BAILONG ZHOULINGANG

MAKESI·WEIBORENWEI,GUANLIAOZHIYIDANWANQUANDEDAOQUELI,JIUHUICHENGWEIZUINANYICUIHUIDESHEHUIJIEGOU。RUGUOWOMENJIANGWENGELIJIEWEIMAOZEDONGYOUYISHIDICUIHUIWENGUANXITONGYIQIYANXUWUCHANJIEJIGEMINGDECHANGSHI,NEIME,ZHEIDUANLISHIZHENGHAOCONGLINGYIGEJIAODUWUKEBIANBODIZUOZHENGLEWEIBODEZHEIGELUNDUAN,YINWEIZHEIYICHANGSHIZHIFUDECHENGBENSHIZAITAIGAO。WENGEZHIHOU,WENGUANXITONGHENKUAIZHONGXINJIANLIQILAI。1979NIANTUJILIFADEQIBUFALVZHONG,SIBUSHIYUZHONGJIANWENGUANXITONGXIANGGUANDE,JIDIFANGZUZHIFA、XUANJUFA、RENMINFAYUANZUZHIFA、RENMINJIANCHAYUANZUZHIFA。

侠客棋牌RANER,DUI1978NIANYILAIZHONGGUODEWENGUANXITONG,BUNENGJIANDANDIYI“ZHONGJIAN”HUO“HUIFU”ZHEIYANGDESHIJIAOLAIGUANCHA。ZHEIGEGUANLIAOXITONGBUDANZAICHIXUZHUANGDA,ERQIEZAIZOUXIANGFENGBI。ZAIWEIBODEZHENGZHISIXIANGKUANGJIAZHONG,YOUYIGEZHENGZHIDEHUANJIE——BULUNSHIJUYOUKALISIMATEZHIDELINGXIU,HAISHIZUOWEIZHENGZHIJIAJINGJICHANGDEMINXUANYIHUI——GAOJUYUGUANLIAOTIZHIZHISHANG,YIYUGUANLIAOZHIBUTONGDEZHENGZHILUOJIYUNZUO,JIAYUBINGZHUZAIZHEIBUXIANDAIJIQI。DANSHI,JIUZHONGGUODEQINGXINGLAIKAN,LIFAJIGUANZHEIGEZHENGZHIJIGOUTONGYANGJUANRULEGUANLIAOHUADELUOJIZHIZHONG。ZHEIYIFAZHANQUSHIBUNENGTONGGUOPUBIANDELIXINGHUAJINCHENGJIAYIJIESHI。FUHEZHEIGELIXINGHUADAQUSHIDE,ZHISHIBUFENYANGEYIYISHANGDEJISHUXINGFANGMIAN;ERZAILINGWAIYIXIEWENTI,JINGUANYEYIJISHUMIANMUCHENGXIANCHULAI,QUEZHISHIYOUYUMINZHUBUZUZAOCHENGDE。ZAICI,GUANLIAOHUADEJISHUMIANXIANGNAISHIMINZHUZHENGDANGXINGDETIDAIPIN。

BENWENDEMUDE,SHITONGGUODUI1979NIANYILAIZHONGGUOLIFAJIGOUJIQIRENYUANGOUCHENG、LIFANEIZAILUOJIDEKAOCHA,SHITUSHUOMING:ZUOWEIZHONGGUOTESEGUANLIAOTIXIZHONGDEYIHUAN,“LIFAGUANLIAO”QUNTIKAISHIZUOWEIWENGUANXITONGDEYIBUFENXINGQI;LIFAJIGOUHELIFAGUOCHENGYESHOUDAOLEGUANLIAOHUAJINCHENGDEYINGXIANG,CHANSHENGLE“JISHUHUALIFA”DESHIDAITEZHENG。JINGUANZAIZHONGGUOYUJINGZHONG,“GUANLIAO”HUO“GUANLIAOHUA”CHANGCHANGHANYOUDAODEBIANYI,DANBENWENJINZAIZHENGZHISHEHUIXUEDEYIYISHANGSHIYONGTA,ERBUHANRENHEDAODESECAI。

一、立法机构的变迁

LIFAJIGOUNEIBUZHUANMENJIGOUDESHEZHI,SHIGUANLIAOHUAQUSHIDEZHIDUZAITI。ZAICI,SHIYIQUANGUORENDAFALVWEIYUANHUI、QUANGUORENDACHANGWEIHUIFAGONGWEIDENGLIFACAOZUOBUMENWEILI,DUICIZUOYISHUOMING。

1979NIAN2YUE23RI,DIWUJIEQUANGUORENDACHANGWEIHUIDILIUCIHUIYIJUEDINGCHENGLIQUANGUORENDACHANGWEIHUIFAZHIWEIYUANHUI。3YUE19RIDIYICIQUANTIHUIYIZHIHOU,FAZHIWEIYUANHUIZAISANGEYUEDESHIJIANLITUJIZHIDINGLEQIBUFALV。TONGNIAN6YUE18RI,WUJIEQUANGUORENDAERCIHUIYIDUIZHEIQIBUFALVJINXINGLESHENYI,BINGYU7YUE1RITONGGUO。ZUOWEIGUODUSHIQIDECHANWU,ZHEIYISHIQIDEFAZHIWEIYUANHUIBANYANLESHIJILIFAZHEDEJIAOSE,DANSHIDUIYUQIFALVDIWEI、GONGZUOZHIZE、LIFAQUANXIANHECHENGXU,XIANFAJIXIANGGUANFALVHAIMEIYOUMINGQUEGUIDING——GENJU1978NIANXIANFADI22TIAOHEDI25TIAOGUIDING,LIFAQUANJIZHONGYUQUANGUORENDA,CHANGWEIHUIZHINENGZHIDINGFALING,BUNENGZHIDINGFALV。

侠客棋牌1982NIANXIANFATONGGUOYIHOU,GENJUDI58TIAOZHIGUIDING,QUANGUORENDAHEQUANGUORENDACHANGWEIHUIXINGSHIGUOJIALIFAQUAN。1983NIAN6YUE,DILIUJIEQUANGUORENDADIYICIHUIYIJUEDINGSHELIQUANGUORENDAFALVWEIYUANHUI(JIANCHENGFALVWEI)。ANZHAO1982NIANQUANGUORENDAZUZHIFADI37TIAODI3KUANZHIGUIDING,FALVWEIYUANHUIDEZHIZEWEI:TONGYISHENYIXIANGQUANGUORENDAHUOZHEQUANGUORENDACHANGWEIHUITICHUDEFALVCAOAN;QITAZHUANMENWEIYUANHUIJIUYOUGUANDEFALVCAOANXIANGFALVWEIYUANHUITICHUYIJIAN。

WEISHENMEYAOZAIQUANGUORENDAXIAMIANSHEZHIYIGEZHUANMENDEFALVWEIYUANHUINI?JUYUANQUANGUORENDAFAGONGWEIZHURENGUANGRANHUIYI,YISHIYINWEIRENSHAO,BIANYUFENMENBIELEITAOLUNWENTI;ERSHIZHUANMENWEIYUANHUICHENGYUANDUIYOUGUANWENTIBIJIAOSHUXI,YANJIUNENGGENGSHENRU;SANSHIBIANYUTIYIANDEDANWEIHEBUMENLIEXIZHUANMENWEIYUANHUIDEHUIYI,FABIAOYIJIAN。

ZAIZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGXIA,FAZHIWEIYUANHUIYIJINGWANCHENGQIZUOWEILIFABUMENDEGUODUSHIQISHIMING,YINCI,1983NIAN9YUE2RI,DILIUJIEQUANGUORENDACHANGWEIHUIDIERCIHUIYIJIANGQIGAIMINGWEIFAZHIGONGZUOWEIYUANHUI(JIANCHENGFAGONGWEI)。 GENJUQUANGUORENDAZUZHIFADI28TIAOZHIGUIDING,CHANGWEIHUIKEYIGENJUXUYAOSHELIGONGZUOWEIYUANHUI。GONGZUOWEIYUANHUIDEZHUREN、FUZHURENHEWEIYUANYOUWEIYUANZHANGTIQINGCHANGWEIHUIRENMIAN。

FALVWEIHEFAGONGWEIDEQUBIEZAIYU,SHOUXIAN,LIANGZHEJIGOUXINGZHIBUTONG。FALVWEISHIRENMINDAIBIAODAHUIDECHANGSHEGONGZUOJIGOU,ERFAGONGWEISHIRENDACHANGWEIHUIDEYIGENEISHEBANSHIJIGOU;DIER,ZHIZEHEFALVDIWEIBUTONG。FALVWEIDEZHIZESHIZAIBENJIRENDAJIQICHANGWEIHUIDELINGDAOXIA,YANJIU、SHENYIHENIDINGYOUGUANYIANDENG,ERFAGONGWEIBUSHITIYIANDEZHUTI,YEBUXIANGYOUDUIYIANSHENYIDEZHIQUAN,QIZHUYAOZHIZESHIXIEZHUCHANGWEIHUIZUOHAOYOUGUANFANGMIANJUTIGONGZUO,RULIFAQIANDEYIJIANZHENGJI、ZHIFAJIANCHADENG;DISAN,ZUCHENGRENYUANBUTONG,FALVWEIDECHENGYUANYOUTONGJIRENDADAIBIAOZUCHENG,QIZHONGYOUXIANGDANGDEWEIYUANHAISHITONGJIRENDACHANGWEIHUIDEWEIYUAN,ERFAGONGWEIDEZUCHENGRENYUANSHIANXIANGYINGDEXINGZHENGJIBIEYOURENDACHANGWEIHUIRENMINGCHANSHENGDE。

侠客棋牌DANSHIZHEIXIE“GUIFANSHANG”DECHAYIBINGBUNENGSHUOMINGWENTIDEBENZHI。SHANGYINGUANGRANDESHUOMINGTICHULEFALVWEIDESANXIANGGONGNENG:SHENYI、ZHUANYEZHISHI、XINABUMENYIJIAN。ZAIZHEISANXIANGGONGNENGZHONG,ZHUANYEZHISHIKEYIGUIRUGUANLIAOHUAQUXIANG,ZHEIYIDIANJIAOWEIMINGXIAN,WUXUZHUISHU;DANXINAYIJIAN,YOUQISHIBUMENYIJIANZHEIYIFANGMIAN,XUYAOJIAYIQIANGDIAO。CONGZHEIXIANGGONGNENG,WOMENDEYISHENSHIRICHANGZHENGZHISHIJIANZHONGXIYIWEICHANGDEYIXIEXIANXIANG,BIRUBUWEIZAILIFAGUOCHENGZHONGDUILIFAQUANDEZHENGDUO,SHIZHISHANGYIJINGLUORUZHIDUSHEJIZHEZUICHUGOUXIANGFANWEIZHINEI。SUOYI,WOMENBUFANGRENWEI,FALVWEIZHEIYISIHUYOUYIQUBIEYUFAGONGWEIZHEIGEGUANLIAOJIGOUDEBUMEN,SHIJISHANGZHENGSHIWEILEJIANGQITAGUANLIAOJIGOUNARULIFAGUOCHENGZHIZHONG。ZHIYUSHENYIZHEIXIANGGONGNENG,YEBIXUFANGZAIFALVWEIZUOWEIYIGEZHUANMENJIGOUDEJIAOSESHANGLAILIJIE,ERQIETADECHENGFENZHENGSHIYOUZHUANYEZHISHI、YIJIANXINAZHEILIANGGEFANGMIANLAIQUEDINGDE。

ANZHAOWEIBOZAI《ZHIPEISHEHUIXUE》ZHONGDEDINGYI,DIANXINGYIYIDEGUANLIAOSHIYOUSHANGJIRENMINGDE。YOUBEIZHIPEIZHEXUANJUCHULAIDEGUANLIAO,BUSHICHUNCUIDEGUANLIAOLEIXING。CONGZHEIGEJIAODUKAN,QUANGUORENDAFALVWEIYUANHUIBINGBUFUHEZHEIYIDINGYI。DANSHIYINGDANGZHUYI,GENJUQUANGUORENDAZUZHIFADI35TIAODI3KUANZHIGUIDING,GEZHUANMENWEIYUANHUIDEZHURENWEIYUAN、FUZHURENWEIYUANHEWEIYUANDERENXUAN,YOUZHUXITUANZAIDAIBIAOZHONGTIMING,DAHUITONGGUO。ZHISHAOCONGWOGUODEZHENGZHISHIJIANCHUFAKAN,ZHEIZHONG“TIMING”DAIYOUHENQIANGLIEDERENMINGHANYI。LINGWAI,QUANGUORENDAZUZHIFADI35TIAOYOUGUIDING,GEZHUANMENWEIYUANHUISHOUQUANGUORENDALINGDAO;ZAIQUANGUORENDABIHUIQIJIAN,SHOUQUANGUORENDACHANGWEIHUILINGDAO。YINCI,BENWENJIANGZUOWEIZHUANMENWEIYUANHUIDEFALVWEIYESHIWEIZHONGGUOGUANLIAOZHIDEZUCHENGBUFEN。

二、人事与制度

侠客棋牌QIANMURENWEI,YAOJIANGYIDAIDEZHIDU,BIXIANJINGSHUYIDAIDERENSHI。LIFAJIGOUDENEIBUBIANQIAN,HAIXUYAOYOURENYUANGOUCHENGZHEIGEGENGJUTIDEXIANSHIFANGMIANLAICHONGSHI。JIGOUDEXINGZHIZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGJUEDINGLERENYUANDEXINGWEIFANGSHI,ERRENYUANZISHENDETEZHI,YETONGYANGHUISUZAOZHEIGEJIGOUDEXINGGE。TONGGUOTONGJI1983NIANYILAIQUANGUORENDAFALVWEIYUANHUIZHURENWEIYUANMINGDAN,HE1979NIANYILAIQUANGUORENDACHANGWEIHUIFAGONGWEILIRENZHURENMINGDAN,KEYIDECHUYIXIACHUBUJIELUN。

1.职业立法官员的兴起

侠客棋牌ZAIDIWU、LIU、QIJIEQUANGUORENDASHIQI,FALVWEIZHURENWEIYUANHUOFAGONGWEIZHURENJUNYOUQUANGUORENDACHANGWEIHUIFUWEIYUANZHANGJIANREN。YEJIUSHISHUO,ZHEIDUANSHIQIDELIFAGONGZUOJIBENSHIQUANLIZHUDAOXING,ZHIJIEGUANCHEZHONGYANGYIZHI,JUPENGZHENHUIYI,DENGXIAOPINGYECENGYIDUZHIJIEGUOWENLIFAQINGKUANG。

DIBA、JIUJIEQUANGUORENDASHIQI,ZHEIYIQINGKUANGFASHENGLEGAIBIAN。FALVWEIZHURENWEIYUANBUZAIYOUQUANGUORENDACHANGWEIHUIFUWEIYUANZHANGJIANREN,ZHURENWEIYUANYIMEIYOUZAIRENZHIJIEMANHOURENFUWEIYUANZHANG。LIANGWEIFALVWEIZHURENWEIYUANXUEJU、WANGWEICHENGJUYOUXIANGSIDERENZHIBEIJING,JIDOUCONGSHIGUODANGZHENGGONGZUO,BINGDOUZAIDANGNEIYISHIXINGTAIBUMENLILIANGUO。MOUZHONGCHENGDUSHANGFANYINGCHUZHEIYISHIQIDELIFAGONGZUO“ZHENGZHIYOUXIAN”DETEDIAN。

侠客棋牌CHUDIBA、JIUJIEQUANGUORENDAFAGONGWEIZHURENGUANGRANYINNIANLINGYUANYINTUIXIUWAI,CONGDISHIJIEQUANGUORENDAKAISHI,FAGONGWEIXITONGCHUSHENDEGUANYUANKAISHIDENGSHANGFALVWEIZHURENWEIYUANDEZHIWEI。ZHEIYIJIXIANGKEYIKANZUOSHIZHIYELIFAGUANYUANXINGQIDEBIAOZHI。

ZHIYELIFAGUANYUANJUYOUZUGOUDEZHIYEXUNLIANHELIANGHAODEFAXUEBEIJING。YISHIJIEQUANGUORENDACHANGWEIHUIFAGONGWEIZHUREN、SHIYIJIEQUANGUORENDAFALVWEIZHURENHUKANGSHENGWEILI,SHANGSHIJI80NIANDAIMOTAJIUZAIQUANGUORENDACHANGWEIHUIFAGONGWEIGONGZUO,LIRENMINFASHIFUZHUREN、ZHUREN、FAGONGWEIFUZHUREN,SHIDANGNEIZHUMINGLIFAZHUANJIA。MINFAXUEJIALIANGHUIXINGCENGHUIYI,1990NIAN10YUE,ZUIGAORENMINFAYUANZAIWUHANZHAOKAIDISICIQUANGUOMINSHISHENPANGONGZUOHUIYI,HUKANGSHENG、WANGSHENGMING(SHIRENMINFASHIFUZHUREN)YEYINGYAOCHUXIHUIYI。SANRENSIXIAHUITANSHIJIUZHIDINGMINFADIANDACHENGGONGSHI。

侠客棋牌XIANRENFAGONGWEIZHURENLISHISHIYETONGYANGJUBEIZHEIYANGDETEDIAN。LIXIWAIJIAOXUEYUANWAIJIAOYEWUXIGUOJIGONGFAZHUANYE、ZHONGGUORENMINDAXUEFAXUEYUANMINSHANGFAXUEZHUANYEBIYE,YONGYOUFAXUEBOSHIXUEWEI,1984NIAN~2003NIANYIZHIZAIGUOWUYUANFAZHIBANGONGZUO,YOUZHEDIANXINGDEFALVGUANYUANLVLI。

2.法学家立法者的出现

TONGGUODUI1983NIANYILAIQUANGUORENDAFALVWEIYUANHUILIJIEZUCHENGRENYUANDEFENXI,HAIKEYIFANYINGCHULINGYIGETEDIAN,JIFAXUEJIALIFAZHEDECHUXIANHEZENGDUO。DILIUJIEQUANGUORENDAQIJIAN,FUZHURENWEIYUANZHONGYOULIANGMINGZHIYEFAXUEJIA——ZHANGYOUYUHEQIANDUANSHENG。ZHANGYOUYUCENGRENGUOGONGTANPANZHONGGONGDAIBIAOTUANGUWEN、《XINHUARIBAO》SHEZHANG、ZHONGGUOSHEKEYUANFAXUESUOSHOURENSUOZHANGDENGZHI,SHIYIGEZHENGZHIHEFAXUEZILIDOUHENSHENHOUDERENWU。ZHEILIANGDIAN——JI“YOUHONGYOUZHUAN”——YESHI“FAXUEJIALIFAZHE”QUNTIDEGOUCHENGYAOJIAN。QIANDUANSHENG1924NIANHUOHAFODAXUEZHEXUEBOSHIXUEWEI,HUIGUOHOUCENGRENBEIJINGDAXUEFAXUEYUANYUANZHANG、BEIJINGZHENGFAXUEYUANYUANZHANGDENGZHI,CENGCANYU1954NIANXIANFAQICAO。

ZAIDIBAJIEQUANGUORENDAQIJIAN,SUIZHEJINGJILINGYULIFADEJIAQIANG,YIXIEJINGJIXUEZHERULIYININGKAISHICHUXIANZAIFALVWEIYUANHUIZUCHENGRENYUANMINGDANZHONG,DANZHEIYIQUSHIMEIYOUDEDAOWEICHI。

DAOLEDISHIYIJIEQUANGUORENDAQIJIAN,FAXUEJIAQUNTIZHANFUZHURENWEIYUANHEWEIYUANDEBILIYOUSUODIAOZHENG。ZUNXUNDEYUANZESIHUSHI:FAXUEJIADOUANPAIWEIFALVWEIWEIYUAN,FUZHURENWEIYUANYOUZHIYELIFAGUANYUANHETUIXIUGUANYUANDANREN。ZAIRENYUANBILISHANG,12GEWEIYUANZHONGZHIYEFAXUEJIAZHAN6WEI,FENBIESHIMINFAXUEZHELIANGHUIXING、WANGLIMING,FALIXUEZHESHITAIFENG、XINCHUNYING、XUXIANMING,XINGFAXUEZHEZHOUGUANGQUAN。ZAI7MINGFUZHURENWEIYUANZHONG,QIAOXIAOYANG、LISHISHIDENGRENDOUSHIFAGONGWEIXITONGZISHENLIFAGUANYUAN。

3.立法的封闭趋势

CONGRENYUANZHIYEGOUCHENGSHANGKAN,30YUNIANLAIQUANGUORENDAFALVWEIDEZUCHENGRENYUANCHENGKAIFANGDEQUSHI,YIJICONGZUICHUDEQUANLIZHUDAOXINGXIANGXIESHANGXINGGAIBIAN,YOUQISHIZHIYELIFAGUANYUANHEFAXUEJIALIFAZHEDECHUXIANHEGUDING,YIJIYOUZHEDIFANGDANGZHENGLINGDAO、XINGYEHUOBUMENLVLIDEWEIYUANJIARU,SHILIFAGUOCHENGBENSHENCHENGXIANCHUYIDINGCHENGDUDEBIANLUNHEBOYISECAI。

DANSHI,ZHEIZHONGCHENGDUYOUXIANDEKAIFANGXINGZHISHIBIAOMIANXIANXIANG,ZHUANYEHUA、JISHUHUAQUSHIZAOJIULEXINDEFENGBIXING。XIANGDUIYUGENGDAFANWEINEIDEMINYIJIQUFANGMIAN,LIFAZHISHIZHEIZHONG“ZHIPEIXINGZHISHI”DEZHUANYEHUADIWEI,DAOZHILIFAGUANLIAOJIQIYISHIGUIZERENGSHIFENGBIDE。ZHEIZHONGFENGBIBIAOXIANZAILIFASHANG,YIFANGMIANSHIJUYOUJIGAODELIFAXIAOLV,LINGYIFANGMIANZESHIHUAYUDEFENGBI,ZAICI,CHANSHENGLEYIXILIENEIZAIYULIFAZHESIXIANGNEIBUDEJIAZHIQUXIANG,RUFAZHIZHUYIHUAYU、JISHUZHUYIQINGXIANG,YIJIQUANQIUHUAYISHIDENG,ZHEIXIEJIAZHIQUXIANGZAIJINHOUDELIFAZHONGJIANGCHANSHENGBUKEHUSHIDEYINGXIANG。

SHILUHETEZAILUNJIWEIBOGUANYUGUANLIAOZHIDELUNSHUSHIZHICHU,SUIZHELIXINGHUAHEZHIPEIXINGZHISHIDIWEIDEZENGQIANG,GUANLIAOZHIBENSHENJIANGTONGGUOJIANGDIZHUANYEZHISHIJIYEWUXINGZHISHIDEQUANLIDIWEIDEFANGFAYUYIXISHI,RUGUANYUANDEXUANJUBAMIAN、SUODUANRENZHIQIXIAN、LUNDIAO、YANGEDEWEIRENZHIDENG。ZAIZHONGGUO,ZHEIZHONGMINZHUDEXISHIJIZHIZAIGUIFANDECENGMIANYEJIANLIQILAILE,DANFAHUIDESHIXIAOQUEBINGBUMINGXIAN。ZHUANYEHUADEZHIPEIXINGZHISHIBUDANBUYIBEIXISHI,FANERKENENGGENGGAIXISHIJIZHIZISHENDELUOJI。ZHEIYIDIAN,WOMENYOUXUZHUYIDANGXIAZHONGGUOZHENGFAYISHIXINGTAIDANGZHONG“KEXUE”FANSHIDEZHONGYAODIWEI。

侠客棋牌LINGYIFANGMIAN,ZAIWEIBOKANLAI,BUKEBIMIANDESHI,JISHIZAIXISHIJIZHIFAHUIGONGNENGDEQINGKUANGXIA,ZHIPEIXINGDEZHISHIYEHENKENENGYUZHIJINXINGDUIKANG,SHENZHIHUNRUXISHIJIZHIBENSHENERSHIQISHIXIAO。JIANYANZHI,ZHUANYEDELIFAJISHUDECHUXIANJIQIZHONGYAOXINGDETISHENG,SHIDEGUANLIAOZHIBENSHENDELUOJIJIAQIANGLE。LIFACAOANGONGKAIZHENGQIUYIJIANDEZUOFA,GENBENBUNENGZUOWEIDUIZHEIYILUNTIDEFANBO。JINJUSHEHUIBAOXIANFACAOANDEZHENGQIUYIJIANWEILI,TONGJIZHONGBILIZUIGAODEYIJIANZHIYI,JI“GONGWUYUANYINGDANGYOULIYUSHEHUIBAOXIANZHIDUFANWEIZHIWAI”BINGMEIYOUBEIXISHOUJINZUIHOUDECHENGAN。YINCI,GONGKAIZHENGQIUYIJIANDEXINGZHI,SHIJISHANGZHISHIKEXUEJIADEYIXIANGTIANYEDIAOCHAGONGZUO,QIAQIALUOZAIZHIPEIXINGZHISHIDEYINYINGZHINEI。

侠客棋牌ZHIDEZHUYIDESHI,ZAIQUANGUORENDAFALVWEI、QUANGUORENDACHANGWEIHUIFAGONGWEI、GUOWUYUANFAZHIBANDENGJIGOUZHIJIAN,ZHIYELIFAGUANYUANYOUXIANGDANGDADELIUDONGXING。ZHEIYIDIANZAIFAXUEJIALIFAZHEHEZHEIXIEJIGOUYIJIDIFANGDANGZHENGJIGOUZHIJIANYIYOUCHENGXIAN。WOMENYINYUEKEYIKANDAO,ZHEIZHONGLIUDONGXINGCHUANTOULEJIGOUSHANGDEFENHUA,ZHENGZAIZHIZAOCHUYIJIACHAOYUEXINGDELIFAGUANLIAOJIQI。

三、立法的内在逻辑

LIFAJIGOUZAIZUCHENGSHANGDEGUANLIAOHUA,YULIFANEIRONGZHIJIAN,SHIXIANGHUHUYINGDELIANGMIAN。

JUGUOWUYUANFAZHIBANWANGZHAN“FALVFAGUIJIANSUOXITONG”XIANSHI,CONG1979NIAN7YUEDAO2010NIANDI,CHUXIANFAJIQISIGEXIUZHENGANZHIWAI,QUANGUOYIZHIDINGFALV581JIAN(HANYIFEIZHIFALV)、XINGZHENGFAGUI1168JIAN(HANYIFEIZHIXINGZHENGFAGUI)、DIFANGXINGFAGUI18015JIAN(HANYIFEIZHIDIFANGXINGFAGUI)。GENJUGUANFANGBIAOTAI,DAO2010NIANDI,ZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIFALVTIXIYIJINGXINGCHENG,BAOKUOXIANXINGYOUXIAOFALV236JIAN、XINGZHENGFAGUI690DUOJIAN、DIFANGXINGFAGUI8600DUOJIAN。MIANDUIZHEIYANGYIGEPANGDADEFALVFAGUITIXI,YINGGAIRUHELIJIETADENEIZAILUOJI?

1.政治主导型立法

侠客棋牌WEILENENGDUIZHEIYIJIEDUANDELIFAYOUYIGEGENGJUZHENGTIXING,BINGQIEFANYINGXIJIEDEGUANCHA,BIZHEBINGQILEANZHANGSHIDUANHUAFENLIFAJIEDUANDECHUANTONGZUOFA,YIZIRANNIANFENWEIDANWEIZHIZUOLESIZHANGKXIANTU,FENBIEFANYINGFALV、DIFANGXINGFAGUI、XINGZHENGFAGUIHEBUMENGUIZHANGMEINIANDECHANSHENGQINGKUANG。DECHUJIELUNRUXIA:

JINGGUOFENXIKEYIKANDAO,ZAIQUANGUORENDAJIQICHANGWEIHUIFANGMIAN,LIFASHULIANGCONGZHANGSHIDUANLAISHUOCHENGWENDINGZENGZHANGQUSHI,MEINIANPINGJUN20YUXIANG。DANSHIZAI1993、1997、2002、2004SIGENIANFENCHENGJIZENGZHUANGTAI。

ZAIDIFANGLIFAFANGMIAN,1979NIANDEDIFANGZUZHIFAFUYUSHENG、ZIZHIQU、ZHIXIASHIRENDAJIQICHANGWEIHUIZHIDINGDIFANGXINGFAGUIDEQUANLI,ZHEISHIZHONGYANG—DIFANGGUANXIZAILIFATIZHISHANGDEFANYING。DIAOZHENGDIFANGXINGFAGUI30YUNIANLAIZHENGTIYECHENGWENDINGZENGZHANGZHUANGTAI,DANSHIZAI1994,1997,2002,2004SIGENIANFENCHENGJIZENGZHUANGTAI,FENBIECHUTAI826XIANG,1778XIANG,1080XIANGHE1503XIANG。

TONGGUOFALVHEDIFANGXINGFAGUIDEBIJIAO,WOMENZHUYIDAO,ZAI1993/1994,1997,2002,2004SIGESHIJIANDIANSHANG,ERZHEJUYOUXIANGTONGDEJIZENGTEDIAN,ZHEIBINGFEICHUYUQIAOHE。

1993NIAN,WOGUODIERCIXIUGAIXIANFA,JIANG“GUOJIASHIXINGSHEHUIZHUYISHICHANGJINGJI”、“GUOJIAJIAQIANGJINGJILIFA,WANSHANHONGGUANDIAOKONG”DENGNEIRONGXIERUXIANFA。KAOLVDAOPEITAOLIFADEZHIHOUXING,ZHEICIXIUXIANKEYIKANZUOSHI1993、1994NIANZHONGYANGHEDIFANGLIFAJIZENGDEYUANYINZHIYI。

1997NIANZHONGGONGSHIWUDAQUELILEYIFAZHIGUO、JIANSHESHEHUIZHUYIFAZHIGUOJIADEJIBENFANGLVE,BINGMINGQUETICHUJIAQIANGLIFAGONGZUO,TIGAOLIFAZHILIANG,DAO2010NIANXINGCHENGYOUZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIFALVTIXI。ZHEIKEYIJIESHIWEI1997NIANLIFAJIZENGDEYUANYIN。

1999NIAN,DISANCIXIUXIAN,JIANGYIFAZHIGUO、JIANSHESHEHUIZHUYIFAZHIGUOJIADEJIBENFANGLVEXIERUXIANFA;2004NIANDISICIXIUXIAN,“SANGEDAIBIAO”、“GONGMINHEFADESIYOUCAICHANBUSHOUQINFAN”DENGNEIRONGRUXIAN。TONGYANGKEKANZUOSHIZHEILIANGGENIANFENLIFAJIZENGDEYUANYIN。

YINCI,CONGZHEISIGENIANFENDEQINGKUANGLAIKAN,ZHONGGUODELIFAZHUYAOHAISHIZHENGZHIZHUDAOXINGDE,MEICILIFADEGAOFENGQIDOUSHIZHENGZHIDAOXIANGDEGAIBIANERYINQI。DANSHIZHEILICUNZAIYIGEWENTI:1988NIANSHIBAERXIANFADEDIYICIXIUGAI,JIANG“GUOJIABAOHUGETIJINGJI、SIYINGJINGJIDEHEFAQUANLIHELIYI”XIERUXIANFA。ERZAI1988NIANYIJIZHIQIAN,WULUNSHIQUANGUOHAISHIDIFANG,DOUMEIYOUCHUXIANLIFADEJIZENG,WEISHENMEHUICHUXIANZHEIYIQINGKUANG?

2.由行政立法推动的立法进程

WEILEHUIDAZHEIGEYIWEN,WOMENXUYAOFENXIYIXIA1979NIANYILAIDEXINGZHENGFAGUILIFAQINGKUANG。

ZUOWEIZUIGAOGUOJIAXINGZHENGJIGUAN,GENJUXIANFADI89TIAODI1KUANZHIGUIDING,GUOWUYUANKEYI“GENJUXIANFAHEFALV,GUIDINGXINGZHENGCUOSHI,ZHIDINGXINGZHENGFAGUI,FABUJUEDINGHEMINGLING。”YINCI,ZHIDINGXINGZHENGFAGUISHIXIANFAFUYUGUOWUYUANDEYIXIANGZHONGYAOZHIQUAN,YESHIGUOWUYUANTONGGUOLIFASHISHIGUOJIAGUANLIDEZHONGYAOSHOUDUAN。SHUJUFENXIXIANSHI,1982NIAN~1988NIAN,XINGZHENGFAGUIDEGONGBUSHULIANGCHIXUZOUGAO。YOUQICONG1984NIAN~1988NIANJIAN,ZENGZHANGFUDUYOUWEITUCHU。1982NIANXIANFAFUYUGUOWUYUANGUANYUXINGZHENGFAGUIDELIFAQUAN,ZHEIZAILIFASHULIANGSHANGDEDAOLEXUNSUDEFANYING。

HUANYANZHI,1988NIANZHIQIANDELIFARENWU,ZHUYAOSHIYOUXINGZHENGLIFACHENGDANDE。ZAITONGJIZHONGWOMENFAXIAN,1984NIAN~1988NIANZHEIYISHIQIDEXINGZHENGFAGUIDADOUYUJINGJITIZHIGAIGEYOUGUAN。YEJIUSHISHUO,CONG1984NIANKAISHIDEZHONGGUOCHENGSHIGAIGE,ZHUYAOSHIKAOXINGZHENGFAGUIJIQIBEIHOUDEXINGZHENGLILIANGZHUDAODE。

BUMENGUIZHANGDEGONGBUQINGKUANGYEWEIZHEIYIPANDUANTIGONGLEZHICHI。GENJUXIANFADI90TIAODI2KUANGUIDING:GEBU、GEWEIYUANHUIGENJUFALVHEGUOWUYUANDEXINGZHENGFAGUI、JUEDING、MINGLING,ZAIBENBUMENDEQUANXIANNEI,FABUMINGLING、ZHISHIHEGUIZHANG。CONG1984NIANKAISHI,BUMENGUIZHANGDEGONGBUCHENGJIZENGZHUANGTAI。YIZHIDAO1987NIANGONG136XIANGBUMENGUIZHANGZHONG,CHUYIXIANGGUANYUGUOJIXINTUODETONGZHIWAI,QUANBUWEIHAIGUANZONGSHUZHIDINGHUOSHEJIHAIGUAN。ZAI1988NIANZHIDINGDE49XIANGBUMENGUIZHANGZHONG,YESHIYIHAIGUANZONGSHUWEIZHU,LINGYOUJINGMAOBU、JINGWEIDENGBUMENGUIZHANG。

YINCI,WOMENBUFANGSHUO,ZHONGGUODEBUMENLIFA,NAIZHIZUOWEIGAIGEKAIFANGFUHAODELIFA,SHICONG“HAISHANG”KAISHIDE。XINGZHENGFAGUIHEBUMENGUIZHANG,SHIZHONGGUOLIFADEXIANXINGZHEHEYINDAOZHE,SHITAMENERBUSHIFALVHEDIFANGXINGFAGUI,ZOUZAILEZHENGZHIFENGXIANGDEQIANMIAN。1979NIANZHIJINZHONGGUOFALVCENGCIDENEIZAILUOJI,RUGUOCONGTUIDONGLISHANGLAISHUO,WUNINGSHUOSHIYOUGUOWUYUANJIQIXIANGGUANBUMENDEXINGZHENGLIFATUIDONGDE,ERBUSHIYOUQUANGUORENDAHEDIFANGGEJIRENDAJIQICHANGWEIHUITUIDONGDE。

LISHIDIKAN,30NIANLAIDELIFASHIJIAN,CAIQULEGUANLIAOTIZHIXIANXINGDEFANGSHI。ZHENGZHIXUEJIECHANGCHANGYONG“ZHENGFUZHUDAOXING”LAIJIESHIWOGUODEBIANQIANMOSHI。DANSHI,CONGLIFADEFAXUEJIAODULAIKAN,ZHEIYIBIANQIANFANGSHISHISHIYANXINGLIFAHUOLIFAJINGYANZHUYIDEBIAOXIAN。LIFALINGYUDEGUANLIAOHUAXIANXIANGSHENSHENDIXIANGQIANZAIZHEIGEJINGYANMOSHIDANGZHONG。ERZHENGZHIZHUDAOZHEIGECEMIAN,JIESHILELIFAGONGZUODEGONGJUXINGDIWEI。JINGYANZHUYIDESHIXINGLIFAMOSHI、LIFADEGONGJUXINGJIEGOUDINGWEI,ZAIJIASHANGLIFAMINZHUXINGYOUXIAN,ZHEISANZHEHUOXUKEYISHUOMING,HEYILIFADESIWEI、TIZHI、FANGSHIDENGFANGMIAN,DOUSUZAOCHULEJISHUHUADEXINGGE。

结语

2000NIAN3YUE15RI,DIJIUJIEQUANGUORENMINDAIBIAODAHUIDISANCIHUIYITONGGUO《LIFAFA》,DUIQUANGUORENDA、QUANGUORENDACHANGWEIHUILIFACHENGXUDENGNEIRONGJINXINGGUIFAN,QUELILEFALVWEIDUIFALVANTONGYISHENYIDEYUANZE。

ZHEIYIYUANZEDEXINGCHENGJINGLILEYIGEQUZHEDEGUOCHENG。YI1993NIANWEIBIAOZHI,ZHEIYINIANSHIZHONGGUOFALVGONGBUDEGAOFENGQI,TONGSHIYESHIGEZHUANMENWEIYUANHUIDUILIFAQUANZHANKAIZHENGDUODEYINIAN。JUGUANGRANHUIYI,ZHEINIAN11YUE3RI,QUANGUORENDACHANGWEIHUIZHAOKAIGEZHUANMENWEIYUANHUIFUZERENZUOTANHUI,HUISHANGTICHULEYAOBUYAOFALVWEIYUANHUITONGYISHENYIHEFAGONGWEIJIAOSEDINGWEIDENGWENTI。GUANGRANZAIZUOTANHUISHANGTICHU,YIFANGMIANYAOJIAQIANGGEZHUANMENWEIYUANHUIDUIYOUGUANFALVDESHENYI,TICHUSHENYIYIJIAN,YIFANGMIANYAOJIAQIANGFALVWEIYUANHUIDUIFALVANDETONGYISHENYI,ZHEISHIWEILE“WEIHUFAZHIDETONGYI,BIMIANGEXIANGFALVXIANGHUMAODUN,HUBUXIANJIE”。ZAIDUIFAGONGWEIGONGZUODESHUOMINGSHANG,GUANGRANQIANGDIAOLETADERENMINGERFEIXUANRENDEWENGUANZHIDUTEDIAN、ZHUANYEXINGTEDIANHEGONGZUOJIGOUXINGZHI。GUANYUFALVQICAOWENTI,GUANGRANTICHU“JIBENDE、ZHONGYAODEFAYAOTONGYIQICAO,BUMENCANJIA,DANBUNENGYOUBUMENQIANTOU,TONGSHIYAOBAZHONGYAOWENTISHIXIANYANJIU,QINGSHIZHONGYANGJUEDING。”ZHEICIZUOTANHUI“JIANCHITONGYISHENYI”DEYUANZEHOULAIYEGUANCHEDAOLE《LIFAFA》ZHONG(JIAN《LIFAFA》DI18TIAO、DI31TIAO)。

TONGYISHENYIYUANZEDEQUELI,SIHUYOUFAZHITONGYIXINGZHEIYIXIANFAYUANZEDECHONGFENGENJU,DANZAIGUANLIAOHUADEBEIJINGZHIXIA,TAFANERQIANGHUALELIFAGUOCHENGDEFENGBIXING,JISHANGWENTIDAODEZUOWEI“ZHIPEIXINGZHISHI”DELIFAJISHUDEZHIPEIDIWEI——YINWEILIFAGUOCHENGCONGCIWANGHOUDOUYAOJINGGUOZHEIGEJIGOUDE“GESHIHUA”。SUIZHE1997NIANSHIWUDAQUELI“YIFAZHIGUO”JIBENFANGLVE,FAZHIHUAYUKAISHICHENGWEIZHULIUMEITIHEGUANFANGWENJIANZHONGDEGAOPINCI。YUZHIXIANGBAN,YIGEJISHUHUADELIFASHIDAI,HUOXUYIRANCHENGWEIWOMENSHENGHUOYUQIZHONGDEXIANSHI。

侠客棋牌(ZUOZHEDANWEI:QINGHUADAXUEFAXUEYUAN)