIRENWEI,“NONGCUNLIUSHOUFUNV”WENTISUIRANSHIYIGEXINGBIEYITI,DANZHEIYIWENTISHIYUQITAJIEGOUXINGYINSUXIANGHUJIAOZHIERTUXIANCHULAIDE,XINGBIEWENTISHIZHISHANGSHIFANYINGCHENGXIANGGUANXI、JIECENGGUANXI、GUOJIAFAZHANGUANXIDEYIHUAN。SUOYIZAITAOLUNLIUSHOUFUNVXIANXIANGZHIQIAN,XUYAOMINGQUEYIGEJIBENQIANTI,JIWENTIDECHUXIAN、LIEBIANJUNYUANZIDANGJINSHEHUIBUKENIDEXIANDAIHUAJINCHENG,SHICHENGSHIPIANXIANGDE、YIJIQUXIANGCUNZIYUANWEIJICHUDEXIANDAIHUAFAZHANCHANSHENGDEYIXILIESHENGCUNDAIJIA。YINCI,LIUDONGYULIUSHOUZHENGZAICHENGWEIDANGXIANONGCUNRENKOUDEPUBIANZHUANGTAI,BAOKUONONGCUNLIUSHOUFUNVZAINEIDENONGCUNRENKOUDOUYIBUTONGXINGSHIJINGLIZHELIUDONGHELIUSHOUCHAIFENXIADESHENGCUNKUNJING,CHENGDANZHEXIANDAIHUAFAZHANJINCHENGZHONGDESHEHUIDAIJIA。

侠客棋牌PANLULAOSHITICHUDE“SHUANGZHONGQIANGZHI”GAINIAN,JIYUANZIYISHANGFAZHANMOSHIJINONGCUNRENKOUSUODAILAIDEWUSHENGDESHANGPINHUAQIANGZHI——ZAISHENGHUODEDANGXIA,BUGUANSHINONGCUNRENKOUHAISHICHENGSHIRENKOU,WOMENDOUXUYAOGENGDUODEXIANJINSHOURULAIFUDANZINVJIAOYUZHICHU、JIATINGYILIAOZHICHUHERICHANGKAIXIAO。JUTIDAONONGCUNLIUSHOUFUNVQUNTI,TAMENHAISHENSHOULINGYIZHONGQIANGZHILILIANGDESHUFU,NEIJIUSHIZHANGQIDEFUQUANZHIHEXINGBIECHAYIXIADEXINGBIEPAICHI,ZHEIXIEYINSUCHENGWEIZHIYUENONGCUNFUNVLIUDONGDEYOUSHENGQIANGZHI,SHILIUSHOUFUNVCHUYUGENGJIAMAODUNDEJINGDI。SHANGPINHUADEWUSHENGQIANGZHIHECHUANTONGXINGBIEGUIFANXIADEYOUSHENGQIANGZHI,ZHENGSHI“SHUANGZHONGQIANGZHI”DENEIHAN。

WEILECHANSHIZHEIYILILUNNEIHAN,PANLULAOSHIJIEHEQITUANDUIZAIHENANDESHIDIYANJIU,JINYIBUFENXILEYINONGCUNLIUSHOUFUNVDEXIANZHUANG。SHOUXIAN,NONGCUNLIUSHOUFUNVSHIYIGEDUOYUANHUADEQUNTI,QINEIBUCUNZAIFEICHANGDADEYIZHIXING,ZAINIANLING、LIUSHOUYUANYIN、SHENGHUOZHUANGTAISHANGDOUBIAOXIANCHUGEZIDETEDIAN。YI30SUIZHI45SUIDEZHONGJIANLILIANGWEILI,SUIZHENONGCUNJIAOYUBUJUDIAOZHENGZHENGCEDETUIXINGHENONGCUNJIAOYUCHENGSHIHUAJINCHENGBUDUANJIAKUAI,XUDUONONGCUNXIAOXUEBEICAICHE,NONGCUNERTONGSHANGXUERIJIANYUANJUHUA,SUIJINCHENGQIUXUEDEZINV“PEIDU”CHENGWEIZHEIYINIANLINGDUANLIUSHOUFUNVTEYOUDEXINXIANXIANG。BUTONGNIANLINGDUANLIUSHOUFUNVDEGONGTONGXINGYISHIFENMINGXIAN,TAMENLIUZAINONGCUNDEZHONGYAOYUANYINJIUSHICHENGDANZHAOLIAOZEREN。CHUANTONGDEXINGBIEGUIFANJIANGZHAOLIAOZINV、ZHAOLIAOLAOREN、CHENGDANJIATINGZAISHENGCHANSHIWEINVXINGDETIANRANZEREN。DUIYUNONGCUNNVXINGLAISHUO,ZHEIYANGDEJIATINGZERENFENGONGSHIGUANCHUANQIYISHENGBINGJUEDINGTAMENSHIFOULIUSHOU、SHIFOULIUDONGDEZHONGYAOYUANYIN。DANGFUNVLIUSHOUZAIJIASHI,TAMENYAOZHICHENGQIZAIJIATINGSHENGCHANSHENGHUOGEGEFANGMIANDEFANZHONGFUDAN,XIANRANHUIMIANLINHENDUOKUNNAN,ZAOYUXUDUOKUNJING。

SHEHUIBIANQIANDAIJIJINRINONGCUNLIUSHOUFUNVDEBIANHUA,CHULEYITIDAODESHANGPINHUAYALIZHIWAI,PANLULAOSHIYEZHICHU,XIAOFEIZHUYIDESHEHUIWENHUAYEZAIJIFANONGCUNRENKOUDEWUZHIYUWANGBINGDAILAILEHUOBIYALI;NONGCUNNEIBUXUANSHUDEPINFUFENHUAJILIUSHOUZAIJIADENVXINGDAILAILEXINLIYALIHEXIANGDUIBODUOGAN。ZAIJUDADEYALIXIA,NONGCUNLIUSHOUFUNVQUNTIYICHANSHENGLE“ZISHENWUCHANHUA”DEXINQUSHI,TAMENDESHENGJICELVEYEYULAODONGLISHANGPINHUA、NONGCUNTUDILIUZHUAN、NONGYEMOSHIZHUANXINGDENGYIXILIEXIANXIANGJINMILIANXI,ZHIDEYINQIGUANZHU。

SUIRANCHENGDANZHESHENGCHANYUZHAOLIAODEZHONGREN,NONGCUNLIUSHOUFUNVDESHENTIJIANKANG、XINLIJIANKANGQUEZHANGQIDEBUDAOGUANZHU,TAMENZAIWEIJIATINGCHENGYUANTIGONGZHAOLIAODETONGSHIZISHENQUEMIANLIN“ZHAOLIAOCHIZI”DEKUNJING。ZAIHUNYINFANGMIAN,YUZHANGFUDEZHANGQIFENLIHESHENGHUOSHIJIEDECHAYIJILIUSHOUFUNVDEQINGGANYUHUNYINWEIXIDAILAITIAOZHAN。NVXINGDUIJIATINGDEFUCHUZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGNENGGOUGAISHANTAMENZAIJIATINGZHONGDEXINGBIEGUANXI、TIGAOTAMENZAIJIATINGSHIWUZHONGDEJUECEQUAN,DANWANGWANGYECHENGWEIGUHUAQIJIAOSEFENGONGDEZHONGYAOYINSU。

PANLULAOSHIZHONGSHEN,DANGWOMENTANDAOXINGBIESHI,BUYINGDANCHUNZHIGUANZHUNVXING,ERYINGGUANZHULIANGXINGZHIJIANDEGUANXI。“LIUSHOUZHANGFU”XIANXIANGSHISHISHANGYEFANYINGCHUNONGCUNXINGBIETUJINGDEGELI、SHIHENG——YINWAICHUWUGONGSHOUSHANG、HUANBINGERBEIPOLIUSHOU,CHENGWEICHENGSHIFAZHANYUJINGJIZENGZHANGSUOZHIZAOCHULAIDESHANGCANSHENGYURENKOU,ZAILIUSHOUDEGUOCHENGZHONGYOUZAICIWEIJIATINGCHENGYUANDELIUDONGSUOKUN。RANER,DUIYUNONGCUNLIUSHOURENKOU,DANGQIANDENONGCUNSHEQUYIWUFAWEIQITIGONGYOUXIAODESHEHUIZHICHI,ZAIRENKOUPUBIANWAICHUDEQINGKUANGXIA,XIRISHOUWANGXIANGZHUDENONGCUNSHEQUYIJINGZHUJIANLUNWEI“XUKONGDECUNZHUANGGONGTONGTI”。RENKOUDEKONGXINHUAWANGWANGSHICUNZHUANGGONGGONGSHIWUZUZHIHEGONGGONGWUPINDEGONGJIXIANRUTANHUAN,CHUANTONGWENHUAHELUNLIGUIFANDEZHIYUELIRIJIANRUOHUA,JIATINGHECUNZHUANGYIWUFAWEILIUSHOURENKOUFAHUI“ANQUANWANG”DEZHICHIZUOYONG。

侠客棋牌JIANYUYISHANGXIANZHUANG,PANLULAOSHITICHUJIDIANJIANYI。QIYI,YOURENKOULIUDONGHESHEHUIZHUANXINGSUODAILAIDELIUSHOURENKOUXIANXIANGYIWUFAZAINONGCUNJIATINGNEIBUDEDAOHUANJIE,JIJIDEGUOJIAGANYUHESHEHUIBAOHUYINGTISHANGRICHENG。QIER,DUILIUSHOURENKOUXIANXIANGDEJIEJUEBUYINGGAIBAOYOURENHEGONGJUHUA、JIANYUEHUADELINIAN,YINGJIAQIANGSHEHUICHANGDAODUIZHENGCESHISHIDEZUOYONG。

 

淡豹:工作与家庭不可兼得?育儿一定是女性的工作吗?——城市女性的性别困境

侠客棋牌DANBAOCONGJINNIANLAIMEIGUOGUANYUZHICHANGNVXINGDELIANGCHANGNVQUANZHUYITAOLUNTANQI。YOUGoogleFUZONGCAIXUELI·SANGDEBOGETICHU“Lean-in Feminism“,RENWEINVXINGYINGDANGZAIZHICHANGZHONGGANYUCHENGWEILINGXIU,SHIXIANZHIYEYEXIN“。DANBAORENWEI,ZHEIZHONGNVQUANZHUYIDEWENTIZAIYU,TAGUOYUJINGYINGHUA,ZHIYOULIYUNEIXIEYOUJINGJIDIWEI、SHEHUIDIWEIJIAOYUCHENGDUQUYUGUZHUTANPAN、NEIXIEYOUTEQUANQU”MENGXIANG“DENVXING。TASUOCHANGDAODEJIJIRENSHENGTAIDUYUMENGXIANGJITANGFANERDUIDICENGNVXINGHELAOGONGNVXINGGOUCHENGYAPO,BINGBUSHISUOYOURENDOUNENGTONGGUOFASHENG、BIAODA、XUANZE、TANPANHUODESHANGSHENGKONGJIAN,GONGCHANGLIUSHUIXIANHUOZHECANTINGYEKENENGGENBENJIUSHIRENNENGSHIJIANZHIYELIXIANGDEKONGJIAN。

LINGYICHANGTAOLUNFASHENGZAI2012NIAN。PULINSIDUNFAXUEJIAOSHOUAN-MALI·SILAOTEHUIGULEZIJIFANGQIBAIGONGZHIWEI,WEIPEIBANHAIZICHENGZHANG,ERJUEDINGFANHUIGONGZUOSHIJIANJIAOWEIZIYOUDEDAXUERENJIAODEXUANZE,TAZAI《DAXIYANGYUEKAN》ZHUANWEN,《WEISHENMENVXINGHAISHIBUNENGYONGYOUYIQIE?》。WENZHANGYINFALEGUANGFANSHEHUITAOLUN。QIZHONGDE“YIQIE”ZHIDESHIZHIYEYUJIATINGJIANGU。ZAISHANGSHIJIWULIUSHINIANDAI,ZOUCHUJIATINGJINRUZHICHANGSHINVQUANZHUYIXINKUFENDOUDEJIEGUO,SILAOTEZHIWEN,WEISHENMEBANGESHIJIGUOQULE,NVXINGRENGWEICISUOKUN?TAKANDAONIANQINGYIDAINVXINGJIANG“JIATINGYUSHIYEWUFAJIANGU”DANGZUOSHENGCUNDEJIDINGTIAOJIAN,DANGTAMENJIANGLIANGXINGJIHUIPINGDENGSHIWEILISUODANGRANSHI,TIYANDAODEJIUBUZAISHINVXINGZIJIZHENGQULAIDEXINXIANZIYOUDEQIYIFANGXIANG,ERSHILINGRENMANMANCUOBAIGANDEBOLITIANHUABAN,BUZAISHINVXINGYEKEYIYONGYOUZHIYEDEXIYUE,ERSHIPINGHENGSHIYEYUJIATINGDEKUNJING。SILAOTEXIWANGGONGSIDENGGUZHUNENGTUIXINGDANXINGGONGZUOZHIYUDANXINGGONGZUODIDIAN,RANGNVXINGNENGGENGHAODIJIANGUERZHE,BUSHIZHINENGXUANZEQIYI。

DANBAOZHICHU,DANYUERSUOYAOQIUDE“ZAICHANG”,QIAQIAYESHIJUEDADUOSHUXIANDAIGONGZUOLEIXINGDEYAOQIU。XIANDAIHUAYESHIGONGGONGYUSIRENQUFENKAILAI、GONGZUOYUJIATINGZAISHIJIAN、KONGJIAN、SHEHUIGUANXIDENGGEGELINGYUDOUZHUJIANGELIEDEGUOCHENG。RUJIN,DADUOSHURENDEGONGZUOXUYAOQUTEDINGDECHANGSUO,ANZHAOSHANGBANDESHIJIAN,ZAIJIGOUZHONGYUTARENHEZUO,SHIYONGYOUJIGOUTIGONGDEYIXILIEJISHUSHOUDUANCAINENGSHIXIAN。ZHIYOUJISHAOSHUZHIYE,CAINENGRANGRENXIANGYOUYIDINGGONGZUOSHIJIANHECHANGSUODEDANXING,YOUGONGZUOZHEZIJIZHANGKONGGONGZUOJIEZOU。

ANMALISILAOTEDEZHIWENYUSUOYINFADETAOLUNBEIHOUDEWENTISHI,DIYI,SHEIYOUQUANTANPANBINGNENGHUODEDANXINGGONGZUOZHIHEGONGZUODIDIAN?DIER,YIJINGYOUYANJIUZHENGMING,JIATINGZHONGWANGWANGSHIMUQINYIFANGXUANZEDANXINGGONGZUOZHI、JIANZHIGONGZUO,SHIJISHANGZHEIYINGXIANGNVXINGDESHIYEFAZHAN,YUERZERENYERENGJIUSHIXINGBIEBUJUNHENGDE。DISAN,GUANJIANZAIYU,RUHEPINGHENGGONGZUOYUJIATING,SHIYIGEJIHUJINJINDUINVXINGCAIHUICHUXIANDEWENTI。WEISHENMETANLEWUSHINIAN,ZHEIGEWENTIRENGRANCUNZAI?

LUOJIAOYUZHONGGUOXIANSHIWENTI,DANBAODEGUANQIEJIZHONGYUQUANMIANERTAIHUAHOUZHONGGUOJIATINGDEXINBIANHUAYUMIANDUIDEXINTIAOZHAN、“ZHAOLIAOLAODONG”DEXINGZHIYIJI“BAOMU”WENTI。DANBAOYINYONGRENKOUXUEJIADEYANJIU,ERTAIHUAZHENGCESHIXINGHOUYOUZANSHIDE“BUCHANGXINGSHENGYU”XIAOGAOFENG,ZHANGQIWEIBIHUIDAFUDUTIGAOSHENGYULV。BUGUO,GUOJIAYUSHEHUIWANGWANGSHICONGSHENGYUYUSHENGYULVJIAODUSIKAOERTAIWENTI,DANGENGYOUYIYIDESHI,ERTAIHUAZHENGCEKEYIJIANG“ZHAOGU”WENTIZHONGXINDAIHUIDAORENMENDESHIYEZHONG——YITAIXIA,“ZHAOGU”ZAISHISUGUANNIANHEZHONGGUOSHIJIANZHONGSHIGAODUXINGBIEHUADE,ERERTAITONGCHANGXUYAOFUMUSHUANGFANGDEGAODUCANYU,TASUOYINQIDEGUANYUERTONGZHAOGUZERENDEXINGBIEHUAFENGONGFANGMIANDETAOLUNHENYOUJIAZHI。ZHONGGUOMUQIANDEERTONGFULIZHENGCEYIJIATINGYUERWEIZHU,YONGSHICHANG、MINYINGHUAJIGOUTIANBU,ERTONGFULIWENTISHANG,ZHENGFUTUICHU,BINGJIYUTIZHINEIJIGOU(LIRUJIGUANYOUERYUAN)YIBUTIE,ZHEIDAILAILEJIEJI、CHENGXIANG、XINGBIEFANGMIANDEBUPINGDENGHOUGUO。WAILAIWUGONGRENYUAN、NONGCUNJUMIN、CHENGSHIDISHOURUJUMINNANYIZHAODAOKEFUDANDEYUERJIGOU。ZHIHOU,DANBAOTANDAO,CHENGSHIZHONGCHANJIEJIYIGUYONGBAOMUWEIZUIBIANJIEDEJIEJUEYUERWENTIDETUJING。JINNIANLAIBAOMUSHICHANGCHUXIANLE“CONGZHUJIADAOFEIZHUJIA”YIJINIANLING、DAIJIBIANHUA。BAOMUSHICHANGDEZHUANYEHUAYUFUWUJIAGESHANGZHANGHUOXUNENGGOUBANGZHURENMENZHONGXINYISHIDAOZHUFU、QIZI、MUQINLAODONGDEJIAZHI。DANBAOYINRULE“QINGDONGLAODONG”DEGAINIAN,RENWEI“ZHAOLIAOLAODONG”SHIYIZHONGYIHEXINXINGDEFANGSHIJIFAHESHEJIQINGGANDELAODONG,ZHAOGULAOREN、BINGREN、YUERDOUYOUQITESHUXING,XUYAOZHONGXINKAOLVZHAOLIAOLAODONGWAIBAOZHONGSHEJIDEQINGGANJIAZHIHEQINGGANGUANLIANWENTI,BUNENGJIANGQIJINJINSHIWEIYIZHONGPUTONGDEJIAWUWAIBAO,KEYISUISHIJIESHU,YIJINGJIBUCHANGJIKE。

ZUIHOU,DANBAOTIWEN,XINDEYUERZHISHIFENGCHAOQIANGDIAOJINLIANGZHANGQI、CHONGFENDE”MURUWEIYANG“,QIANGDIAO”PEIBAN“,QIANGDIAOYINGYOUERYILIANDUIXIANGDEDUYIXING。ZHEISHIFOUJIANGDAILAIXINDEBUPINGDENGHOUGUO,RANGNVXINGGENGDUOFUDANYUERZEREN,TUICHUZHIYELINGYU?“PEIBAN”NENGLIBEIHOU,SHIFOUYEYOUJIEJICHAYI?

侠客棋牌HUODONGXINGZHIWEISHENG,LIANGWEIJIABINFENBIEJIUTIWENZHEGUANYUZHONGZHENNONGCUNSHEQU、CHENGSHIHUAYUNONGCUNFAZHAN、XINGBIEPINGDENG、ZHICHANGNVXINGYUFUZHI、XINGBIEJIAOYUDENGWENTIJINXINGJIEDABINGZHANKAIJIAOLIU,JINYIBUSHENHUALEBENCISHALONGNEIRONG。

ZAICIYEGANXIEDAOCHANGTINGZHONGMENDEZHICHI,BAOZHENGLEHUODONGDEYUANMANJINXING。


侠客棋牌BENWENGUANDIANBUDAIBIAOJIGOULICHANG。GENGXIANGXIDEHUODONGBAODAO,QINGGUANZHU“WENHUAZONGHENG”GONGZHONGHAO(id:whzh_21bcr)YIJI“NANDOUGUANCHA”GONGZHONGHAO(id:nandugongyiguancha)DEHOUXUBAODAO。