HULING

引子

DANGWOMENTANLUNRENGONGZHINENG(Artificial Intelligence,AI)SHI,HENDACHENGDUSHANGSHOUDAOYUANZI20SHIJIXIANGXIANGDEYINGXIANG,LIRU,ZHIJIEBARENGONGZHINENGHEJIQIRENLIANXIQILAI,SHENZHISHIRENXINGJIQIREN。 ZHEIKENENGYEHUIYINGXIANGFALVRENDUIRENGONGZHINENGDEXIANGXIANG,BAOKUOSHIFOUCHENGRENRENGONGZHINENGZUOWEIJUYOUZIWOYISHIDEFALVZHUTIDIWEI(HUOZHISHAOSHIRENLEIXINGWEIDEDAILIREN),CONGERBAOHUQITEDINGQUANLI(YANLUNZIYOU、ZHUZUOQUAN)、HUADINGZEREN(DIYUE、QINQUAN),SHENZHIQIANGDIAOKENENGDEHUIMIEXINGFENGXIAN。 ZHEIZHONGXIANGXIANGYUANFEISHOUDAOKEHUANZUOPINYINGXIANGNEIYANGJIANDAN,SHENCENGCIZHONGHAIFANYINGCHURENGONGZHINENGZAIJISHUHEYINGYONGSHANGBUTONGDEFAZHANLUJING: ZAOQIRENGONGZHINENGYANJIUGENGJIZHONGYUDUIRENNAODEFANGZHENMONI,TANJIUYISHI、LIXINGDENGGENGWEIHONGDADEZHEXUEWENTI,DANYINGYONGXINGJIAOSHAO; DANGXIADERENGONGZHINENGZOUCHULESHIYANSHI,JIEZHUHULIANWANGFUWUZHIJIEYINGXIANGDAOPUTONGRENDESHENGHUO,ZAIJISHUSHANGBINGBUZHIZHEYUCHUANGZAOYIGEWANMEIDEZHINENGTI,ERSHIYIKAOSUANFA(RUJIQIXUEXIHESHENJINGWANGLUO)BUDUANYOUHUA,DUIHAILIANGSHUJUZIDONGWAJUEYUYUCE,TONGGUOWUSUOBUZAIDECHUANGANQISHISHIGENGXINSHUJU,DONGTAIZHANGKONGZHERENLEISHEHUIGEGEFANGMIANDEYUNZHUAN,BINGBACONGMOUGETEDINGLINGYUSHENGJIWEITONGYONGRENGONGZHINENGZUOWEIMUBIAO。 CONGZHEIGEYIYISHANGSHUO,RENGONGZHINENGBINGBUSHENMI,TACHUXIANZAIRICHANGSHENGHUOZHONG,BUJINSHIGONGYESHEHUISHENGCHANZIDONGHUADEYANXU,YESHIHULIANWANGSHANGYEHUADEBIRANJIEGUOHEXINJIEDUAN。 SHIZHIJINRI,OUMEIGUOJIAFENFENCHUTAIZHENGCE,TUIDONGRENGONGZHINENGFAZHAN,LIQIUTISHENGJINGJIXIAOLVHEJINGZHENGLI。

侠客棋牌RUGUOWOMENBAITUOJIANDANDENIRENSIWEI,BARENGONGZHINENGKANZUOHULIANWANGZHINENGYANJINDEXINJIEDUAN,WEILIJIEQIFALVGUIZE,JIUYOUBIYAOLIJIEHULIANWANGFALVZAIGUOQU20NIANZHONGXINGCHENGDELUJINGHETUIDONGLI,CONGERTANTAORENGONGZHINENGSHIFOUYOURENHETESHUXINGYIZHIYUXUYAOXINDEGUIZE。BENWENJIANGCONGWANGLUOFADELIANGGESHIJIAO——SHIZHENGXINGHESHENGCHANXING——QIERU,JIANGTAMENYANSHENZHIRENGONGZHINENGYUJINGXIAFENBIETAOLUN。“SHIZHENGXING”SHIJIAOSHIWOMENGUANCHAHEYINGYONGRENHEGUIZEDEGUANCHANGSIWEIFANGSHI,LIRURENGONGZHINENGXINGWEIDEJUTIGUIZERUHEQUELI、RUHEGUIZHIDENG,BENWENJIANGTAOLUNZHICHENGRENGONGZHINENGDELIANGGEGOUCHENGXINGYAOSU——SUANFAYUSHUJU——KENENGDAILAIDEFALVWENTI,YIJIFALVRENCHULIRENGONGZHINENGDELIANGZHONGLUJING; “SHENGCHANXING”SHIJIAOZESHENRUGUIZEBEIHOU,TANSUOGUIZEXINGCHENGDEZHENGZHIJINGJIYINSU,TEBIESHIJINGJISHENGCHANFANGSHIDENEIZAIYAOQIU。RENGONGZHINENGBENZHISHANGSHIYITAOFUZADEDAIMASHEJI,JISHIYINGXIANGSHEHUIXINGWEIDEQIANGLIGUIFAN,YESHICHANSHENGXINJIAZHIDESHENGCHANJIZHI; TAQUDONGZHENGGESHEHUICHAOXIANGGENGZHINENGDEFANGXIANGBIANHUA,CONGERYAOQIUFALVZUOCHUXIANGYINGDIAOZHENG,YOUQISHIQUERENXINXINGJINGJILIYIDEHEFAXING。

XIANYUPIANFU,BENWENGUQIEJIANGRENGONGZHINENGKANCHENGFALVSHANGDEKETI,ZANBUTAOLUNSAIBOGE(cyborg)ZHILEIDERENTIZHUANXIANGJIXIETIHUOTONGGUOJIYINJISHUGAIBIANSHENTIDEWENTI(RENGSHIFALVSHANGDEREN),YEBUTAOLUNRENGONGZHINENGZUOWEIYIZHONGRENZAOWUDEZIWOYISHIWENTI(YIGENANYIDACHENGGONGSHIDEZHEXUEWENTI)。

理解网络法的变迁

WANGLUOFAZAIZHONGGUODEBIANQIANDAZHIZUNXUNLIANGLEILUOJI:WAISHENGXINGDEZHENGZHI/JIANGUANLUOJIHENEISHENGXINGDESHANGYELUOJI。 ZHENGZHI/JIANGUANLUOJITIXIANWEIDUI“SHIZHENGXINGGUIZE”DEZHUIQIU,ZHEIXIEGUIZEJIZHONGZAIGUOJIA(BAOKUOFAYUANHEJIANGUANJIGOU)RUHEDUIHULIANWANGDENEIRONGHEXINGWEIJINXINGGUIZHI,BAOKUODUIWANGLUOZHUQUANHEXINXIANQUANDEZHUIXUN。ZHEIJIZHONGFANYINGLEGUOJIAQUANLIRUHESHITUJIERUXINJISHUDAILAIDEWENTIYUTIAOZHAN。 ZHEIYISHIJIAOZUIZAOYOUMEIGUOFAXUEJIEYINCHU,TEBIESHILawrence LessigDEDAIMALILUNJIANGDAIMA(JIAGOU)HEFALVBINGLIE。 YOUCI,SUOWEIDEWANGLUOFABUJINYAOYUESHUSHEHUIZHUTIZAIWANGLUOKONGJIANZHONGDEXINGWEI,YEYAODUIJIAGOUDEBIANHUABENSHENZUOCHUHUIYING。

侠客棋牌SHOUXIAN,JIUGUIZHIZHUTIXINGWEIERYAN,CHUXIANLESHIFOUANZHAOCHUANTONGXIANXIAXINGWEIGUIZEDESILUYUESHUXIANSHANGXINGWEIDETAOLUN。ZHEIYITAOLUNDEHEXINSHI,HULIANWANGWENTISHIFOUJUYOURENHETESHUXING,XUYAOMOUXIEXINGUILAIJIEJUE。 WOMENYIJINGKANDAO,ZHONGGUODEHULIANWANGXINGWEIJIANGUANZAIHENDACHENGDUSHANGYANXULECHUANTONGGUIZEHEGUANLIFANGSHI,CAIQUJIANJINDEFANGSHI,ZHEIBUJINCHENGBENJIAOXIAO,YEJIYUJIANGUANZHEYIDINGDEXUEXIHETANSUOKONGJIAN。QICI,JIUJIAGOUBIANHUABENSHENERYAN,GUOJIAZAIHONGGUANSHANGZHUZHANGWANGLUOKONGJIANZHONGRENGRANXUYAOZHUQUAN,BUNENGCHENGWEIFAWAIZHIDI,ZAIWEIGUANSHANGXIANGYINGCHUXIANLEGUOJIAYUPINGTAIQUANLI/ZERENERFENDETAOLUN。LIRU,ZHENGFUQUANLIHESHIXUYAOJIERUPINGTAIZHILI,JIAQIANGPINGTAIDEXINGZHENGGUANLIZERENHUOANQUANBAOZHANGZEREN,HAISHIYOUHOUZHEGENJUZISHENQINGKUANGZIWOGUIZHI,SHIXIANZHILIMUBIAO。ZHENGZHI/JIANGUANLUOJIYAOMEZUNXUNGUANLIZHEDELUJINGYILAIXIAOYING,YAOMEJIANCHIJIYOUSHEHUIWENDING、YISHIXINGTAIANQUANJIAZHI。WENTIZAIYU,JIANGUANZHEZAIDUODACHENGDUSHANGNENGGOURENSHIDAODAIMAJIQISHANGYEMOSHIDETESHUXING,CONGERSHIJIANGUANXINGWEIHEXINGYETEXINGXIANGHUXIEDIAORONGHE。

侠客棋牌LINGYIZHONGKANDAIGUIZECHANSHENGDEFANGSHIZUNXUNSHANGYELUOJI。ZHEIZHONGSHENGCHANXINGSHIJIAOGUANZHUWEIGUANQUANLIYUNZUO,ZONGHEJIANGDAIMA、FALVYUSHEHUIGUIFANFANGZAIYIQI,BUDANCHUNCONGSHEHUIXUEYIYISHANGGUANCHASHEHUIZHUTIXINGWEIRUHESHOUDAOYINGXIANG,ERSHIZAIZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEYIYISHANGJIANGWANGLUOKONGJIANDESHENGCHENGHEKUOSANKANCHENGSHIYIGEYOUSHANGYELILIANGTUIDONGZHUDAODESHENGCHANXINGGUOCHENG,GUANZHUJIAZHIYOUSHEICHANSHENG、RUHEFENPEI,YOUCITUIDONGDUIXINGUIZEDENEISHENGXUQIU。ANZHAOZHEIYISHIJIAO,WULUNSHIFALVHAISHIJIAGOU,ZAIJUYOUSHIZHENGXINGGUIZHIGONGNENGDETONGSHI,YESHIYIZHONG“SHENGCHANXINGGUIZE”。HULIANWANGDESHENGCHANMOSHIJUEDINGLEQIDUISHEHUIFANWEINEISHENGCHANZILIAODECHUANGZAOXINGSHENGCHANHEZAILIYONG,XUYAOFALVQUERENQISHENGCHANFANGSHIDEHEFAXING,ZHONGSUGUANJIANFALVZHIDU,BINGJIEJUEHECHUANTONGSHENGCHANMOSHIDELIYICHONGTU。 ZHEIYISHIJIAOWUYIBANGZHULIQINGXINJINGJIZHUZHANGDELIWAITEXING,BUJINZHANSHICHUJIAGOUHEXIANGYINGDEFALVGAIBIAN,GENGZHIMINGLEBEIHOUDEZHENGZHIJINGJIYUANYIN,SHIGENGHAODILIJIESHIZHENGXINGGUIZEDEJICHU。

侠客棋牌LIANGLEIBUTONGDELUOJIZAIGUOQU20NIANZHONGJIAOTICHUXIAN,XIANGHUZHIYUE,GONGTONGSUZAOLEZHONGGUOWANGLUOFATIXI,YETUIDONGLEZHONGGUOHULIANWANGDEZHENGTIFAZHAN。 ZONGTIERYAN,JIANYUGUOJIAYOUYICUJINXINJINGJI,XUYAOTUIDONGCHUANTONGDESHUDIHUA、FENKOUZHILI,SHIHOUYUNDONGZHILIMOSHIFASHENGZHUANBIAN,RENQINGHULIANWANGSHANGYEMOSHIHEJIAZHICHANSHENGDEGENYUAN,YOULITANSUOSHIYINGXINJINGJIXINGZHIDEGUANLITIZHI。CONGZHEIGEYIYISHANGSHUO,XINXIZIBENZHUYIBUDUANYAOQIUDUIFALVNEIHEJINXINGGAIZAO,QUDAIQIZHONGDECHUANTONGJINGJIYAOSU,DAPOXIANZHISHENGCHANYAOSUZIYOULIUTONGDEGELEIGUIZE。

人工智能法律的实证性视角

RUQIANSUOSHU,RENGONGZHINENGDEBENZHIZAIYUSUANFAHESHUJUCHULI,WULIXINGTIBUBIRANSHIRENGONGZHINENGDEGOUCHENGYAOSU,YINWEIJISHISHIRENXINGJIQIREN,YEBUGUOSHIYIGESUANFAZHUDAODEYINGJIANXITONG,TASHISHISHOUJIXINXI,BINGANZHAOSUANFADEYAOQIUZUOCHUJUEDING,JIERXINGDONG。GENGZHONGYAODESHI,JUYOUWULIXINGTIDERENGONGZHINENGKEYITUIDONGQUNTIZHINENGFAZHAN,TONGGUOFENBUSHIZHONGDUANSHOUJIGENGDUOSHUJUJIAYICHULI,BINGBUDUANCHUANSHUZHIYUNDUAN“DANAO”,TISHENGZHENGTIWANGLUODEZHINENGSHUIPING。

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侠客棋牌YIGELEISIDEBIJIAOSHIRENLEIZISHEN:RENNAOJINGGUOSHANGBAIWANNIANDEJINHUA,YANBIANCHENGSHIFENFUZAJINGZHIDEXITONG。JINGUANDANGDAISHENJINGKEXUEBUDUANGAIBIANWOMENDUIRENNAODERENZHI,SHENZHIMEIGERENDEDANAODOUBUWANQUANYIYANG,DANJIUFALVERYANYIYIBUDA,ZHEIZHINENGZAIBIANJISHANGGAIBIANGEANPANJUE。JISHIWUCONGLEJIERENNAODEYUNZHUANJIZHI,HUOZHEYIJUMOUZHONGGENGJIAXIANJINDEKEXUEZHISHIJIESHISHEHUIZHUTIXINGDONGDEJUTILIYOU,RENLEIHAISHIYOUNENGLIXINGCHENGSHEHUIGUIFAN,BINGYANJINCHENGGENGJIALIXINGHUADEGUIZE。ZHEITAOGUIZEZHIXUYAOJIADINGYIBANSHEHUIZHUTISHI(SHOUXIAN)LIXINGDE,YOUSHAOSHUGAINIANJIEDINGBUTONGQINGXINGDEXINLIZHUANGTAI(GUYI、GUOSHI),BINGJIZHONGDUIRENDEWAIZAIXINGWEIJINXINGYUESHU,QUEDINGQUANLIYUYIWU,JIUZUYIYIJIANDANGUIZEYINGDUI(ERFEIRENSHI)ZHEIYIFENFANFUZADESHIJIE。LEISIDI,ZAICHULISUANFADEFUWAIBUXINGSHI,YEKEYIYOULIANGZHONGBUTONGDELUJING:(1)GUANZHUSUANFADEWAIBUXINGWEIYUHOUGUO,(2)GUANZHUSUANFANEIBUDESHEJIGUIZE。

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人工智能的生产性视角

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结语

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侠客棋牌(ZUOZHEDANWEI:SHANGHAICAIJINGDAXUEFAXUEYUAN)

 

注释:

[1]当下的大众媒体、文化产品和社会公共认知正努力将未来的人工智能 塑造成具有独立意识的逐渐演化的主体,这集中体现在诸如《终结者》《我,机器人》《西部世界》《2001银河漫游》这类科幻影视作品中。尽管人们也有理由进一步想象,一旦人工智能具有了自我意识,就不再可能忠实地为人类服务,而更可能对人类生存构成威胁。其路径和思维方式仍是20世纪的,和21世纪依托大数据机器学习迥然不同。事实上,按照日本学者森政弘提出的“恐怖谷理论”,人工智能不太可能在短时间内人形普及化,因为这会在消费者心理上引发不安甚至恐惧。像Siri和Cornata这样的语音助手、像Tay和小冰这样的聊天机器人则不会有这种负面效果,因为用户知道自己在和一个尚未通过图灵测试的算法对话,他们甚至乐于教Tay在推特上辱骂用户、发表种族主义和煽动性的政治言论。另一个可能影响中文世界读者想象的因素是,把robot翻译成“机器人”先验地赋予了这类客体某种拟人化主体地位,而人形机器人(android)却没有引起更多的关注。

[2]John Weaver, Robots are People Too: How Siri, Google Car, and Artificial Intelligence Will Force Us to Change Our Laws ,Praeger Publishers Inc, 2013; Ugo Pagallo, The Laws of Robots: Crimes, Contracts, and Torts ,Springer, 2015.一个更加有用的综合文集是Ryan Calo, A. Michael Froomkin and Ian Kerr (ed.), Robot Law ,Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016。Ryan Calo的研究将具有物理形体的机器人作为法律的对象,特别区分了信息性和物理性效果,见Ryan Calo, “Robotics and the Lessons of Cyberlaw”, Calif. L. Rev., Vol.103(2015).一个不同观点,见Jack Balkin, “The Path of Robotics Law”, Calif. L. Rev., No.6(2015),Circuit 45.把机器人视为代理人在法律上也有相当的历史,见Samir Chopra and Laurence F. White, A Legal Theory for Autonomous Artificial Agents ,The University of Michigan Press, 2011; Ryan Calo, “Robots in American Law”, University of Washington School of Law Research Paper, No. 2016-04.

[3]吴军:《智能时代》,中信出版社2016年版。

[4]例如阿西莫夫的机器人系列小说中,无一例外地设定机器人拥有一个“正子脑”(positronic br人工智能 n),但却没有给出任何解释。见阿西莫夫:《机器人短篇全集》,江苏文艺出版社2014年版。

[5]这被称为终极算法(master algorithm),见佩德罗·多明戈斯:《终极算法:机器学习和人工智能如何重塑世界》,中信出版社2016年版。

[6]尼古拉斯·卡尔:《玻璃笼子:自动化时代和我们的未来》,中信出版社2015年版。在互联网发展的每一个阶段都有某种意识形态化的术语或热词吸引投资,例如宽带、大数据、分享经济、VR(虚拟现实)等,它们不过是互联网形态的各类变种。例如,一个关于分享经济和之前互联网经济的关联,参见胡凌:《分享经济的法律规制》,载《文化纵横》2015年第4期。

[7]这种思维方式可追溯到霍布斯以来的法律实证主义。

[8]胡凌:《代码、著作权保护与公共资源池》,载《腾云》2016年12月刊。

[9]关于两类逻辑的具体表现,集中参见胡凌:《探寻网络法的政治经济起源》,上海财经大学出版社2016年版。

[10]这在众多(特别是国外的)中国互联网观察者身上十分常见,人们的注意力全都转向中国政府如何严格管理和控制互联网。在政治学研究中自然而然地并入“国家与市民社会”传统框架,并吸纳了关于在线抗争、集体行动的传播学与社会学研究。

[11]劳伦斯·莱斯格:《代码2.0》,清华大学出版社2008年版。

[12]一个概述,见胡凌:《马的法律与网络法》,载张平主编:《网络法律评论》2010年第11卷。

[13]胡凌:《非法兴起:理解中国互联网演进的一个框架》,载《文化纵横》2016年第5期。这体现在版权、隐私、财产、不正当竞争、垄断、劳动法等一系列制度中。这种对法律制度的改变不单纯是在既有工业生产背景下微型创新带来的变化,而是社会生产的重塑。

[14]比如说,平台责任议题的出现,和互联网平台更多转向由第三方提供服务的信息中介模式直接相关。

[15]这一区分和观察中国式资本主义兴起的框架十分类似,政治经济学家们争论的焦点就在于如何解释中国改革开放三十年的成功经验,究竟是政府主导还是市场主导,但实质上是一个混合制经济。

[16]由于科斯所说的企业信息成本和管理成本降低,调动生产要素的边际成本趋近于零,企业组织形态本身将成为竞争的高成本。

[17]尼克·波斯特洛姆:《超级智能:路线图、危险性与应对策略》,中信出版社2015年版。

[18]古代的政治过程、现代的企业决策都是黑箱,对外人而言如果不是神秘,也是除魅之后的国家/商业秘密。卡夫卡的小说《审判》就精确描述了作为黑箱的诉讼过程,同一时代的韦伯也描述了理性化的国家机器应当像自动售货机一样。

[19]Frank Pasquale:《黑箱社会:掌控信息和金钱的数据法则》,中信出版社2015年版。

[20]帕伯斯:《差错:软件错误的致命影响》,人民邮电出版社2012年版。

[21]长久以来民用航空器已经由软件深度介入驾驶过程,以至于人类驾驶员无法在短时间内预热,形成另一种风险。

[22]阿西莫夫提出的“机器人三定律”(后来扩展至四点)虽然十分基础,但仍然很难在具体情况下起作用,特别是当代伦理学上著名的“线车难题”之类的伦理困境。考虑到这些定律是为模拟人脑状态下设计的,就更可疑;因为人脑并不总是按某些理性伦理原则行事的,在某些关键场合强烈依靠某些默认设置——直觉。

[23]由监管机构强制披露并审查事实做不到,只能依靠像苹果这样的平台公司和软件分发平台帮助对成千上万个软件进行至少是安全审查。在台式机时代,这一平台责任几乎不可能,自然状态下的windows只能导致争夺私人控制权的3Q大战。但像乌云网这样的第三方白帽黑客也被禁止探测和公开发布互联网公司的漏洞。

[24]同注11。

[25]在笔者看来,法院应当将注意力放在知情同意的合同条款本身的适当性上,而不是一味接受黑箱的逻辑,因为后者确实无懈可击。如果格式合同能准确反映代码的设计,对其条款的审查是更好的选择。百度引发的被遗忘权第一案反映的也是这个问题。

[26]一个补救方法还是尽可能地披露算法信息,允许用户理性地生产/隐瞒个人信息,见戴昕:《自愿披露隐私的规制》,载苏力主编:《法律和社会科学》第15卷第1辑,法律出版社2016年版。

[27]法律的人工智能化是本文另一个没有讨论的问题,与此相关的是大规模监控、智能警务、犯罪预测等问题。

[28]美国诸多大型新闻机构都广泛应用人工智能 进行新闻撰写和分发,而像ROSS系统这样的法律人工智能已经遭到美国律师协会的多起诉讼,理由是提供法律服务缺乏资质和不正当竞争。

[29]Maurice Stucke and Allen Grunes, Big Data and Competition Policy ,Oxford University Press, 2016; Ariel Ezrachi and Maurice E. Stucke, Virtual Competition: The Promise and Perils of the Algorithm-Driven Economy ,Harvard University Press, 2016.