[导读]2018年7月7日下午,文化纵横“一期一会”主题沙龙在北京新华书店总店举办,本次活动由《文化纵横》杂志社、南都公益基金会《南都观察》主办,新华书店总店-新华互联电子商务有限责任公司协办和支持。沙龙主讲人华东师范大学传媒学院副教授、《创造101》总编剧顾问吴畅畅,以“101世代:偶像养成与粉丝经济的再度崛起”为题,对当前中国真人秀文娱节目制作、偶像养成以及粉丝经济等现象进行解读。本次活动参与人数众多,仅预报名人数即超280人次,现场气氛热烈,不仅有《文化纵横》的忠实读者,也有关注中国文化产业与媒体行业的各行业人士。本文为吴畅畅老师的演讲纪要。特此编发,以飨读者。 

 

竞技类真人秀节目的演化史

ZAICHENGWEIDAZHONGSHUZHIDE“《CHUANGZAO101》ZONGBIANJUGUWEN”YIQIAN,WUCHANGCHANGLAOSHIYISHENGENGZHONGGUOGUANGDIANYANJIU12NIAN,ZAIQIKANLAI,DANGQIANGEZHONGFENSIWENHUADEJUEQI、FENSIJINGJI,BIXUFANGZHIZAIZHANGDASHUSHINIANDEXUANXIUJIEMUDEYANJINSHIZHIZHONGJINXINGLISHIXINGDEKAOCHA。CONG2005NIAN《CHAOJINVSHENG》DAODANGQIANWANGZONG“XUANXIU/ZHENRENXIUSHIDAI”,WULAOSHIRENWEIZHONGGUODEXUANXIUJIEMUYIZHICUNZAILIANGGECENGMIAN:YIGESHIYINGRANCENGMIAN,YIGESHISHIRANCENGMIAN。QIANZHEZAIJIN20NIANLAIZHONGGUOSHENGJIWEISHISHICHANGHUA、SHANGYEHUALANGCHAODEGUOXIEXIA,CHENGXIANCHUSHICHANGHUAYUXINGZHENGLUOJIDECUOWEI。LIRU《CHAONV》DECHENGGONG,SHIDEMEIYIGESHENGJIWEISHIDOUKAISHIYOUYISHIDIXUNZHAOGEZIZAIQUANGUOSHICHANGZHONGDEWEIZHI,JIERYINFALEDUIGAOSHOUSHI、NENGGOUYINFAQUANSHEHUITAOLUNDE“XIANXIANGJIJIEMU”DEZHUIZHU。FENGXING“JINGZHENGDEQIANGZHIGUILV”DEDIANSHISHICHANGHUAGAIGEZHEZHUANBIANWEIZIBENJILEIDEWUGUILVYUFEILIXINGDEZHIXINGZHE——YIGEXINDEJIEMUMOSHICHUXIANHOU,TONGLEIXING、TONGZHIHUAJINGZHENGDEJIEMUSUIZHIFENGYONGERSHANG。

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作为利润增长点的信息娱乐行业

WANGLUOZONGYIJINNIANLAIJIJULEDALIANGDEFENGTOUHEZIBEN,WUCHANGCHANGLAOSHIJIEHEDIAOYANJINGLI,ZHICHUZAIWANGZONGJIEMUYUHUNAN、ZHEJIANG、DONGFANG、JIANGSUDENGDIYITIDUIWEISHIDEZHONGYAXIA,BUSHAOQUEFAZUGOUSHENGCHANCHENGBENDESHENGJIWEISHI,SHUNYINGDINGCENGSHEJI,FANQIDAOERXINGZHI,JIANGZIYUANTOURUYUWENHUACHUANGXINLEI、JINGJILEI、FUPINLEIYUGONGYILEIDENGSIDALEIXINGJIEMU。BUSHAOSHENGJIWEISHIDEXIANGGUANJIEMUXIANJIAOHAO,SHOUHUODINGCENGDEGUANZHUYUXUANCHUAN,SUIHOUHUODEGUANGGAOTOUFANG,ZHEISUANSHIDUICIQIANDIANSHISHICHANGHUALUOJIDEYICIFANXIANGXINGDONG。

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YUCHUANTONGWEISHIJIEMUXIANGBI,SHIPINWANGZHANDEJIEMUSHENGCHANGENGWEICHUNCUIZHIJIEDIFENGXINGCHANPINSIWEIHESHICHANGLUOJI。WUCHANGCHANGLAOSHIYEJUCIGAIKUOCHUZHONGGUOWANGLUOZONGYIZAIGUOQUJINIANJIANSUOCHENGXIANDEJIDAXIANXIANG:QIYI,WANGZONGFANBU,JIDIANSHITAIJIEMUFANGZAISHIPINWANGZHANSHANGBOFANG,HUOTONGGUOWANGLUOZHIBOHOUZAIYOUWEISHIPINDAOBOFANGSHANJIANBAN。QIER,WANGLUOZONGYISHOUDAOGUANZHUDEJIABIN,HUOBEI“MINGRENHUA”DEXUANSHOU,KAISHIPINPINDENGSHANGGUONEISHENGJIWEISHIDEZONGYIJIEMU,HENDACHENGDUSHANGYINGXIANGLEGUONEISHENGJIWEISHIZONGYIJIEMUDENEIRONGSHENGCHANYUJIAZHISHIXIAN;QISAN,CHUANTONGGUANGDIANXINGYELIYIZHIZHENGYIBUDUANDEZHIBOFENLIMOSHI,SHIPINWANGZHANZAIJINJINIANJIAN,JIEZHUFENFENCHUHAIDEGUANGDIANRENDELILIANG,JIANGZHIYUNYONGDEFENGSHENGSHUIQI。QISI,CHUIZHIXIFENSHICHANGDEKAIFAHELIYONG。WANGLUOZONGYIJIEMUBUZAIZHUIQIUDAZHONGHUA,ERSHIZHUANZHUYUTEDINGQUNTIJIXIAOZHONGLEISHICHANGDESHENGENGXIZUO,HULIANWANGJINGJIZHONG“ZHANGWEIXIAOYING”DESHENHUA,ZAIWANGZONGXUANXIUHUOZHENRENXIUJIEMUJINJINIANDESHENGCHANZHONGBEIZHELIFANGDAYUYINGYONG。

JIUCI,WUCHANGCHANGLAOSHIJIANG2018NIANDINGWEIWEI“CHUIZHIXIFENLEISHICHANGJIEMUYUANNIAN”,ERCUFAZHEIYISHICHANGBIANHUADEQIANTI,BAOKUOSANDIANSHEHUISHISHI:DIYI,QINGNIANDAIJIDEMEITISUYANGYUMAIMAIYUANZE;DIER,ZUOWEIYIZHONGZIWOGUIXUNDEXINZIYOUZHUYI,JISUOWEIDESHIZHESHENGCUN、YOUSHENGLIETAIDEZIWORENTONG;DISAN,QINGNIANWENHUABULUOHUAHEBIHEXINGSHENGZHANGDESHEHUIXIANSHI。

 

粉丝经济与青年文化的部落化

侠客棋牌ZAIZHONGGUO,“FENSIJINGJI”SIHUSHIYIGELAOSHENGCHANGTANDEWENTI。XIANGJIAOYUXIANXIAJIAOWEIREYIDEYINGXIAOSHIJIAO,WUCHANGCHANGLAOSHIZHUYIDAO,ZONGYIJIEMUDECHAYIHUAJINGZHENGMOSHI,KEGUANSHANGJIANGXIFANGOUXIANGWENHUACHANYEFAZHANXINGTAIFENJIEDUANDIYINRUGUONEI,CUISHENGLEFENSISHICHANGDEKUAISUCHENGSHU,FANGUOLAISHIXIANGGUANCHANYEBUDEBUYINXUNWANSHAN。

XIANGYINGDE,FENSIJINGJIYECHANSHENGLEJIDIANXINBIAN:SHOUXIAN,SHOUZHONGYOUDANCHUNDEXIAOFEIZHEZHUANBIANWEISHENJIANSHENGCHANZHEHEXIAOFEIZHELIANGZHONGJIAOSE。JIEYONGHENGLI▪ZHANJINSI“WENBENDAOLIEZHE”DEGAINIAN,GUOQUFENSIJINGJIXINGCHENGGUOCHENGZHONG,FENSIWUFAZHIJIECANYUWENBEN、CHANPINDESHENGCHANGUOCHENG,DANYANGCHENGLEIJIEMUWEIFENSITIGONGLEZHIJIEJIERUCHANPINWANSHANYUCHENGZHANGLIUCHENGDEJIHUI,SHIQICONG“DAOLIEZHE”ZHUANBIANWEI“KANSHOUZHE”DEZITAI,YEFANYINGCHUFENSIYUOUXIANGLILIANGGUANXIDEGAIBIAN。BIXUZHICHU,FENSIDUIOUXIANGDEYANGCHENG,BUJINYONGYOUBIAOMIANSHANGDEZHANGKONGQUAN,GENGZHONGYAODESHI,TABANGZHUFENSIZAIYIGEGONGSHIXINGDEJINCHENGZHONGCHANSHENGDUIOUXIANGDEQINGGANYIFU,ZHEIZHONGZHUGUANDEPINGGUYUTIYANSUODAOZHIDEFENSIDUIOUXIANGDE“SHIYONGJIAZHI”JIJUSIRENHUAYUGEXINGHUADERENZHINAIZHIHUANXIANG,CAIHUIZHIZAOBINGQIANGHUATAMENDE“WENHUAKANSHOUZHE”ERFEIDAOLIEZHESHENFEN。YINCI,YANGCHENGLEIFENSIJINGJIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGGAIBIANLEMAKESIGUANYUSHANGPINSHIYONGJIAZHIDESHUOFA,SHIYONGJIAZHICHENGXIANCHUJINGSHENXINGERFEIWULIXINGDETEZHI。

 

吴畅畅老师最终总结出三个主要观点

DIYI、XUANXIUJIEMUBENSHENQUESHIZAISHIPINWANGZHANSHANGZHAODAOLEYANXUREDUHEFUSUFENSIJINGJIDEPINGTAI,YEBANGZHULESHIPINWANGZHANJUBEILEDAXINGPENGNEIZONGYIJIEMUDEZHIZUOSHILI。

DIER、ZHIZUOHUOJIEMUJINGJIGONGSICONGYIKAISHIDESHIHOUJIUYIJINGCHUANGZAOCHULEFENSI,ZHAOHUANTAMENCANYUSHANGYEWENHUADESHENGCHAN,SHENZHIYULEGONGYEDEJUECEGUOCHENG。

DISAN、DANGQIANYIJINGJINPAOZAIRIHANHUOZHEXIFANGOUXIANGWENHUAYUSHANGPINJINGJIDANGZHONGDENIANQINGYIDAIFENSI,ZUOWEIWENHUAKANSHOUZHEKENENGSUOJUYOUDEQINGGANGANSHOULI,YIJIZAICIJICHUSHANGSUOWEIDEWENHUAYANSHENGWU,ZAOYISILIELENIANQINGDAIJINEIBUYIZHIXINGDESHISHI。NIANQINGDEFENSIBUSHIBUXUYAODINGYIHUOZHEJUTIEBIAOQIAN,ERSHITAMENQUANCENGJIEGOUYIJIYUOUXIANGZHIJIANZHUKETIGUANXIDEXINGCHENG,JIBENSHANGSHIXIANSHISHENGHUODANGZHONGJIECENGSHENGHUOXINGTAIYUWENHUAQUGEDEXUNIJINGXIANG,HUOXUZHEICAISHISUOWEIHULIANWANGZONGDEHULIANWANGSIWEI,YESHIDANGQIANFENSIJINGJIWANGLUOJUEQIDEYIGEHEXIN。

 

提问环节

BENCIHUODONGXIANCHANGTIWENRELIE,ZAICITEZHAIQUBUFENTIWENHEHUIDA,ZUOWEIYANJIANGNEIRONGDEBUCHONGJIYANSHEN。

 

提问1:您的标题是“粉丝经济的再度崛起”,我想问您在什么时间线上说它是一个再度崛起,它什么时候衰落过?

吴畅畅侠客棋牌:我觉得你这个问题问得非常好,所谓“再度崛起”的时间线应该从2017年或者2016年开始。我并不否认中国粉丝一直存在,我所谓的“粉丝经济再度崛起”是指粉丝经济再次以可视化的方式成为广电产业下游产业当中一个不可或缺、必须争取的新现象,在这个意义上讲,“2016年芒果TV开始重新启动《超级女声》”可以视作一个时间点。

 

提问2:我认为现在是一个2.0选秀时代,选秀节目有为娱乐产业输送人才的责任,可以把它看成娱乐圈引进市场,如果这么想它要塑造一定的社会责任性,同时它作为一个电视节目也要有它商业的价值和商业程度。我想问作为节目制作怎样平衡这个东西,或者我们不平衡这个东西留给观众,您是怎么看的?

吴畅畅:我想说明一点,从最早期的选秀节目,李宇春那个年代到现在为止,制作方国营电视台完成了自产自销过程,所谓的节目制作上、中、下游环节,都是由国营电视台集团化后组建的影视集团内部不同部门承担。2005年《超级女声》的制作是湖南卫视的节目团队,下游是市场化改制的天娱公司,天娱公司算是国企,这也形成了一个闭合式的产业链条。如今,虽然部分网综选秀节目的制作与播控分属不同的机构或公司,但是运营、经纪同播控平台的头尾相连,更为纯粹地强化了资本增值的闭合链条。

 

提问3:吴老师好,您作为这样一个局内人怎么看待这种综艺节目赋予他们的主观性,赋予粉丝投票或者选择的主观性,这些明星的选出是否真的是粉丝推的?

吴畅畅 第一,我不知道大家有没有发现了一个有意思的现象,任何一个选秀节目出来,“阴谋论”一定是大家讨论的对象,先不说这个“阴谋论”背后反应怎样的社会心理,我觉得这也是中国粉丝文化版图中一个重要的组成部分。

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WOZHENMEIYOUXIANGDAOWODEHENDUOZHISHIFENZIPENGYOUDOUZAIKANZHEIXIEJIEMU,YOUQISHIFUDANDEYIXIEPENGYOUGENWOSHUOHENXIHUANYANGCHAOYUE,NIYAOBUYAOGENWOYIQITOUPIAO,WOJIUSHIYAOBATASONGDAOQIAN11DEBAOZUO,ZHEIDANGZHONGYOUMEIYOUFUQUANDEKENENG?YIDINGYOU,ZHIBUGUO,ZHIXINGLEYIZHONGJITIXINGSHEHUIXINLIBUCHANGJIZHIDEFUQUANGANYIDINGCHENGDUQUESHIBEIZIBENLIYONGYUXINA,YONGYUZAISHENGCHAN,YIJIKUAISUBIANXIAN,ZHEISHIWOMENXUYAOFANSIDEWENTI。

 


提问4:老师您好,您刚刚提到的那些节目,包括《中国好声音》、《中国有嘻哈》、《创造101》一些都是引进国外的版权,我想问您怎么看待原创和引进国外版权的现象。视频平台市场化导致他们没有试错的空间所以要借助国外成功的节目模式。《创造101》引进韩国的版权,关于韩国节目转换为中国媒体的过程?《创造101》本来一个韩国的节目,怎样把这个韩国的节目本土化?

吴畅畅:现在信息娱乐行业是一个高资本聚合、人才密集型领域。每年中国都会出台相关的蓝皮书报告。这几年信息娱乐行业投资非降反升,尤其在综艺节目这部分,我看到的数据是,今年投资超过3个亿的网络综艺应该超过3个,这是以前很难想象的情况。你刚才已经回答了我这个问题,得到大资本投资的节目要么买了版权,要么以借鉴的方式。这些平台希望利用这些已经在原来的社会环境中获得市场成功的节目模式,并以一种普世性的方式,帮助民营资本在国内完成了新一轮的利润积累。但是,网综尤其是选秀节目在社会上的成功,主要不是市场“配方”在形式上的成功,而是对一个特定社会文化价值与问题意识的回应。

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HAIYOUYIGEWENTI,ZHONGGUONVTUANZAIZHONGGUOFAZHANSHEHUIRENZHIDUFEICHANGDI,WOXIANGDAJIADOUHENQINGCHU。JIHUSUOYOUNVTUANDOUSHIZOUXIANXIA、JUCHANG,MEIYOUBIANCHENGYIGESUOWEIDAZHONGNVTUANFAZHANLUJING。SHEHUIRENZHIDUFEICHANGDI,SHEHUIPINGJIABINGBUGAO。YANGEJIANG,HENDUONVTUANZIJIBENSHENDEFUMUQINDOUSHIFANDUIZIJIDENVERZUONVTUANZHEIJIANSHIQING。WOJUEDEYOUZHEISANGEJUTIDEBEIJING,ZUGOURANGWOMENJIEMUJINXINGYIXIEBENTUHUAGAIZAO。

 

提问5:吴老师好,我问一个简短的问题,您刚才一直提到咱们国家现在青年文化呈现一个显著的特点,部落化或者圈层化,我想问一下这种趋势会对这个社会造成什么损害?

吴畅畅侠客棋牌:部落化,如果按照文化研究的角度,是一个交叉(intersectional)的现象,青年文化内部围绕城乡、城市或地区、社会性别、阶层等不同维度相互区分,也相互交叠。在这种情况下,青年文化形成了不同的文化圈层。而更重要的问题是,正是因为现在传统媒体日渐式微,使得现在网综节目很大程度上把持和掌握了青年文化领导权。

 

侠客棋牌ZAICIYEGANXIEDAOCHANGTINGZHONGMENDEZHICHI,BAOZHENGLEHUODONGDEYUANMANJINXING。