WANGJIANHUA

SHUYIYIJIDENONGMINGONGSHIGAIGEKAIFANGYILAICHENGSHIFAZHANHEJINGJIJIANSHEDEZHONGYAOZHULIJUN。ZAIZHEIZHICHANYEDAJUNJINSISHINIANDECHENGXIANGWANGFANQIANYILICHENGZHONG,YOUHENDAYIBUFENNONGMINGONGZHUJIANZAICHENGSHIWENDINGXIALAI。TAMENBUZAISHICHENGSHIDELINSHILAODONGLIHEGUOKE。TAMENZUIHEXINDESUQIUSHICHENGWEICHENGSHIDEZHUREN,XIANGYOUYUBENDICHENGSHIJUMINPINGDENGDEGONGGONGFUWUHEFULIDAIYU。NONGMINGONGXIEQIDAIZI,YIJIATINGHUAERFEIGERENHUADEFANGSHIQIANRUCHENGSHI,SHIQICHENGZHENHUA、SHIMINHUAZUIZHONGYAODEBIAOZHI。

SHIBAJIESANZHONGQUANHUITICHUYAOJIANCHIZOUYIRENWEIHEXINDE“XINXINGCHENGZHENHUA”DAOLU,KEYISHUO,SHIDUIDANGQIANSHEHUIFAZHANXINGSHIHELIUDONGRENKOUFAZHANSUQIUDEMINGQUEHUIYING。BUGUO,CONGGUOJIAFAZHANZHANLVEDAOJUTIKECAOZUOZHENGCEDECHUTAIHELUODI,HAIYOUHENZHANGDELUYAOZOU,XUYAOYIDALIANGYANJINDEYANJIUGONGZUOWEIZHICHENG。YOUJIANYUCI,JINGZHUNBAWOLIUDONGRENKOUDEJIATINGHUAQUSHI,XIANGXIKAOCHAQILIUDONGGUOCHENGZHONGDEZHUYAOKUNJINGHEDIAOSHICELVE,BINGZAITIZHIHEZHENGCECENGMIANTANQIUGAILIANGZHIDAO、HUIYINGQIHEXINFAZHANSUQIU,SHIYIGEGUANJIANERYOUPOQIEDEYANJIUKETI。

流动人口的家庭化趋势

侠客棋牌JIYULICIQUANGUORENKOUPUCHAHE1%RENKOUCHOUYANGDIAOCHASHUJUDECESUAN,[1]ZHONGGUOLIUDONGRENKOUDEZONGLIANGCONG1982NIANDE657WANZENGZHANGDAO2015NIANDE2.46YI,ZHANZONGRENKOUBIZHONGCONG0.66%PANSHENGZHI17.9%。LIUDONGRENKOUDALIANGZENGZHANGDETONGSHISHIQIRIYIMINGXIANDEJIATINGHUAQUSHI。LIUPUSHUJUXIANSHI,DUZIYIRENLIUDONGZHEZHIZHANJIATINGHUDE26.76%,LIANGDAIHU、SANDAIHUZEFENBIEZHAN38.52%、5.04%,LIUDONGRENKOUZHENGCONGFUQIGONGTONGLIUDONGJIEDUANMAIXIANGHEXINJIATINGHUAJIEDUAN。[2]2010、2011NIANLIUDONGRENKOUDONGTAIJIANCEDIAOCHASHUJUYEXIANSHI,DANRENHUBIZHONGJINZHANSIFENZHIYIZUOYOU。2011NIAN,LIUDONGRENKOUDEPINGJUNJIATINGGUIMOWEI2.46REN,LIANGDAIYISHANGJIATINGHUBILIWEI52.3%,47.1%DEBEIFANGZHESHIXIANLEZHENGGEHEXINJIATINGDEQIANYI。[3] XINSHENGDAILIUDONGRENKOUJIATINGHUAQUSHISIHUGENGQIANG。ZAI2014NIANDEJIANCEDIAOCHASHUJUZHONG,JINJIUCHENGYIHUNXINSHENGDAILIUDONGRENKOUFUQIGONGTONGLIUDONG,61%SHIXIANLEWANZHENGDEHEXINJIATINGQIANYI。[4]

SUIRANBUTONGYANJIUSHUJULAIYUANBUYI,LIUDONGRENKOUJIATINGDINGYIHECESUANBIAOZHUNCHABIEYEHENDA。[5]BUGUO,CONGDADUOSHUJUKAN,LIUDONGRENKOUJIATINGHUAQUSHIZAIZHUNIANZENGQIANG。CONGPUCHASHUJUKAN,1990NIANLIUDONGRENKOUSHENGHUOZAICHUNWAIHU[6]ZHONGDEBIZHONGJINWEI7.44%;2000NIANZETIGAODAO46.06%,QIZHONGYUPEIOU、ZINVGONGTONGJUZHUDEHUZHUFENBIEZHAN64.36%、61.49%。[7] TONGYANGDEQUSHIYEZAIWUHAN、BEIJINGDENGCHENGSHIDEDIAOCHASHUJUZHONGDEYIYINZHENG。[8]

ZAIPUCHASHUJUZHONG,LIUDONGERTONGSHULIANGDEZENGZHANGSUDUQUEXIANGDUIYOUXIAN。2010NIANZHONGGUO0〜14SUILIUDONGERTONG2291WAN,BI2000NIANZENGJIA881WAN。BUGUO,LIUDONGERTONGSHULIANGZAILIUDONGRENKOUZONGTIZHONGQUEZHANBIBUGAO,JINWEI10.35%,FANERBI10NIANQIANJIANGDILE3.43GEBAIFENDIAN。YUZHIXINGCHENGDUIBIDEQUESHILIUSHOUERTONGGUIMODEGAOSUZENGZHANG。2010NIANZHONGGUONONGCUNLIUSHOUERTONG5290WAN,ER2000NIANJINYOU1981WAN。[9]

KAOLVDAO2000NIANYIHOUWAICHUDAGONGDENONGMINGONGKAISHIDAGUIMOZENGZHANG,LIUDONGERTONGZENGZHANGFUDUYUANBUJILIUSHOUERTONGSHIKEYILIJIEDE。CIWAI,YULIUDONGRENKOUZHANGQIBEIPAICHIZAICHENGSHIGONGGONGFUWUZHIWAIYOUGUANYESHILIUDONGERTONGZENGSUHUANMANDEZHONGYAOYUANYIN。BUGUO,SUIZHE2000NIANHOUWAICHUDAGONGDENONGMINGONGKAISHIZAILIURUDIWENDINGXIALAI,2010NIANHOULIUDONGERTONGXUNSUZENGZHANG,LIUSHOUERTONGZHANBIZEXIANGYINGXIAJIANG。LIUDONGRENKOUDONGTAIJIANCEDIAOCHAXIANSHI,2010NIAN0〜17SUILIUDONGERTONG4659WAN(PUCHASHUJUCESUANJIEGUOWEI3581WAN),2014NIANZENGZHANGDAO5981WAN;LIUDONGRENKOUZINVLIUSHOULAOJIADEBILIYOUSICHENGXIAJIANGWEISANCHENG。[10] JIANYUPUCHASHUJUYUJIANCEDIAOCHASHUJUCESUANJIEGUOCHAYIJIAODA,DUILIUDONGERTONGSUIQIANDEGUIMOSHANGNANXIADINGLUN。DANLIANXUSINIANJIANCEDIAOCHASHUJUDEZONGXIANGBIJIAOHAISHIKEYISHUOMING,JINNIANLAILIUDONGRENKOUYUELAIYUEDUODIJIANGZINVDAIDAOWUGONGDIGONGTONGSHENGHUO,JINGUANZAIJUEDUIGUIMODECELIANGSHANGKENENGCUNYI。

侠客棋牌45〜64SUIDELIUDONGRENKOU,ZAI2010NIANDEJIANCEDIAOCHASHUJUZHONGJINWEI8.7%,ZAI2014NIANZEZENGZHANGDAO12.7%,ZHEIKENENGYUSHIZHESANDAIJIATINGHUDEZENGDUO。BUGUO65SUIYISHANGDELIUDONGLAORENSUOZHANBILIFEICHANGSHAO,QIEZAISINIANJIANYOUSUOXIAJIANG(CONG0.3%JIANGZHI0.2%)。[11]ZHEIXIANSHIZAILIUDONGJIATINGZHONG,LAORENGENGDUODITONGGUOGONGZUOHEJIAWUWEIZIDAITIGONGZHICHI,DAOLEXUYAOSHANYANGDENIANLING,ZEDADUOYAOHUIDAOLAOJIA,JIANQINGZIDAIDESHENGJIYALI。

ZAIZONGTIQUSHIZHIWAI,QUYUYUCHENGSHILEIXINGCHAYIZAIDUIZHONGGUOLIUDONGRENKOUJIATINGHUAQUSHIDEFENXIZHONGYESHIBUKEHULVEDE。

侠客棋牌DUI2011NIANLIUDONGRENKOUDONGTAIJIANCEDIAOCHASHUJUDEFENXIBIAOMING,XIANGDUIERYAN,ZHONGBUDIQU、KUAXIANLIUDONGZHE,JIATINGGUIMOZUIDA、DAISHUZUIDUO、JIATINGJIEGOUZUIFUZA、WANZHENGHEXINJIATINGLIUDONGBILIZUIGAO、JIATINGLIUDONGPICIZUISHAO、PICIJIANGEZUIDUAN;DONGBUDIQU、KUASHENGLIUDONGZHEZEXIANGFAN。ZAIDONGBUXIANGDUIJIAOFADADESHENGFEN(BEIJING、SHANGHAI、TIANJIN、JIANGSU、ZHEJIANG、GUANGDONG),KUASHENGLIUDONGRENKOUZHAN70%YISHANG。[12]YANHAIFADASHENGFENDACHENGSHIDEGONGGONGFUWUZIYUANBENJIUJINZHANG,KUASHENGLIUDONGZHEYAOXIANGHUODELIURUDIGONGGONGFUWUGENGSHINANSHANGJIANAN,ZHEIXIEDIQULIUDONGRENKOUDEJIATINGHUAWUYIMIANLINZHEJUDADEZHIDUZHANGAI。

DAZHONGXIAOCHENGSHIJIANDECHAYIYEZHIDEZHONGSHI。2014NIANNANJINGDAXUENONGMINGONGCHOUYANGDIAOCHAFUGAIDONGZHONGXIBUDIQU7SHENG12GECHENGSHI,2017GEYANGBEN。TONGJIJIEGUOXIANSHI,XIANGBIDAZHONGCHENGSHI,XIAOCHENGSHINONGMINGONGDEJIATINGHUAQUSHIZUIQIANG,ZHEITIXIANZAINONGMINGONG“YUJIARENTONGZHU”、“YUPEIOUTONGZHU”、“YUZINVTONGZHU”、“YUFUMUTONGZHU”、“JIATINGDAISHU”、“HEXINJIATINGGONGTONGJUZHU”DENGGEGEZHIBIAOSHANG。JIATINGHUAQUSHIWEIZAIDACHENGSHIYUZHONGDENGCHENGSHIZHIJIANCHENGXIANXIANZHUDECHAYI。DANDACHENGSHINONGMINGONG“YUZINVTONGZHU”、“YUFUMUTONGZHU”DEBILIXIANGDUIJIAODI,YIDAIHUJIAODUO,SANDAIHUJIAOSHAO。BUTONGLEIXINGCHENGSHIJIANDECHAYIKENENGYUNONGMINGONGLIUDONGDEXINGZHENGKUADUYOUYIDINGGUANLIAN。YUESHIDACHENGSHI,YUEKENENGXIYINRENKOUKUASHENG、KUASHILIUDONG,NONGMINGONGJIATINGHUADEZHIDUZHANGAIYEYUEDA。XIANQUNEI、KUAXIANQU、KUADISHI、KUASHENGLIUDONGDENONGMINGONG,JIATINGHUAQUSHIYICIJIANGDI。[13]

侠客棋牌ZONGGUANZHONGGUOLIUDONGRENKOUDEJIATINGHUAQUSHI,YUOUMEIGUOJIALEISI,ZHONGGUODELIUDONGRENKOUYEHUIGENJUGETIHEJIATINGDESHOUYIZUIDAHUAZUOCHUJIATINGQIANYIJUECE。[14]DANTONGSHIGENGYINGZHUYIZHONGGUOLIUDONGRENKOUDEQIANYIZAIZHIDUHEWENHUAQINGJINGCENGMIANDETESHUXING。

CONGZHIDUSHANGKAN,HUJIHECHENGSHIGONGGONGFUWUZIYUANDEKEJIXINGDUILIUDONGJIATINGHUADEYINGXIANGZUIWEIGUANJIAN。DONGBUYANHAIFADACHENGSHIXIANGBINEILUCHENGSHI,DACHENGSHIXIANGBIXIAOCHENGSHI,YIDICHENGZHENHUA、KUASHENGLIUDONGZHEXIANGBIJIUJINCHENGZHENHUA、SHIXIANFANWEINEILIUDONGZHE,GENGNANZAILIURUDIHUODEJIAOYU、YILIAODENGFANGMIANDEGONGGONGFUWUZIYUAN,SHEBAOJIEXUZHUANYI、YIDIGAOKAODENGYEMIANLINGENGDUOZHANGAI。[15]

侠客棋牌CONGWENHUASHANGKAN,CHUANTONGDEJIATINGGUANNIANHEXIAODAOLUNLIRENGRANZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGZUOYOULENONGCUNFUQIDE“WAICHU-LIUSHOU”ANPAI。TAMENJIYAOKAOLVZIJIZAIZHUANQUSHENGJI、SHANYANGFUMU、ZHAOLIAOZINVFANGMIANDEZERENHEJIAOSE,YEYAOPINGGUFUMUZAINONGYESHENGCHANHEZHAOKANZINVFANGMIANDEKENENGXING。BIRU,DANGZINVCHUYUYINGERQISHI,QIZIGENGKENENGXUANZELIUSHOUZHAOKAN,CIHOUFUQISHUANGFANGGENGYOUKENENGWAICHUDAGONG;ZHANGFUGENGKENENGYINWEIYOUNIANYOUZINVERWAICHU,QIZIZEGENGKENENGYINCIERLIUSHOU,ZHENGSUOWEI“NANZHUWAI、NVZHUNEI”;TANGRUOZHANGFUSHIZHANGZIHUODUZI,FUQIWAICHUKENENGXINGYEJIUGENGXIAO。[16]

流动家庭的困难与调适方式

侠客棋牌LIUDONGRENKOUDEJIATINGHUA、CHENGZHENHUA,BINGBUJINJINTIXIANWEISHUZISHANGDEZHUNIANZENGZHANG。ZAIZHEIYIGUOCHENGZHONG,ZINVJIAOYU、ZHUFANG、YILIAO、SHANYANGFUMUDENGWENTIDOUYOUDAIJIEJUE,CHUANTONGDAJIATINGHEWAICHUWUGONGDENONGMINGONG,YEBUDEBUWEICICAIQUDUOFANGMIANDEDIAOSHICUOSHI。

NEIXIEZHONGXIBUDIQUHEDONGBUQIANFADADIQUDENONGMINGONGJINGCHANGMIANLINZHELIANGNANKUNJING。ZAILAOJIAFUJINDEZHONGXIAOCHENGZHENJIUJINGONGZUO,GURANBIJIAORONGYISHIXIANHEXINJIATINGDETUANJU,BINGYUDAJIATINGBAOCHIMIQIELIANXI,DANJIUYEJIHUI、XINCHOUDAIYU、FAZHANKONGJIANWANGWANGSHIPINGJING。DAOYANHAIDIQUDAGONG,ZAIJINGJISHOURUHEFAZHANJIHUIFANGMIANWUYIYAODAWEIGAISHAN,DANQUEHENNANZHIFUJUJIAQIANYIDECHENGBEN、HUODELIURUDIDEGONGGONGFUWU,ZAISHANYANGFUMU、FUYUZINVFANGMIANWANGWANGNANYIJIANGUZHOUQUAN。

侠客棋牌DUIYUQIWANGCHENGZHENHUADENONGMINGONGERYAN,DANGQIANDEZHUYAOXUANZEBAOKUOYIXIASANZHONG:JUJIAQIANWANGYANHAIDACHENGSHI,DAOYANHAIDACHENGSHIDAGONGTONGSHIJIANGXIAOHAILIUZAILAOJIAHUOFUJINDEZHONGXIAOCHENGZHEN,JUJIAQIANWANGLAOJIAFUJINDEZHONGXIAOCHENGZHEN。WULUNNAYIZHONG,ZHIYAOQIANSHEMAIFANG,DOULIBUKAICHUANTONGDAJIATINGHEFUBEIDEJINGJIZHICHI。RUYOUHAITONGXUYAOFUYU,ZEWANGWANGXUYAOLAORENBANGMANGZHAOLIAOKANHU。FUBEIDUIZIBEIDEZHICHIZHUYAOBAOKUOCHENGSHIGOUFANG、HUNYINCAILI、GEDAIFUYANG。KEYISHUO,DANGQIANNIANQINGYIBEINONGMINGONGDECHENGZHENHUAHEJIATINGHUA,ZAIHENDACHENGDUSHANGSHIJIANLIZAIYASUOLAORENYANGLAOHEYILIAOXUQIU、YILAILAORENJINGJIHELAOWUGONGXIANDEJICHUSHANGDE。ZAIZHEIYIGUOCHENGZHONG,DAIJIGUANXIYANZHONGBUPINGHENG,ZIYUANWANGXIAZOU,“ZINVBENWEI”QUDAIXIAODAOLUNLI。[17]MIANDUIDANGQIANRIYIGAOANGDECHENGZHENHUACHENGBEN,NONGMINGONGHENSHAOCHANGSHIXIANGDAGONGCHENGSHIZHENGQUJIBENGONGGONGFUWU,GENGMEIXIANGGUORUHEKANGYI、YUESHUTUISHENGZHUFANGJISHENGHUOCHENGBENDELVEDUOZHISHOU,TAMENHENZIRANDIZHUANXIANGCHUANTONGDAJIATINGXUNQIUJIEJUEFANGAN;BENYINGSHISHEHUI、ZHENGFU、SHICHANGJIANDEBOYIHELIYIDIAOZHENG,ZUIHOUQUENEIHUAWEIJIATINGNEIBUDEDAIJICHONGTUHECHENGYUANXISHENG。

DUIYUNEIXIEDAOYANHAIDACHENGSHIDAGONGTONGSHIJIANGZINVLIUZAILAOJIAHUOFUJINZHONGXIAOCHENGZHENDENONGMINGONGLAISHUO,CHUANTONGDAJIATINGDEZHICHIHEJIATINGCHENGYUANZHIJIANDEJIAOSEFENGONGWANGWANGLAIDEGENGFUZA,QIEJUYOUJIEDUANXING。WANGSHAOCHENDENGRENDUINEIMENGGUCHIFENGSHIWAICHUWUGONGJIATINGDEKAOCHAPOJUCANKAOJIAZHI。ZAIXIAOXUEJIEDUAN,NIANQINGFUFUWAICHUDAGONG,LAORENZHONGXUANYIRENDAOCHENGZHENKANHUPEIDU,LINGYIRENFUZENONGYESHENGCHAN。DAOCHUZHONGJIEDUAN,HAITONGJUBEIYIDINGZILINENGLI,PEIDUDEXIANXIANGXIANGYINGDAWEIJIANSHAO,LAORENYOUHUIDAOXIANGCUNWUNONG。GAOZHONGJIEDUANBEISHIWEIHAIZIJIAOYUDEGUANJIANJIEDUAN,BUFENWAICHUDEMUQINHENYOUKENENGZAIZHEIGEJIEDUANHUILAIPEIDU,TONGSHIZAICHENGQUZHAOGONGZUO,LAORENRUSHENTIYUNXUZERENGRANCAOCHINONGWU。DENGDAOSUNBEICHENGJIALIYE,ZERUJIELISAIYIBAN,YOUKAISHIYIGEXINDEJIEDUAN。[18]

侠客棋牌DUIYUNEIXIECHUYULISANZHUANGTAIDEJIATINGERYAN,RUHEZAIJIATINGCHENGYUANJIANWEIXIGANQING、CHULIMAODUNCHONGTU,SHIXUDUOWAICHUDAGONGZHEBUDEBUMIANDUIDEWENTI。ZAIXUELINGQIANJIANGXIAOHAIDAIZAISHENBIAN、HANSHUJIAJIANGXIAOHAIJIEGUOLAITUANJU、JINKENENGZAINONGMANGHECHUNJIEQIJIANHUIXIANG、PINFANDETONGXUNHUDONG、JIQIANMAILIPINDENG,SHIWEIXIJIATINGCHENGYUANQINGGAN、YUFANGHUAJIEJIATINGCHONGTUDECHANGJIANFANGSHI。LINGWAI,WAICHUWUGONGZHEWANGWANGXUANZESHENGHUOZAIQINYUAN、DIYUANWANGLUOZHONG,TONGGUOQINYOUTONGXIANGJUJIDEFANGSHIHUANJIEWAICHUDAGONGGUOCHENGZHONGDEGUDU、YINGDUIGONGZUOSHENGHUOZHONGDEKUNJING。[19]DANGRAN,ZHEIXIEDIAOSHICELVEBINGBUNENGCONGGENBENSHANGJIEJUELISANJIATINGDEWENTI。

侠客棋牌ERSUIQIANZINVZAILIURUDIDEJIAOYU,ZESHIBAIZAIXUDUOLIUDONGJIATINGMIANQIANZUIJISHOU、ZUIJINYAODEWENTI。YINGGAISHUO,SUIZHE2001NIAN“LIANGWEIZHU”(JIEJUENONGMINGONGZINVDEYIWUJIAOYUWENTI,YILIURUDIQUZHENGFUWEIZHU,YIQUANRIZHIGONGBANZHONGXIAOXUEWEIZHU)ZHENGCEDEQUELI,GEJIZHENGFUZHUJIANJIADAJINGFEITOURU,LIUDONGERTONGDEYIWUJIAOYUWENTIZHUJIANDEDAOGAISHAN。2010NIAN,6〜14SUIYIWUJIAOYUNIANLINGDUANDELIUDONGERTONGZAIXIAOBILICHAOGUO96%。2009~2015NIAN,JIEJINBACHENGCHUYUYIWUJIAOYUJIEDUANDELIUDONGERTONGZAIGONGBANXUEXIAOJIUDU。ZHENGFUHAIDUIYIXIEZAIMINBANXUEXIAOJIUDUDELIUDONGERTONGYUYIBUZHU。

侠客棋牌BUGUO,LIUDONGERTONGJIAOYUHAICUNZAIXUDUOSHIZHIXINGDEWENTI,JIEJUEBUHAO,JIANGCHENGWEIWEILAISHEHUIFAZHANDEZHONGDAYINHUAN。CONGJIAOYUJIEDUANKAN,XUEQIANHEGAOZHONGJIEDUANMIANLINDEWENTIBIYIWUJIAOYUHAIYAOFUZA。XUEQIANJIAOYUMEINARUYIWUJIAOYUTIXI,LIUDONGERTONGRUYUANNAN,RUGONGBANYOUERYUANGENGNAN;ERYOUYUYIDISHENGXUENAN、GAOZHONGXUEWEIJINZHANG,XUDUOERTONGCONGCHUERKAISHI,JIULUXUXUANZEHUIDAOLAOJIAJIUDU。CONGQUYULAIKAN,BEIJING、SHANGHAILONGDUANLEDALIANGDEJIAOYUZIYUANHEGAOZHAOMINGE,ZHUSANJIAOYINCHANYEJUJIZEXIYINDEWAILAIRENKOUYUANYUANCHAOGUOHUJIRENKOU,SHANGSHUDIQUDERUXUEMENJIANZUIGAO,YIDISHENGXUEZUINAN,LIUDONGJIATINGDEZINVJIAOYUWENTIZUIWEIYANJUN。CONGLIUDONGKUADUKAN,NEIXIEKUASHENGLIUDONGDEJIATINGHEERTONGZUIRONGYIBEIYIDIZHONGKAO、YIDIGAOKAOZHENGCEYINGXIANG。XINGBIEFANGMIAN,“ZHONGNANQINGNV”DEXIANXIANGZAILIUDONGJIATINGZHONGRENGRANHENPUBIAN。ZAIYIWUJIAOYUJIEDUAN,FUMUGENGYUANYIJIANGNANHAIDAIDAOLIURUDIGONGTONGSHENGHUO、JIESHOUJIAOYU,JIESHUCHUZHONGJIAOYUHOU,ZEYOUYUELAIYUEDUODENVHAIJINCHENGDAGONG。LIUPUSHUJUBIAOMING,CHUYUYIWUJIAOYUXUELINGQIDELIUDONGERTONG,NANHAIZHANBIGENGGAO;RANERZAI15~17SUIZHEIGEQUJIAN,NANHAIZHANBIQUEDOURANXIAJIANG。[20]

ZAIBEIJING、SHANGHAI、ZHUSANJIAODENGDI,GONGBANXUEXIAODEJINRUMENJIANFEICHANGGAO。DABUFENLIUDONGERTONGZHINENGJINRUDAOMINBANXUEXIAOHUOZHEDAGONGZIDIXUEXIAO。ZHEIXIEXUEXIAOTONGCHANGMIANLINSHIZIBUZU、SHESHIBUQI、BANJIGUIMOGUODA、KEWAIKECHENGHESHIJIANJIHUISHAODENGWENTI。JIBIANJINRUGONGBANXUEXIAO,YEKENENGCUNZAIXIAOYUANQISHI、NANYIRONGRU、JICHUCHA、XUEXIGENBUSHANGZHILEIDEQINGKUANG。JIASHANGYIDISHENGXUEWENTI,BUFENGONGLIXUEXIAOHELAOSHIBINGBUYUANYIHUAJINGLIPEIYANGZHEIXIEHAIZI。WAILAIWUGONGZHEYOUYUWENHUASHUIPING、JINGJISHILIDENGFANGMIANDEXIANZHI,ZAIYUERFANGSHI、RICHANGGOUTONG、YOUERJIAOYU、JIATINGXUEXIHUANJINGDENGFANGMIAN,YEWANGWANGBUJINRURENYI。[21]DANGRAN,ZUIDADEZHANGAIRENGRANLAIZIZHIDUCENGMIAN。YOUYULIUDONGERTONGNANYIJINRUGONGBANXUEXIAO、WUFAQUDEYIDISHENGXUEDEJIHUI,JIBIANLIUDONGJIATINGZAIZENYANGNULIXUEXIZHONGCHANJIEJIDE“KEXUEYUER”FANGSHI,ZHEIXIEXIANGSHANGLIUDONGDEYUANWANGZHONGJIUBUGUOSHIJINGHUASHUIYUEBANDEXIANGXIANG。YINCI,SUOWEIZINVJIAOYUTOURUBUZU、JIATINGJIAOYANGFANGSHICUNZAIQUEXIAN,HENKENENGSHIXUDUOLIUDONGJIATINGZAIDONGCHAXIANSHIHOUDEWUNAIXUANZE。[22]

流动家庭化背景下的政策讨论

SHIBAJIESANZHONGQUANHUITICHUDE“XINXINGCHENGZHENHUA”ZHANLVE,ZHUYAOCONGSANGEFANGMIANYINGDUILIUDONGRENKOUDEJIATINGHUA、CHENGZHENHUAQUSHI。YISHI“TUIDONGDAZHONGXIAOCHENGSHIHEXIAOCHENGZHENXIEDIAOFAZHAN”;ERSHISHIXINGCHABIEHUALUOHUZHENGCE;SANSHI“WENBUTUIJINJIBENGONGGONGFUWUCHANGZHURENKOUQUANFUGAI”,“JIANLICAIZHENGZHUANYIZHIFUTONGNONGYEZHUANYIRENKOUSHIMINHUAGUAGOUJIZHI”。ZHEIWUYIWEIZHONGGUOJINHOUDECHENGZHENHUADAOLUZHIMINGLEFANGXIANG,DANQIJINWEIZHIYECHUXIANLEYIXIEZHENGCEZHENGLUN。

DIYI,SHIFOUYINGGAIYOUYISHIDIKONGZHIDACHENGSHIGUIMO,FAZHANZHONGXIAOCHENGZHEN?

DUICHENGZHENHUADAOLUDEZHENGLUNZAOYIYOUZHI。JIYUXIANGZHENQIYEFAZHANDEJINGYAN,FEIXIAOTONGDENGRENZHUZHANGFAZHANXIAOCHENGZHENDEGUANDIANYIDUYINGXIANGBIJIAODA。ZAIFEIXIAOTONGKANLAI,ZHEIZHONG“LITUBULIXIANG”DECHENGZHENHUAMOSHI,BUZHIYUDUICHUANTONGDEXIANGCUNSHEHUIHEJIATINGJIEGOUZAOCHENGPOHUAI,YEKEYIBIMIANRENKOUGUOYUXIANGDACHENGSHIJIZHONG,LINGWAIHAINENGYOUXIAOYIZHICHENGXIANGHEQUYUJIANBUPINGDENG。[23]BUGUODAO20SHIJI90NIANDAIZHONGHOUQI,SUIZHEXIANGZHENQIYEWENTIDEBAOLUHEDUIWAIKAIFANGBUFADEJIAKUAI,XIAOCHENGZHENZHUJIANSHIWEI,YANHAIDACHENGSHIZEFAZHANXUNMENG,DALIANGLIUDONGRENKOUYONGRUZHEIXIECHENGSHI。YOULUNZHELIEJUCHUDACHENGSHIZAIJINGJIXIAOLVFANGMIANDESANDAYOUSHI:TOUZIGUIMOJINGJIXIAOYING、LAODONGZHEHEQIYEDEZHUANYEHUAXIAOYING、LAODONGZHEZISHENJINGYANJILEIHEXIANGHUZHIJIANDEXUEXIXIAOYING。[24]

YUDACHENGSHIJINGJIXIAOLVXIANGBANSUIDEQUESHIRIYIYANJUNDESHEHUIWENTI,CHENGSHILAOGONGWENTIPINFA,XIANGCUNSHEHUIDESHUAIBAIHELIUSHOUWENTIYESHICHANGCHENGWEIGONGZHONGYULUNDEJIAODIAN,FANCIZHONGZHONG,JINGBIFEILAODEYUYANHAIYOUGUOZHIERWUBUJI。SHIBAJIESANZHONGQUANHUI“TUIDONGDAZHONGXIAOCHENGSHIHEXIAOCHENGZHENXIEDIAOFAZHAN”HECHABIEHUALUOHUDEJUCUO,YIZAIYANGEKONGZHIDACHENGSHIDERENKOUGUIMO,HUANJIEDACHENGSHIRENKOUGUODUO、GONGGONGFUWUYALIGUODADEWENTI,JIANGLIUDONGRENKOUDAOXIANGZHONGXIAOCHENGSHIHEXIAOCHENGZHEN,WEIWAILAIRENYUANDEJIATINGHUA、CHENGZHENHUATIGONGGENGWEIXIANSHIDETURANG。ZHEIYISILUDEDAOBUSHAOXUEZHEDEZANTONG。

YOUYANJIUZHEZHONGXINSHULILEFAZHANZHONGXIAOCHENGSHIHEXIAOCHENGZHEN、TUIDONGNONGMINGONGJIUJINJIUDICHENGZHENHUADEHAOCHU:NONGMINGONGSHEBAOHEGONGGONGFUWUDEZHUANYIJIEXU、CHENGXIANGZICHANQUANLIZHIHUANJIANGHUIGENGJIARONGYI;CHENGXIANGJIANYEKEYITIGAOSHOURU,CUJINNONGCUNKECHIXUFAZHAN;XIANGYINGDINONGMINGONGDEJUJIAQIANYIHEJIATINGTUANJUYEHENRONGYISHIXIAN。TUIDONGZHONGXIAOCHENGSHIHEXIAOCHENGZHENFAZHANDEXIANGGUANJUCUOBAOKUO:FAZHANDIFANGTESECHANYE;JUNHENGGONGGONGZIYUANPEIZHI,TISHENGQIGONGGONGFUWUSHUIPING,JIAQIANGJICHUSHESHIJIANSHE;TUIDONGCHANYEXIANGZHONGXIBUDIQU、ZHONGXIAOCHENGSHIZHUANYI,SHIXIANCHANCHENGRONGHE。[25]

RANERYOULUNZHEZHICHU,DANGQIANZHENGFUKONGZHIDACHENGSHI、FAZHANZHONGXIAOCHENGZHENDEZUOFASIHUYOUXIECAOZHIGUOJI,XINGZHENGGANYUSECAIGUOYUNONGHOU。YIFANGMIAN,ZAIYIXIECHANYEYURENKOUJUJIDEYANHAITEDACHENGSHI,FEIDANMEIYOUZENGQIANGGONGGONGFUWUDEYOUXIAOGONGJI,FANERTONGGUOTIGAOGONGGONGFUWUZHUNRUMENJIAN,JINXINGSUOWEIDEDIJINENGRENKOUQINGLI。LINGYIFANGMIAN,ZAIXUDUOCHANYEJICHUCHA、DILIWEIZHIPIANPIDENEILUCHENGSHI,DIFANGZHENGFUFENFENDASIJUZHAI,DALIANGJIANSHEXINCHENGHEKAIFAQU,ZONGHEDIAODONGTUDI、SHUISHOU、JINRONGDENGGEZHONGZIYUANZHAOSHANGYINZI、FUCHITESECHANYE。ZHEIXIEDISHUIPING、ZHONGFUXINGJIANSHEDEJUCUOBUDUANLANGFEIZHEDIFANGYOUXIANDECAILI,ZUIZHONGHUANLAIDEQUESHICHANYEKONGXINHUAHEYILUNLUNQIYEDAOBICHAO,JIANGDIFANGSHEHUITUORUJUDADEXITONGXINGFENGXIANZHONG。[26]

侠客棋牌CONGJINGJIXIAOLVDEJIAODUKAN,YANHAIDACHENGSHIDEFAZHANYOUZHEJIANSHIDEJICHU,DANQISHEHUICENGMIANDEWENTIYEBUKEHUSHI。DANGQIAN“TUIDONGDAZHONGXIAOCHENGSHIHEXIAOCHENGZHENXIEDIAOFAZHAN”YOUQISHEHUICENGMIANDEHELIXING,SUIZHEYIXIELAODONGMIJIXINGCHANYEXIANGZHONGXIBUDIQUZHUANYI,ZHONGXIAOCHENGSHIHEXIAOCHENGZHENDEFAZHANYEYOULEYIDINGDEJINGJIJICHU。DANGEJIZHENGFUQUEYAOZAIQIZHONGBANYANHESHIDEJIAOSE,ZHUZHONGGONGGONGFUWUDETIGONG,JIANSHAODUIJINGJIDEZHIJIEGANYU。YIBODUOGONGGONGFUWUDESHOUDUANQIANGYINGQUGANWAILAIRENKOU、YIXINGZHENGZHUDAODEFANGSHIDAGAOCHANYEYUANQUHECHENGQUJIANSHE,DOUSHIBUZUNZHONGJINGJIFAZHANHERENKOULIUDONGGUILVDEXINGWEI。NEIDIZHENGFUZAICHENGJIECHANYEZHUANYIFANGMIANYINGGAIYOUXU、LIXING,QIEBUKEMANGMUJUZHAI、SUIYIKUOZHANG、EXINGJINGZHENG、CAOZHIGUOJI。YANHAIDACHENGSHIYINGGAIGAIBIANJIHUAKONGZHISIWEI,ZHIMIANCHANYEJIJUBEIJINGXIARENKOUBIRANZENGZHANGDEXIANSHI,WANSHANJICHUSHESHIJIANSHEHEGONGGONGFUWUGONGJI。ZHONGYANGZHENGFUYINGGAIJUNHENGZIYUANBUJU,BIMIANYOUZHIZIYUAN(RUGAOKAOZHAOSHENGMINGE、YILIAO、JIAOYU)HEXIANGMUGUOYUXIANGDACHENGSHIJIZHONG;TONGSHIZHUZHONGJIAQIANGDUILIUDONGRENKOU(YOUQIDACHENGSHI)JIBENGONGGONGFUWUDECAIZHENGTOURU。[27]

侠客棋牌DIER,“HUJIHUACHENGZHENHUA”HAISHI“CHANGZHUHUACHENGZHENHUA”?

侠客棋牌NONGYEZHUANYIRENKOUSHIMINHUABIXUYIHUODELIURUDIGONGGONGFUWUWEIJIBENQIANTI。CHABIEHUALUOHUYUZHUBUTUIJINJIBENGONGGONGFUWUFUGAILIUDONGRENKOU,SHIBAJIESANZHONGQUANHUIZHEIYIZHANLVEXUANZEBEIYIXIEXUEZHECHENGWEISHIMINHUADE“ERWEILUJING”。RANERZHEIZHONGZHENGCESILUZAILINGYIXIEYANJIUZHEKANLAI,RENGRANBUFENBAOLIULEYIWANG“HUJIHUACHENGZHENHUA”SILU,DALITUIDONG“CHANGZHUHUACHENGZHENHUA”、JIANGHUJIYUGONGGONGFUWUTUOGOU,CAISHIGAIGEDEGENBENFANGXIANGSUOZAI。[28]

侠客棋牌SHOUXIAN,DADUOSHUNONGMINGONGBINGBUYUANYIJINCHENGLUOHU,YOUQISHIZAIYAOJIAOCHUCHENGBAODIHEZHAIJIDIDEQINGKUANGXIA。

QICI,ZAINEIXIEXIANGYAOLUOHUDENONGMINGONGDANGZHONG,ZHUYAOYESHIDUIDACHENGSHIHUJIGANXINGQU,YINWEIDACHENGSHIHUJIYIWEIZHEYOUZHIDEGONGGONGFUWU。YUQISHUONONGMINGONGDUICHENGSHIHUJIGANXINGQU,BURUSHUODUICHENGSHIGONGGONGFUWUYOUXUQIU。ZHONGXIAOCHENGSHIDEHUJIXIANGDUINONGCUNTUDIDEQIANZAISHOUYI,XIYINLIBUZU。DANGQIANCHABIEHUALUOHUMIANLINDEBEILUNSHI,YUESHIYUANYIXIANGNONGMINGONGFANGKAIDEHUJI,NONGMINGONGYUEBUGANXINGQU;NONGMINGONGGANXINGQUDEDACHENGSHIHUJIYOUPIANPIANMENJIANJIAOGAO、NANYIHUODE。

ZAIZHE,ZAISHICHANGJINGJIXIA,LAODONGLISHIGAODULIUDONGDE,GENJUHUJIRENKOUPEIZHIZIYUANDEFANGSHI,SHIJIHUASILUDEYANXU。NONGMINGONGWULUNLIUDONGDAOHEDI,DOUDUIGONGGONGFUWUYOUXUQIU,YINCIFEICHANGYOUBIYAOGENJUCHANGZHURENKOUPEIZHIZIYUAN。

侠客棋牌ZUIHOU,LIANGZHONGCHENGZHENHUASILUZHENGLUNDESHIZHISHICHENGSHIZHENGFUYUNONGMINDELIYIZHIZHENG。HUJIHUACHENGZHENHUAGENGFUHEDIFANGZHENGFUDELIYIBIAODA,NONGMINGONGRUHUYIWEIZHEJIAOHUITUDI,TONGSHIDIFANGZHENGFUKEYIKONGZHIRUHUHERENKOUZENGZHANGDEJINDU;CHANGZHUHUACHENGZHENHUAZESHIRANGNONGMINZAIBAOLIUTUDICHENGBAOQUANJICHUSHANGHUODECHENGSHIGONGGONGFUWUDECHENGZHENHUA。[29]

ZAISHANGSHUZHENGLUNDEBEIHOU,WOMENHUOXUYEKEDUIWEILAIDECHENGZHENHUADAOLUHEZHENGCEGAIJINFANGXIANGLVEZUOPANDUAN。

侠客棋牌SHOUXIAN,DAZHONGXIAOCHENGSHIHEXIAOCHENGZHENDEFAZHANYINGGAIGENGJIAJUNHENG,DANWULUNSHILAODONGLIMIJIXINGCHANYEXIANGNEIDIZHUANYIHAISHIGEZHONGSHENGCHANYAOSUZAIYANHAIJIJU,DOUZIYOUQIGUILV,GEJIZHENGFUYINGGAIZHILIYUWANSHANJIBENGONGGONGFUWUHEJICHUSHESHI,DANBUYINGGAIYIXINGZHENGGANYUJINGJI。

QICI,JIEJUELIUDONGRENKOUCHENGZHENHUAZHANGAIDEJIBENDIAN,ZAIYUGAIBIANZIYUANPEIZHIFANGSHI,ZHUBUTUPOHUJIYUCHENGSHIGONGGONGFUWUHEYIDESHEHUIGUANLIZHIDU,ANCHANGZHURENKOUPEIZHIGONGGONGFUWUZIYUAN。

侠客棋牌ZAIZHE,JIADACAIZHENGZHUANYIZHIFULIDU,QIANGHUAZHONGYANGZHENGFUZAIJIAOYU、YILIAODENGGONGGONGFUWUSHANGDETOUZI。DANGQIANCHENGSHIGONGGONGFUWUDEGONGJIZHUYAOYIKAODIFANGCAIZHENG,DANDUILIUDONGRENKOUJIAOYU、YILIAODENGFANGMIANDETOUZIJUYOUWAIBUXIAOYING,WULUNSHILIURUDIHAISHILIUCHUDIDOUQUEFATOUZIJILI,JIASHANGFENSHUIZHIHOUZHONGYANGDUICAISHUISHOURUYOUQIANGDADEZHIPEIQUAN、DIFANGZHENGFUZEMIANLINCAIQUANHESHIQUANBUPIPEIDEGANGAJUMIAN,YINCIZHONGYANGZHENGFULIYINGQIANGHUADUIZHEIXIEJIBENGONGGONGFUWUDETOURU。

ZUIHOU,JUNHENGBUTONGQUYUJIANDEZIYUANPEIZHIDUIJIEJUELIUDONGRENKOUDEFEICHANYEJUJIFEICHANGGUANJIAN。ZHENGSHIYINWEIBEIJING、SHANGHAIDENGDILONGDUANLEDALIANGDEYOUZHIZIYUAN,SUOYICAIDANXINYIDANWANSHANGONGGONGFUWUGONGJIHUIDAOZHIGENGDUODEWAILAIRENKOUYONGRU。JIANSHAOZHONGYAOZIYUANHEXIANGMUZAIBUTONGQUYUDEBUPINGDENGPEIZHI,YINCIXIANDEFEICHANGGUANJIAN。SHOUDANGQICHONGDESHIFENSHENGANJIHUALUQUDEGAOKAOZHAOSHENGZHIDU。YOULIANGTIAOKENENGDEGAIGESILUKEGONGCANKAO:YISHIQUANGUOTONGYIKAOSHI,TONGYIANCHENGJILUQU(DANGRANDUIYUBUFENJINGJIQIANFADA、JIAOYULUOHOUDEDIQU,KEYIZHUOQINGZENGJIAZHAOSHENGMINGE);ERSHIYUNXULIUDONGRENKOUZAILIURUDICANJIAGAOKAO,YIGESHENGFENDEBAOKAORENSHUWEIZHUYAOYIJUQUEDINGGEGAOXIAODEZHAOSHENGMINGE。[30]

ZUOCHUZHEIXIEDIAOZHENGSHIBICHUDONGYIBUFENQUNTIDEJIDELIYI,YINFAYIDINGDESHEHUIWENDINGFENGXIAN;DANRUGUOBUZUOZHEIXIEDIAOZHENG,CONGZHANGYUANLAIJIANGJIANGSUNHAISHEHUIGONGPING、KUODABUTONGQUNTIZHIJIANDELIEHEN,LIUDONGRENKOUJIATINGHUA、SHIMINHUADESHENCENGCIWENTIYENANYIDEDAOJIEJUE。JIANJINSHIDEDIAOZHENGBUSHIWEIYIZHONGZHEZHONGBANFA,DANWULUNRUHE,JUNHENGZIYUANPEIZHI、TUIDONGGAOKAOZHAOSHENGGONGPINGHUA,ZHEILEIYITIYINGGAIJINKUAIJINRUZHONGYANGJUECEYICHENG、JINKUAIZHESHOUJIEJUE。

余论

侠客棋牌BENWENJIEHEJIWANGDEDAIBIAOXINGYANJIU,ZHENDUILIUDONGRENKOUJIATINGHUAQUSHI、WENTIYUZHENGCE,CHENGXIANLELIUDONGJIATINGDEXIANSHICHUJING,DANZHEIXIANGYANJIUHAIYOUJINYIBUTUOZHANDEKONGJIAN。

侠客棋牌DIYI,LIUDONGRENKOUJIATINGHUAQUSHIDEGENJINYUSHENHUATAOLUN。JIEZHUPUCHASHUJUHEDAXINGDIAOCHASHUJU,JIESHILIUDONGRENKOUJIATINGHUAJINCHENGJIQIBIANDONGQUSHI,GURANFEICHANGJICHUHEZHONGYAO,DANQUYU、CHENGSHILEIXINGJIANDECHAYI,YIJIDAOZHIZHEIXIECHAYIDELISHI、ZHENGZHI、JINGJIGENYUAN,GENGZHIDEGUANZHU。[31]

侠客棋牌DIER,LIUDONGJIATINGDESHENGHUOFANGSHIYUSHEHUIZHIXUZHONGGOU。ZHONGGUOLIUDONGRENKOUZAIXIANGCUNYUCHENGSHI、CHENGSHIYUCHENGSHIZHIJIANDEQIANYI,JIANGSHIYIGEMANZHANGDEGUOCHENG。LIUDONGRENKOUHAIYUANWEIZAICHENGSHIZHONGRONGRU、DINGJUXIALAI。WEILAILIUDONGJIATINGJIANGYUXIANGTUSHEHUI、CHUANTONGDAJIATINGBAOCHIZHEZENYANGDELIANXI?ZHEIXIEJIATINGJIANGRUHEYINGDUICHENGSHISHEHUIZHONGDEYIXILIEWENTI?SHIJIXUJIEZHUCHUANTONGDAJIATINGDEZIYUANNEIHUACHENGZHENHUAJINCHENGZHONGDEMAODUN,HAISHIWEIRAOZHECHENGSHIGONGMINQUANSHENGFACHUGEZHONGXINGTAIDEKANGYIFANGSHI?TAMENJIANGXINGCHENGHEZHONGJUZHUXINGTAIHESHEHUIGUANXIWANGLUO?TAMENDEYUERFANGSHI、XIAOFEILINIANSHIYUCHENGSHIZHONGCHANJIEJIQUTONGHAISHIYOUQIXIANMINGTESE?GONGGONGFUWU、SHOURUDENGFANGMIANDECHAJU,SHIFOUDAOZHILIUDONGRENKOUHEHUJIRENKOUZHIJIANDEJIANRUICHONGTU?YANHAIDACHENGSHIHENEIDIZHONGXIAOCHENGSHILIUDONGJIATINGMIANLINDEHEXINWENTIYOUHECHAYI、YUHUJIRENKOUQUNTIDEGUANXIYOUHEBUTONG?LIUDONGRENKOUJINRUCHENGSHI,BUJINSHIQIZISHENSHENGHUOFANGSHIHESHEHUIWANGLUOZHONGGOUDEGUOCHENG,TONGYANGYESHIBIYINFACHENGSHINEIBULIYIFENPEIHESHEHUIZHIXUDEDIAOZHENG。

DISAN,ZHENGCEDESHIJIANGUOCHENG。GEJIZHENGFU、BUTONGZHENGFUBUMENHEZHENGCESHEJIDEQITASHEHUIQUNTIDOUYOUZIJIDELIYI,GEDIMIANLINDEXIANSHIQINGKUANGYEBUYIYANG,RUGUOZHIDINGDEZHENGCEBUNENGJINGZHUNBAWOZHEIXIEQUNTIDELIYIHEDIFANGMINQING,LIUDONGRENKOUJIATINGHUAHECHENGZHENHUAWENTIJIANGHENNANYOUSHIZHIXINGDETUPO。YANGDONGPINGZHUBIANDE《ZHONGGUOLIUDONGERTONGJIAOYUFAZHANBAOGAO(2016)》,XIANGXIKAOCHALELIUDONGRENKOUZINVYIWUJIAOYU、YIDIZHONGKAO、YIDIGAOKAODENGZHENGCEZAIGEDIDESHIJIAN,DUIQIZHONGSHEJIDEWENTIYAOHAIYIYOUFENXI。LEISIDEKAOCHAYEKEYIYUNYONGDAODUIYILIAO、YANGLAO、JIUYEDENGZHENGCEYITIDEYANJIUZHONG,BINGQIEHAIKEYIGENGSHENRU。BIRUCHANGSHIZAIDIFANGXIANGGUANZHINENGBUMEN、JICENG(JIEDAO、SHEQU)JINXINGDUNDIANDIAOYAN,ZHANGQIGENJINDIFANGZHENGCEDEDONGTAIYANBIAN,SHENDULIJIECHENGSHIGONGGONGFUWUZHENGCEYUDIFANGFAZHANSILU、ZHENGFUTIZHIZHIJIANDEGUANXI。DUIFUZADEZHENGCESHIJIANGUOCHENGDEKAOCHA,KEYIWEIJINYIBUDEGAIGETIGONGYOUYICANKAO。

(ZUOZHEDANWEI:ZHONGGUOSHEHUIKEXUEYUANSHEHUIXUEYANJIUSUO)