HANSHAOGONG

侠客棋牌SHOUDAOLISHIGUANXINGYINGXIANG,GUORENYANZHONGDE“JIEJI”DUOYUWUZHIZHANYOUXIANGGUAN。SUIZHEJINRONGHUA、XINXIHUA、QUANQIUHUADAOLAI,JIEJITUPUCHUXIANYIDONG,XINDESHEHUIFENCENGYEZAIJISUTUOKUAN,PINFUFENHUAJIAJU、JIEJIBIANJIERIJIANMOHU,DUIYIJIEJIZHENGZHIWEIZHUYEDEZUOYIGOUCHENGTIAOZHAN。BENWENCONGYU“JIEJI”XIANGGUAN、RIYITUXIANDE“CAIFU”XIANZHUANGRUSHOU,DUIDANGXIA“TUOSHIXIANGXU”DEJINGJIYUZIBENDEGONGMOUGUANXI,ZHINENGCHANPINSHICHANGHUAYIJIXINGCHENGPAITAXINGBILEIDESHENFENZHENGZHI、“ZULIN”XIAOFEIJINXINGJIELUHEPIPAN,ZHICHUYANXIADE“JIEJI”YIGOUCHENGMOUZHONGLIUDONGDEDINGWEI、DUOMIANDEXINGTI。

YOUYIDUANSHIJIAN,“JIEJI”YICIRANGRENXINJINGROUTIAO。NEISHIPINFULIANGDUANQISHIXIANGJUBUYUAN,CHANGCHANGZHIGEYILIANGZIXINGCHEHUOYIKUAISHOUBIAO,DANSHUIGELANJUE,FAJULAOSAO,KAIGONGJIAYOUSHUI,CHUANQIZHUANGYIFU⋯⋯DAOKENENGREXIADASHI,BEIZHIWEIXIONGXIANDEJIEJIDIQING,DEDONGYUANGEMINGRENMINFENNUPIDOU。“WENGE”ME,NEIZHONGDINGZHUSIXIANGDEZUOFA,ZAINAODIANBOHEYANSHENLICHAJIEJI、HUADIWO,SUIYIXINGTAIDA,SHUYU“JIEJIDOUZHENGKUODAHUA”DEZHENGZHIGUOMINHEDAODEJIEPI,XIANRANZHIHUIJIAOLUANSHEHUI。

NEIYIHOU,JIUDADUOSHUGUORENDELIJIEERYAN,“JIEJI”YICIDATISHANGZHONGFANJINGJIXUEYIHAN,ZAICIJUJIAOYUWUZHI。WEIWUZHUYIZHEBENLAIJIUSHIZHEIFENGGE。CIQIANDE1950NIANSHIZHEIYANG:《ZHENGWUYUANGUANYUHUAFENNONGCUNJIEJICHENGFENDEJUEDING》GUIDING,“ZHANYOUTUDI,ZIJIBULAODONG,HUOZHIYOUFUDAIDELAODONG(ZHIYINIANNEILAODONGBUMANSIGEYUE——YINZHEZHU),ERKAOBOXUEWEISHENGDE,JIAOZUODIZHU。”RUCIDENGDENG。CIHOUDE1988NIANYECHABUDUO:《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOSIYINGQIYEZANXINGTIAOLI》GUIDING,“SIYINGQIYESHIZHIQIYEZICHANSHUYUSIRENSUOYOU,GUGONGBARENYISHANGDEYINGLIXINGJINGJIZUZHI。”RUCIDENGDENG。

侠客棋牌ZHEILIDE“TUDI”、“ZICHAN”、“GUGONG”DENG,SHIHUAFENJIEJIDEZHUYAOYIJU,DOUSHIWUTAIDE,YOUXINGYOUMAODE,KEYISUANCHULAIDE。“SIGEYUE”、“BAREN”DENGDENG,SHIYOUGUANFAGUIZHONGDINGYIBOXUEDELINJIEZHI。

YADANG·SIMI、LIJIATU、TIYELI、JIZUODENGXIFANGQIANBEIXUEZHEDOUSHUOGUOZHEISHI,JUEDEZHEIZHONGLIANGHUAYUZHIGUANDEFANGFARONGYITINGDONG,RONGYISHANGSHOU。MAKESIGENGJINYIBU,MIANDUIDIBANBENGONGYEHUADEOUZHOU,MIANDUIJIRU“XIANGZHENQIYE”JINGGUANDEZUOFANG、BAOGONGTOU、DAYANCONG、ZHENGQIJI、LANLVLAOGONG、HEIWUSIXING,GENGSHIBAJIEJIWENTISHANGSHENGDAOWEICIWEIDADEGAODU,YIZAIQIANGDIAOCAIFUDECHANSHENGFANGSHIHEZHANYOUGUANXIGOUCHENGLEJIEJIZUIBENZHIDETEZHENG,JISHEHUIKEXUEDIYIDAYAOWU。ZAI《GONGCHANDANGXUANYAN》ZHONG,TABAXIANSHISHEHUIFENWEILIANGDAJIEJI,ZICHANJIEJI(Bourgeois)HEWUCHANJIEJI(Proletarians),BINGSHUO“DAOMUQIANWEIZHIDEYIQIESHEHUIDELISHIDOUSHIJIEJIDOUZHENGDELISHI”。

侠客棋牌MAKESIZHUYIZHECIHOUDOUMEIFARAOGUOZHEIYIJINGDIANXING、HEXINXINGLUNDUAN——WULUNTAMENZAIGEZICHUJINGZHONGYOUDUOSHAOLIYOUXUYAORAOGUO,XUYAOYIWANGHEHANHU:NAHUASHIXUESHUQUQUYUECHAOLIU,YONGSIMIANTAOHAOQUJINGXUANXIPIAO,HUADOUBUYISHUODETAICIER。CHOUFUCHOUGUANDEXUANXIAOMINCUIYERANGRENXINYI。DANTAMENBUDEBUCHENGREN,ZHISHAOSHISIXIACHENGREN,BUGUANZAISHENMESHIHOU,LAOMADEYINGZIJIUSHIHUIZHIBUQU。NAPAZHISHIPENGSHANGJINGJIXIAODIZHEN,ZHEIYIYOULINGBIANJISHIFUHUO,HUXIAOTIANXIA,WANGZHEGUILAI,RANBAOMINZHONGQINGXUDECHONGTIANDAHUO。JIBIANZAOYIBEIYULUNJIQICAIGUOQIANBAIBIAN,CAICHULEDAJIHUANGHELAOGAIYINGDEXUEXINGWEI,SHIQINGGUAIJIUGUAIZAI,NEIGEMINGZIRENGRUMINJIANDESHENMIZHOUYU,YIZAIZAIMINZHONGNEILITUOKOUERCHU,SHENZHIZAIQUANQIUSIXIANGJIAPINGXUANHUODONGZHONGLINGRENYIWAIDIMINGLIEBANGSHOU(RU1999NIAN9YUEYINGGUOGUANGBOGONGSIFAQIDEQUANQIUWANGSHANGPIAOXUAN)。

侠客棋牌ZHEIYUANYINQISHIWUTA: PINFUFENHUADEYALIYOUZENGWUJIAN。TAIDUOSHUJUXIANSHI,ZI18SHIJIYINGGUOGONGYEGEMINGZHIJIN,SANBAINIANLAIQUANQIUFANWEINEIDEPINFUCHAJUFEIDANMEIYOUSUOXIAO,FANERZAIKUODA,ZHI2015NIANQUANQIU1%RENKOUSUOYONGYOUDECAIFULIANGYIHERANCHAOGUOQIYUSUOYOURENDECAIFUZONGHE,[1] GOUCHENGLE“ZHANLINGHUAERJIE”、“OUZHOUHEIYEZHANLI”、QUANQIUKONGBUZHUYIXIJIYIXILIESHITAIDESHENKEBEIJING。XIJINPINGZONGSHUJIZAI2017NIANERSHIGUOJITUANHANGZHOUFENGHUISHANGYEZHICHU:“XIANZAISHIJIEJINIXISHUYIJINGDADAO0.7ZUOYOU,CHAOGUOLEGONGRENDE0.6WEIXIANXIAN,BIXUYINQIWOMENDEGAODUGUANZHU。”

侠客棋牌DAGAIMEIYOURENGONGKAIZHIYIZHEIXIESHUOFA。WENTISHI,SUIZHEGONGYEHUASHENGJIBANDEJINRONGHUA、XINXIHUA、QUANQIUHUADAOLAI,JIEJITUPUQUESHICHUXIANLEHENDUOYIDONG,XINDEGUANCHAQIEMIANMIJIZHANKAI,XINGRUXIANLUBANHEERWEIMA,YAOKANQINGYAOSHUOQINGBINGFEIYISHI——ZHEIKONGPASHIYOUXIERENBUDEBUAIMEIDELINGYIYUANYIN。MOUXIERENZUICHUDEKUNHUOSHI,ZAIDEGUOTELIERZHEIGEMAKESISHENGHUOLE17NIANDEGUXIANG,“GONGRENDOUKAIZHEXIAOQICHE,YONGZHEWEIBOLU,GUOZHESHUSHIDEXIAOZISHENGHUO。KANBUCHUSHIRUHEPINQIONGDE”(BAOLUO·SAMOUERSENYU)。 JIEXIALAI,JIBIANZAIXINXINGGUOJIA,YIGEGONGRENYEKENENGTONGSHISHIFANGZHU、CHIGUZHE、XIAOYEZHU(GUGONGQIRENYIXIADEGETIHU),NEIMETAMENHAISUAN“WUCHANJIEJI”?YIGEFUHAODAOKENENGBINGWUGUQUAN,BUGUOSHISHOUGUYURENDEJIAOSHOU、QIYEGAOGUAN,HUOZIJIDANGANDEYIREN、FAMINGJIA,NEIMETAMENHAISUAN“ZICHANJIEJI”?⋯⋯RUGUOPINFUGUANXIYULAOZIGUANXIBUZAIZHENGQIDUIYING,BUZAIJINGZHUNZHONGHE,YIBAPAIXIXIALAI,MOUXIE“LAO”FEI“ZI”SHOUDEGUAISHIGAIRUHESHIBIE?

侠客棋牌“GUANLI”SUANBUSUANLAODONG,HUOSHIYIZHONGGENGGAOJIDELAODONG?“ZIBEN”SUANBUSUANLAODONG,HUOSHIYIZHONGCHENDIANHENINGGULEDELAODONG?“ZHONGCHANJIEJI”YOUSHIZENMEHUISHI?——ZHEIGERENKOUZHANBIYUELAIYUEDADEQUNTI,ZHEIGESHOURU、CAIFU、YICUNJIEGOUZHENGZAIDUOYUANHUADEQUNTI,SHIDALEZHEKOUDEZICHANJIEJI,HAISHIBIANLEMOYANGDEWUCHANJIEJI?YIHUOTAMENBENSHISHEHUIXINWUZHONG,ZHENGQIAORANPENGZHANGYUCHUANTONGDEJIEJIFENXIKUANGJIAZHIWAI,ZAOCHENGYIZHONG“GANLANXINGSHEHUIJIEGOU”,SHIHENDUOJIUSHIDEGAINIAN、LUOJI、MIAOSHUBUGOUYONG?

侠客棋牌YIFANGMIANSHIPINFUFENHUAJIAJU,YIFANGMIANQUESHIJIEJIBIANJIERIJIANMOHU。YIFANGMIANSHIBUSHUOBUXING,YIFANGMIANQUESHIKAIKOUYENAN。ZHEIDUIZUOYIGOUCHENGLEQIGUIDETIAOZHAN。

JIEJIZHENGZHICENGSHIZUOYIDEZHUYE。ZUOYIBUJIANG“QIONGREN”、“BOXUE”、“RUOSHIQUNTI”,JIANZHISHIWUZHAOJIASHIHEHANCUODIENIANG,ZIJILUANLEFANGCUN。TUIYIBUSHUO,JIBIANGEZHIJIJINDEJIEJIDOUZHENGLUN,HUANSHANGWENHEDEJIEJIBOYILUN,BALINGHEGUANXITIANHUAWEISHUANGYINGGUANXI,DANWEILEJIANSHOUJINGDIANDEZHONGXIACENGLICHANG,YEDEYIJIEJIFENXIWEIQIANTI,DECONGPINFUZHEISHISHUOQIBA。XIANZAIHAO,“JIEJI”BENSHENAIMEILE,CHENGLEYIXIESHIZHUN、DIXIAO、GUOYUHANHUDESHUOCI,SHIQINGJIUBUDAHAOBAN。DONGLAXICHE、DAERHUAZHIJIUKENENGCHENGWEIZUOYIBING。YOUSHITAMENBALANGANPAIBIAN,YIXINJIANJIDAZHONGJIEFANGTIANXIA,DANTAMENCHUMENZHUANSHANGYIQUAN,QUEKENENGBUZHIDAOZIJIDEQUNZHONGJICHUHEDONGYUANDUIXIANGZAINALI,BUZHIDAOQIANZAIDETONGZHIMENZAINALI。TAMENYONGSHOURUXIANZHEIBACHIZIYIGEGEBI,ZHUANZHAOZUIQIONGDE、ZUILEIDE、ZUIHEIDE、ZUICHOUDEMIANKONG,JIEGUOKENENGBATONGZHIQUANHUADEHENXIAO,DUOSHIXIELUSHE(Loser)ERYI,XIANGLINSAOHUOAQNEIZHONG,ZENMEKANYENANCHENGQIHOU。TAMENHUOSHIYONGSUOYOUZHI、GUYONGGUANXIDELINGYIBACHIZILIANGXIAQU,JIEGUOKENENGBATONGZHIQUANHUADETAIDA,SIHUSHEIDOUKEYILAICHAYITUI,DOUKEYILAIJIAOHEYIBA。NVQUANYUHAOZHAIHUNDA,XINJINGYUSHISHANGCHUANTONG,YAOCHANWANGUAN、ZHIDEYIMAN、QIYANBIRENZHEBUFAQIZHONG——TONGZHEIXIENIURENTUIBEIHUANZHAN,TONGZHEIXIEJIDELIYIZHEJIANGTUANJIE、JIANGLICHANG、JIANGQINGHUAI,JIANGSHEHUIZHUYI,ZIJIYIKAISHIYEHUYI。

ZAIZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGXIA,CONGQINGHUAIDAOSHIJIANKUNNANZHONGZHONG,LUXIAN、FANGAN、KEXINGXINGDOUYOUDIANTOUZHONGJIAOQINGXUDUOSHISHAO。REXUEZUOYI、SHUSHENGZUOYI、HAOHUAZUOYI、KUBIZUOYI、TOUJIZUOYI、GUANLIAOZUOYI、YIGENJINZUOYI⋯⋯WUGUANGSHISEHUOKECHENGWEIZHISHIQUANWENHUAJIEYIDAOFENGJINGXIAN。GEWALANANSHENCHUCHANGDEHUAIJIUXIU,XIFENWUSHU,DAODEGUANGHUANSISHE,ZHANGXIANJIAZHIGUANYOUSHI,YOUSHIRANGQUANGUIYEKEQISANFEN。DANJIUBANSHISHIERYAN,WULUNZAIFUGUOHAISHIQIONGGUO,“ZUOPAIZONGSHIZHANGBUDA”CHANGCHENGWEIRENMENSIXIAYITAN。JISHINIANJIUZHEIYANGGUOQULE,YUNDONGHEYUNDONGDOUNAOGUOLE,TAMENCHANGCHANGHAISHIXUANPIAOSHANGBUQU,DIANJILVSHANGBUQU,ZUIYAOJINDEJIJUYIZAIBEIRENMENSHANGUOQUHUOMEIKANDONG——ZHEIXIESHIDANGRANWUFANGDAYA,JIUDANGZUOTIZHIDEXIAOYUSHUHAOLE。SHUOBUGUOQUDESHI,MINYIDEZUIDAREDIANYIJIUWUJIE,ZUOYIZUIBUNENGRENDESHEHUIBUGONGYIJIUCIYAN,JINIXISHUSUOJINGSHIDEPINFUFENHUAZONGTISHANGYILULASHENG。DUIZHEIYISHITOUDESHIKONG,DUIZHEIYISHITOUDEZUEFALIHUOJIUZHENGCHIHUAN,ZHENGMINGLEZUOYIDESHINENG。HUANJUHUASHUO,LENGZHANHOUXINZIYOUZHUYIZAIQUANQIUFANWEINEIHENGCHONGZHIZHUANG、WEIHAIDUOFANG,BUJINSHIHUAERJIEDEDESHOU,ZUOYIQISHIYEYIQISHENDEJIANGHUA、KUNHUO、RUANRUO、JIQINGZIHAITIGONGLEZHUGONG,PUDIANLEZHONGYAOTIAOJIAN。

一、新的财富形态

侠客棋牌ZUOYIZUIXUYAOCONGSHISHIQIUSHIDETAIDUZHONGXINCHUFA,CONG“BUWEISHANG,BUWEISHU,ZHIWEISHI”(CHENYUNYU)CHUFA,FANGKAIYANJIE,FANGXIASHENDUAN,YINBINGLIFANG,GUAGULIAODU,YISHIYIERSHIER,LAIKANYIKANZIJIDEFANGFALUNSHIFOUCHULEWENTI,BIRUKANYIKANXIANSHIZHONGDE“JIEJI”YIZHANGCHENGLESHAMOYANG,YUCIXIANGGUANDE“CAIFU”YOUZHANGCHENGLESHAMOYANG。

YEXUZHISHAOYOUYIXIAXIANXIANGZHIDEZHUYI:

(一)金融财富

MEILIANCHUQIANZHUXIBAOLUO·ADAOFU·WOERKE(Paul Adolph Volcker)SHUOGUO,1980NIANDAIHOUMEIGUOJINRONGFASHENGDEZUIDA、YESHIZUIBUXINGDEBIANHUA,JIUSHIJINRONGYOUDANGNIANDE“CHANYEFUWUMOSHI”YIHUAWEI“JINRONGJIAOYIMOSHI”。PIKAIDI(Thomas Piketty)ZAI《21SHIJIZIBENLUN》ZHONGQIANGDIAO21SHIJIYOUGEFEICHANGZHONGYAODEXIANXIANG,JI“CAICHANXINGSHOURUZENGZHANGDADACHAOGUOGONGZIXINGSHOURUZENGZHANG”。TAMENSHUOHUAJIAODUBUTONG,SHUODEQUECHABUDUOSHITONGYIHUISHI:JINGJIDE“TUOSHIXIANGXU”。

侠客棋牌JISHIZAIZHONGGUOZHEIGEYIZHIJINSHENBAKONGJINRONGSHICHANGDEGUOJIA,YIGEGUAIDIANYEQIAORANDAOLAI:2014NIANJINRONGSUODESHUI(QIXIANGDANGBUFENLAIZIJINRONGJIAOYI)GANSHANGLEZHIZAOYESUODESHUI,BINGZAI2015NIANJIZENG13%,DA8572YIYUAN,ERHOUZHEXIAJIANG5.3%,ZHI7425YIYUAN。[2]

CUCHENGZHEIYIGUAIDIANDE,SHIHUOBAODEYINXING、QUANSHANG、XINTUO、DISANFANGLICAI,SHIREBIANGEDIDECHAOLOU、CHAODI、CHAOGU、CHAOHUI、CHAOZHAI、CHAOZANGPIN、CHAOQIHUO、CHAOHUANGJIN、CHAOBITEBI、CHAOQIYE(ZIBENYUNZUO)⋯⋯YOUSHILIANDAXUESHENGHEXIAOZHENDAMAYEJUANRUQIZHONG,SHENGPALUOHOUYULINJUNEISHEISHEISHEI。CHAOJIAMENREZHONGYU“QIANSHENGQIAN”,TIANTIANDINGZHEPINGMUSHANGDEFUHAOGONGFANG,BIEZHUNIAOYEBUNENGLOUGUORENHEDAOTINGTUSHUO,YIPIPIGAOBIELESHIYESHENGCHAN。TAMENYONGZHUIZHANGSHADIEDE“QIANGDANGAO”QUDAILERIYIJIYE、JIUJIUWEIGONGDE“ZUODANGAO”。

侠客棋牌MIANDUIXINGQINGDESHANHUHAIXIAO,ZHEIXIERENDEZIWOBUZAISHITONGYIDE,ERSHIFENLIEDE;BUZAISHIDATIWENDINGDE,ERSHIDUOBIANWUCHANGDE。TAMENDECAIFUBUZAISHITUDI、GONGCHANG、JINYUANBAOZHEIXIEWUTAI,YUJINYIYUSHIYEGUANXIBUDA,ERSHIYIXIEPIAOMIAODEKENENGXING,YIXIELAIQURUFENGDESHUZI,YIZHONGZUIZHONGTAOXIANQIANSHEIYESHUOBUZHUNDEJIAZHIYUGU——GUZHISHEISHUOJIUBUSHIYINGHUO?YINCI,ZAIYIBUYANMIANBUJUEDEXINLIHUAYINGKUISHIZHONG,TAMENYIPINYIFUJICHENGCHANGTAI:ZAIGONGZIDANSHANGSHIZHANGGONGJIDE,ZAICHAOPANSHANGSHICAIZHUJIDE;ZAIZHEIYIZHOUSHIZHANGGONGJIDE,ZAIXIAYIZHOUSHICAIZHUJIDE;ZAIZUIHOUGEROUFANGXUESHISHIZHANGGONGJIDE,ZAIZIWOXIANGXIANGHEZIWOQIXUZHONGQUEYONGYUANSHICAIZHUJIDE。TAMENDAODISUANZHANGGONGHAISHISUANCAIZHU?

JINRONGSHIXIANDAIJINGJIDEXUEMAI,SHIXIANDAISHENGHUOZHONGQIYE、SHETUAN、JUMIN、ZHENGFUDOUBUKEQUESHAODENENGLIANGDIAOJIEXITONGHEXIAOLVZENGFANGGONGJU。DANSHIQINGWANGQIANDUOZOUYIBU,TIANSHIJIUCHENGLEMOGUI。JINRONGPAOMOFUGAIXIALAI,BUJINZAOCHENGCHANYEKONGXINHUA,FUXIAQUANSHEHUIJUDADEJINGJIFENGXIAN;ERQIEBIDEHENDUOCHAOJIAKANGBUZHU,ZHINENGYOUTOUZIZHUANXIANGTOUJI,ZAIJINRONGDUJUZHONGXIANRURENGEDE“ZIBENHUA”,HUO“BANZIBENHUA”,HUO“1/4ZIBENHUA”——NAPATAMENDEPANWAISHENFENBUGUOSHIPUTONGDEGONGREN、SHANGREN、JIAOSHI、NONGMIN,ERQIEQIJUEDADUOSHU,ZUIZHONGBUGUOSHIJINRONGZHANYIDIPAOHUI,SHICHUJINGGENGZAODEGONGREN、SHANGREN、JIAOSHI、NONGMIN。

YIZHONG“SHUANGJIEJI”RENGEKAISHIXINGCHENG。QIZHONGHUOXIANHUOYINDEZIBENJIAOSE,YUZIBENDAGUATOUHUODUOHUOSHAODEGONGMOUGUANXI,ZUIZHONGHENKENENGBEIWOMENZIJIHETARENWANGJI。CONGZHEIYIDIANKAN,ZHENGGEGUOCHENGBUGUOSHIYONGGONGMOUGUANXIZUIZHONGSHIXIANDIWOGUANXIDEQIGUIGUOCHENG。

(二)智能财富

MAKESIZAI《ZIBENLUN》ZHONGQUFENLE“JIANDANLAODONG”HE“FUZALAODONG”。QIANZHEZAIDIBANBENGONGYEHUANEILIXIANRANSHIPUBIANXIANSHI,LIYINGDEDAOXUEZHEDEGENGDUOGUANQIE。SUIZHEKEJIJINBU,JINGJIHUODONGZHONGDEZHISHIHANLIANG,HUOSHUOZHINENGHANLIANG,XIANRANZAIDAFUTISHENG。“XUEQUFANG”YIZAIBAOZHANGDEJIAGE,YILACHULEYITIAOSUCHENG“ZHISHIJINGJI”、“ZHIBENJIA”DEXINGQINGDAYANGXIAN。JIAOYUZIYUANFENPEIBUGONG,BEISHIWEIJIEJIGUHUADEZUIZHONGYAOGENYUAN,YICHENGDUOSHUMEITIDEGONGSHI,RANGZHONGDUOJIAZHANGGENGGENGYUHUAI、FENFENBUPING。YAOZHIFU,XIANFUZHI;YAOFACAI,XIANYOUCAI。DAJIADOUZHEIYANGSHUO。ZHIYU“JIANDANLAODONG”,BUJIUSHIWADI、DATIE、ZHIBU、KANGBAONEIXIELAOHUANGLIMA?ZAIYOUXIERENBIXIA,ZHISHIBAILINGQUDAILANLINGHEHEILING,GENGXIANGSHICHUANGZAOSHIJIEDEDANGDAIYINGXIONG。

侠客棋牌WENXUEXINGXIANG“ZHOUBAPI”,XINWENBAODAOLIDE“XUEHANGONGCHANG”,DANGRANBUGOUCHENGJINGJIAOMIDEQUANBU。ZAIQIYEDAIGUODERENDADUOZHIDAO,XINSHIDAIZHENZHENGYOUXIUDEQIYE,BUSHIKAOPINRENTOUHEPINHANSHUI,JIBIANSHILAODONGMIJIXINGQIYE,YEBUSHIPAIZHUANWUGUNDAQUNJIA,QILIRUNDUOLAIZIYANFA,LAIZIGUANLI,DOUSHIZHINENGXINGHUODONG,BAOKUOQIYELINGDAOTUANDUIDEHEXINJINGZHENGLI,BAOKUOTAMENDEXINXI、ZHISHI、CAINENG、JINGYAN、CHUANGYIYIJIRENGEJINGSHEN。ZHEIYANGSHUO,BINGBUSHISHUOYAOXIANGLAOBANMENSANKOUJIUBAI,GENGBUSHIMEIHUABOXUE——ZUOYIRUOYIJIANLAOBANJIUNIUBIZIJUEZUIBA,JIUXIANSHULEYOUYIYIDAJIE。

SHISHISHANG,GUANLIZHEKEYISHIZHOUBAPI,YEKEYISHIRENZHENGFEI、DONGMINGZHU;KEYIBOXUE,YEKEYIBEIBOXUE,BAOKUOBEIYUANGONGBOXUE(GAOSHANGDEQIYEJIATONGCHANGRUCI)。RENGONGZHINENGZHUANJIAKAIWEN·KAILI(Kevin Kelly)ZAI《SHIKONG》YISHULI,QIANGDIAODANGXIAJINGJISHENGHUODE“QUWUZHIHUA”QUXIANG。YUQISHUOZHEISHIHUYINGJIANGNENGJIANGHAODEHUANBAO,BURUSHUOGENGSHIJIZHINENGQUANZHONGZHANGMU。SHEHUIXUEJIAFOLUOLIDA(Richard Florida)DELINGYIBENSHU,[3]JIANGGUANLIZHE、LVSHI、YISHENG、SHEJISHI、CHENGXUYUAN、YISHUJIADENG,DABAOCHENGYIGEZAIMEIGUORENKOUZHANBI40%ZUOYOUDE“CHUANGYIJIEJI”,JINERBIDUI“GONGRENJIEJI”(Working Class)DEXIAOSHI。ZHEIYIJIELUNXIADETAIZAO,DANZUOZHEGUANCHASUODEBUXIANGSHIXIABIAN,DUIZHISHIDEYIYIQUERENYEBINGBUGUOFEN。

WENTISHI,ZHINENGCHANPINZHUANGSHANGLESHICHANGHUA,YOUYIGEGUZHIDEDANANTI。ZHINENGBUXIANGLIANGSHI、GANGCAI、NIUMA、YUZHUOZI⋯⋯ZHEIDONGXIWUXINGWUYING,KANBUJIAN,MOBUZHE,YOUYONGSHIJIUJIAZHILIANCHENG,WUYONGSHIJIURUYITUANKONGQI。YINCIYANXIAYIQIEZHUANLI、PINPAI、XINXI、CHUANGYI、XUELI、SHUJUKU、RUANSHILI、GUANLIHUODONG、WENHUACHANYE、IPRENQI(DIANJILV)DENGBEIPINGGUJIGOUBIAOCHULEGEZHONGJIAMA,QISHIDUOSHICUOGU,ZHISHAOSHIYIGU,CHABUDUOSHIPAINAOZIDEJINGQUEHUAHESHUXUEHUA,RENMENTINGTINGJIUHAO。YIWEIQIYEGAOGUANGAINANIANJIN30WAN,HAISHI3000WAN,JIUHENNANYOUKEGUANDEHENGLIANGCHIDU。DUIYIXIANG“FENSIJINGJI”DETOUZIDAODIHUIRUHE,BULUNJIEZHUNAXIECESUANGONGJU,SHUOCHENGSHUOBAIDOUKENENGGEYOUQILI。NEIMEWENTILAILE,GULAIGUQUZHIYU,ZHINENGSHICHANGJIUCHENGLEYIGEZUIHUNLUANDESHICHANG。YIGELANJIAOSHOUJURANKEYIKAODOUSHOUSHICHANGMIJIHEXINLINGGOUXUESHENJIABIAOSHENG,YIGEDISUWANGHONGKEYIKAOSEXIANGHEHUNAOXIJINQIANWAN,YIDUIOUTUWUBEICHAOCHENGLETIANJIAYISHUPIN,YIJIAMEITICHIDINGJIAXINWENQUELVCUOBUBAIZHAOZHUANBUWU,ERYIXIEZHINENGLAOMOQUEKENENGZHANGJIULENGZANG。

侠客棋牌CHONGFENJINGZHENGZHIHOU,SHUILUOSHICHUZHISHI,LIEZHIZHINENGBUSHIKEYIBEITAOTAIME?HUASHIZHEIYANGSHUODE,DANDADUOSHUGUKESHIBIEZHINENGCHANPIN,YUANBISHIBIEBAICAIHESHOUJIZHEIXIEWUZHICHANPINYAONAN;ZAIJIASHANGRENMENDUIWUZHIDEGANGXINGXUQIUYOUXIAN,DUIZHISHIHEWENHUADEDANXINGXUQIUQUEJIHUWUXIAN,CONGERRANGWEILIEHUOYOULECHAODAHUIXUANKONGJIAN,DONGFANGBULIANGXIFANGLIANG,HUANGEMAJIAYOUSHANGTAI。ZAIZHEIYICHANGBUDUANJIASHIHEYANSHIDETAOTAISAIZHONG,JIAOZHIYUXIAOMEIYAOHEHUANGBIAOCHE,LUOHOUZHISHICHANNENGDETUICHUGUOCHENGBIDINGYAOMANZHANGDEDUO。

DANGYULONGHUNZADEZHISHICHANPINDOUHUANLAILEZHENJINBAIYIN,ZHINENGCAIFUJIUCHENGLECAIFUDEYIBUFEN,JINRUFUZADESHEHUIFENPEIWANGLUO——BAOKUOYOUXIERENBUGUOSHIYIFU、JISHENG、XIXUEYUWENHUAPAOMOHEZHISHILAJI,BAZHINENGJINGJIZUOCHENGHUYOUDACAN,ZHENGZAISHIXIANYIZHONGXINXINGDEBOXUE。

MEISHUOCUO,JIUSHIBOXUE。

(三)身份财富

侠客棋牌JIEJIBINGBUSHIYIGEGAODUTONGZHIHUAQUNTI,NEIBUDECHAYIXINGBUSHAO。TUDIGEMINGSHIQIDEYIGEGUSHISHIZHEIYANGDE:YIGECUNZIDENONGMINDAWANLEBENCUNTUHAO,HUODUIBENCUNTUHAODABUXIASHOU,BIANQUDABIECUNDETUHAO,SHEXIANQIANGRENJIAFANWAN,YUSHITONGNEIGECUNDENONGMINJIEXIALIANGZI,SHENZHIJIANBANUZHANGBAOLIDUIZHI。LIANGCUNNONGMINJINYINSHUDISHENFENBUYI,ZAIZHEIYIKEJIUBUSHIJIANMIANQIN、TONGZHIQING、YIJIARENLE——ZHEILEIGUSHICHANGBEISHUSHENGMENDANGZUOXIAOBAGUA,BUDAJINRUTAMENDESIKAOHEXUESHU。

QISHI,DANGXIAOUMEIGUOJIAYANZHONGDEYIMIN、NANMINWENTIWEIJI,YOUSHENMEHAOQIGUAIDE,YEJIUSHISHANGSHUXIANGCUNGUSHIDEFANGDABA?WANGSHENLISHUOYESHIPIGUZHIHUINAODAIDEJINGJILIYIJIUFENBA?ZAINEIXIEGUOJIA,LAOGONGQUNTICHANGBIQITAREN(BIRUGUIGUHEHAOLAIWU)GENGPAICHIWAILAIMIANKONG,XIANGDANGYUZHUZHANGBENCUNDE“TUHAO”ZHINENGYOUTAMENLAIDA,YAOFENFUCAIYEZHINENGYOUTAMENLAIFEN,PINGSHENMERANGGAOJIADIANHUOWANGJIAWANDECHASHOU?TONGLI,QUANSHIJIEFANWEINEIDEWUCHANZHEBUTUANJIEJIUYI,YOUGEHEJIUYI,BUYIDINGSHISIXIANGTEWULIJIANDEJIEGUO,ZHISHAOBUWANQUANSHI。MEIGUODEGONGHUIJUTOULAOLIAN/CHANLIANYIZHIBILIANBANGZHENGFUYOUGENGQIANGFANHUAQINGXIANG,GENGXIHUANDUIWAITUKOUSHUI,HUANGQUANTOU,SHANGZHENGZHIGUANGGAO,WUFEISHIYANKANZHEZIBENJIAMENKUAJINGTOUZI,XIANGDANGYUBENCUN“TUHAO”SHENYEWAITAO,YUWAIRENLIYINGWAIHE,HANGXIEYIQI,BAJINYINXIRUAN、XIANGCHEBAOMA、XIAOLAOPODOUDAIQULEZHONGGUO,BALOUFANGHEDAOLUDOUNUODAOZHONGGUOQULE——FEISHUILIUJINWAIRENTIAN,NEIXIEHUANGZHONGMIMIYANQIBUCHENGLEWAITAOYINMOUDETONGANFAN?

侠客棋牌SHENFENZHENGZHIYERONGYICHENGWEIYIGEHUOYAOTONG,YUJIEJIZHENGZHILIANGXIANJIAOCHA。ZHEIXIEKANSHANGQUBUTAIXIANGBALIGONGSHEHESHIYUEGEMING,DANRUOHULVEQIZHONGJINGJILIYILUOJI,QIJIEGUOYAOBUSHIJIANCHUJIEJINEIWAIDEFUZAXINGHEFENGFUXING,YAOBUJIUSHICHOUKONGZHONGYAOZHENXIANG,RENQICHENGWEIYIDUIRENZHISUIPIAN(ZHONGZU、ZONGJIAO、WENHUADENG)。PENGSHANGSHENMELUANZI,JIUZHINENGDANGZUOHUAIZHONGZU、HUAIZONGJIAO、HUAIWENHUAZHAOSHI,DANGZUOHUAIRENZHAOSHI——ZHEIZHONGWANNENGDEDAODEKOUSHUIZHENGZAIJIESHIYIQIEQUEYEZHENGZAIYANGAIYIQIE。

YIMINSHIYIZHONGSHENFENBIANGENG。ZIXIANDAIGUOJIATIZHIZHUJIANCHENGSHU,SHEHUIFULICHENGWEIGUOJIAZHIDUYIBUFEN。FULIFENPEITIXIANFAQUANXINGDECENGJIJIAGOU,XINGCHENGGEZHONGPAITAXINGBILEI,JIZHUDUOSHENFENZHURULETEDINGHANJINLIANG。ZUIJIBENDESHIGUOMINSHENFEN。FUGUODEGUOJIHUO“LVKA(YONGJIUJUMINSHENFENZHENG)”YIWEIZHEXIANGYINGQUANYI,YIFENSHENFENCAIFUDEZIDONGHUOQU,CHANGRANGQIONGGUODEMINGXIAOSHENGHELAMIANGEDOUQUZHIRUOWU。BUGUANSHITONGGUOFEIFAHAISHIHEFATUJING,TAMENDOULITULAIYICIYIDITUOPIN,YICIJIEJINGGANCHAO,YICIDUANPINGKUAIDESHENGHUOCHUJINGGAISHAN。ZAIMINZU/GUOJIATIZHIXIA,HENDUORENSHENZHIHAIGANCHUDAOYIZHONGCANLIUDEMINZU/ZHONGZUSHENFEN,RUHENGTINGDUN(Huntington Samuel)ZAIZUIHOUYIBENSHU《WOMENSHISHEI》ZHONG,YIZAICHONGJINGWhite Anglo-Saxon Protestant,JIBAIFUSE、ANGGELU-SAKEXUN、XINJIAOTUDEMEIGUO。ZHEILIDE“BAI”YIBANBUHESHIRANGRANG,BUDASHUODESHANGTAIMIAN。BUGUOYOUSERENZHONGRUGUOSHIZUNYANGAN、ANQUANGAN、PINGDENGDIWEIDENGWEILIYIYIBUFEN,JIUBUNANZAISANTIANLIANGTOUDEFUSEQISHINEILI,ZAIKEYIDEPINKUNLV、SHIXUELV、RUJIANLV、BIWANGLVNEILI,QUEZHENGZIJI“MINZU/ZHONGZUSHENFEN”DEFUZICHANXINGZHI,BIDUICHUGAODENGFUSEDEYOUYUE。

侠客棋牌HUKOUYEBANGDINGSHENFENCAIFU。GUORENMENJIYIYOUXINDE“NONGZHUANFEI”,SHIXIAMOUXIEDIFANGXIQIDE“FEIZHUANNONG”,DOUSHIYIZHONGMINGANDECAIFUZHUIQIU。YIQIANDE“FEI”NONGHUKOU,DAIBIAOLECHENGZHENJUMINDEGUOJIALIANG、ZHAOGONGYOUXIANQUAN、LIANZUFANG、ROUPIAO、YOUPIAO、JIAOHAODEJIAOYUHEYILIAOFULIDENG;SHIXIAYOUXIEDIFANGDE“NONG”CUNHUKOU,ZEDAIBIAOFADINGDECHENGBAOTIAN、CHENGBAODI、CHENGBAOSHANLIN、CHENGBAOCAOYUAN、LIANJIAZHAIJIDIDENG,DOUYOUXIANGYINGDEYINGZIJIAGE。ZAICHENGXIANGYITIHUAZUIZHONGXIAOCHUZHEIXIEYINGZIJIAGEZHIQIAN,YIGEHUKOUBUXINGRUJINGNEIXIAO“LVKA”,ZHIYUELETAIDUORENDEMINGYUN。ZHONGGUOBUSHAOXIANGGUANXIAOSHUO、DIANYINGLIDEBEIQINGKONGSU,ZHIJINHAISHIYIXIERENDEXINLIBAHEN。 “JINCHENGFENDOUYIBEIZI,BURUCHENGLIYITAOLAOFANGZI。”ZHEISHUOFASHIZHIZICHANJIAGEGAOZHANGZHIXIA,LAOYIDAISHIMINKENENGZUOSHOUJUEQIHONGLI,RANGLAIZIXIANGCUNDEXINYIDAISHIMINWANGCHENMOJI。XINSHIMINKENENGBILAOSHIMINGENGDULI、GENGQINFEN、PUBIANXUELIGENGGAO,DANCUOGUOLEYIBANCHE,JIUDEWEISHANGHUKOUDESHIJIANCHAMAIDAN,ZAI“FANGDONG/FANGNU”、“LIANGDAJIEJI”(MOUQINGNIANZUOJIAYU)DEDOUZHENGZHONGCHUYURUOSHI。

ZAIYIZHANGSHENFENFULIQINGDANSHANGSUANGAODI,GENGGAOFULIDANGRANZAILONGDUANXINGDEXINGYE、QIYE、SHEHUIZUZHINEILI。WULUNSHIYIGUANYINGHAISHIMINYINGWEIBEIJING,LONGDUANXITONGRUGUOBUSHISHEHUISUOXUQIESHOUDAOYANGEKONGZHI,YIDANXINGCHENGJIUDUOSHIFUWOZI、GUIBINSHI、JINFANWAN。HUNJIQIZHONGZHE,LIANYIGECHAODIANBIAODEYEKENIANXINSHIWAN,LIANYIGESIJIYEKEZANWULIUCHUFANGCHAN,ZHEIYILEIXINWENBUNENGBURANGDICENGMINZHONGCHUIXIANSANCHIHUONUHUOWANZHANG,ZONGSHICHENGWEISHEHUIZHILINANTI。GENGNANDESHI,YIGEZHENGCHANGSHEHUIMEIFACHENGSHOUWUZHENGFU、DUOZHENGFULUANXIANG,YINCIZHENGFUJIUCHENGLELONGDUANZHONGDELONGDUAN,BIXUJUYOUWEIYIXING。TEBIESHIZAIQIANGSHIZHENGFUCHUANTONGSHENHOUDEZHONGGUO,ZHEIWEIYIXINGHAISHIJIADAHAO。YUSHIGUANZHIZHEIZHONGZAIGUDAIDEJIAPUHEPAIWEISHANG、ZAIXIANDAIDEHUANYINGCIHEZHUIDAOCILIZUIBURONGYILOUDIAODEDONGXI,BEIZHURUGENGDUOQUANLI,ZUIQIANDONGLAOBAIXINGKULEANWEI,YEZUIKENENGBEIZHULIZHEWEILIE。ZHUMINGDEHUANGYANPEIYANANYAODONGZHIWEN,JIUSHIDUIZHEIYIQIANGUNANTIDENIANZIZAIZI。LIANGUANYUANDEWAIWEIQINYOU,YEDUOYOUQIANZAIDESHENFENGUJIA,JINRUWEILIEZHEDEMIAOZHUNJING,YIZHIYIGENIANTOUNIANNAODEJIAHUOTURANZAIFANZHUOSHANGSHUOCHUMOUGUANYUANSANQINLIUGUGEZIDEXINGMING、SHENGRI、XIHAO、ZHUZHI、ZHUYUANCHUANGHAO,LILIRUSHUJIAZHEN,RUCIMINJIANZUZHIBUDEGONGFUBUSUANSHENMEQISHI。YIDANSHEHUIGUANZHISONGCHI,ZHEIXIEGUANZHIJIYANSHENGDERENMAIGUANXI,DANGRANZUIRONGYIEBIANCHUGUANSHANGLIANTIDECHAOJISHENFEN,CONGERJIJUCHAOJICAIFU。JIBAITUOMINYIHEGUANGUIDEZHENGZHIJIANDU,YOUGUIBISHICHANGJINGZHENGDETAOTAI,“HONGDINGSHANGREN”MENDAKEZUOYOUFENGYUANLIANGTOUTONGCHI。

侠客棋牌YIGEXUNIJINGJIDECHENGGONGGUSHI,HENRONGYIRANGTAMENSHIXIAO。XUSHENMENI?“XUNI”DELAOZUZONGJIUZAIZHEILI,GENBENYONGBUZHENEIXIEHUAHUASHAOSHAODESHANGYEBAOZHUANG,GAONEIMEDUOBOSHI、JIAOSHOUXUZHANGSHENGSHI。GAIYIGEZHANGJIUSHITAOJINKUANG,XIAYIGEWENJIUSHISHOULOUPAN,ZOUZOUMENZIJIUSHICHAOREGANGU,TUOQIANGLADIAODEGUANYANGWENZHANGJIUSHIGAINIANJINGJIXIANGMUSIMUHUOFENHONG⋯⋯TAMENCONGLAIKANBUSHANGZANGXIXIDEGONGCHANGHENONGCHANG,ZAOJIUSHI“KONGSHOUDAO”WANJIA,YUDANGXIAGEZHONGXINSHI“KONGSHOUDAO”DAKEWUFENGDUIJIE,WUTONGZHUANXING,QUANMIANHUISHI。BUYONGHUAIYI,YIMOUZHONGYINGJIAWEIWANGDELIUXINGLUOJI,CHAOJISHENFENBISHIYOUXIERENZUIWEIXIANGWANGDECHENGGONGMOGUN,YESHIYIGEJIANKANGSHEHUILIZUIZHIDEJINGJUEDEHUODUAN。

(四)贷租财富

“XIAOFEISHEHUI”YICI,SHIJI“SHICHANGSHEHUI”、“XINXISHEHUI”、“ZHISHISHEHUI”、“HOUGONGYESHEHUI”、“SHUMASHEHUI”、“FULISHEHUI”ZHIHOU,LINGYIZHONGDUIDANGXIAXIANSHIDEMIAOSHU。QUANSHEHUISHANGLESHICHANGJINGJIDEZHANCHE,JIEGUOZHIYIJIUSHISHENGCHANLIRIZENG,XIAOFEICHANGCHANGTUOHOUTUI,CHENGWEIFAZHANDUANBAN,LVLVBIDERENMENCHUANBUGUOQILAI。SHAOXIAOFEIJIUSHIMANFAZHAN。BUXIAOFEIJIUSHIBUFAZHAN。YINCIYOUTIAOJIANDEYAOSHANG,MEITIAOJIANDECHUANGZAOTIAOJIANYEYAOSHANG,CHUANGZAOXIAOFEIJIUSHICUJINHECIJIXIAOFEIDEZUIXINJUCUO。ZAIYOUXIEJINGJIXUEZHEYANLI,YIGERENRUOBUSANGXINBINGKUANGQUMAICHANGXUEPIN,BUBIECHUJIGEHUAQIANXINDIANZI,JIANZHIJIUSHIKEBEIKECHI、WUGUOWUMIN。

侠客棋牌GEZHONGQIANGSHICUXIAOHEHUASHICUXIAOYINGYUNERSHENG。YUSHIYOULE“ZU”LINXIAOFEI,ZAICHUANTONGDEZUFANGHEZUCHEZHIWAI,ZAISHIXINGDE“GONGXIANGDANCHE”HE“GONGXIANGYUSAN”ZHIWAI,HAINENGZUZHUBAO、ZUMINGBIAO、ZUSHOUBAO、ZULIFU、ZUGUWAN、ZUHAOCHE、ZUYANZHIHEYOUQING(MEINVSHUAIGEPEIYOUHUOPEIFANG)⋯⋯SHECHIPINJIHUYINGYOUJINYOU,GOUCHENGLEYITAOQINGSHEZHUYIGONGLVE,MANZUHENDUORENDEXINGFUZHUIQIUHEJIFENXURONGXIN——ZHEILIBUFANGMINGZHIWEISHEZU。YUSHIYEYOULE“DAI”KUANXIAOFEI,XIANGDANGYUJIXIAOFEIJIAGANGGAN,YUJINRONGJIAOYIJIAGANGGANLIANGXIANGPEIHE,GULICHAOQIANHUAQIAN,GULICAIWUTOUZHI,GULIYIBEIZIXIANGSANBEIZIDEFU,XIANGCHUFENGMIANNVLANGHEGUANGGAONANMODEYANGZILAI。2008NIANMEIGUOEMINGZHAOZHAODE“LIANGFANG”CIDAIFENGBAO,ZHONGCUOXIFANGGEGUOJINGJI,JIUSHIZHEIZHONGCUOBAJIEQIANDANGZHUANQIANDEHOUGUOZHIYI。ZHONGGUOCIQIANGEZHONGWEIGUIYUEJIEDEFANGDAI、CHEHUO、XIAOFEIDAI、“XIAOYUANDAI”⋯⋯YUANCHAOCIQIANXINYONGKADECHAOZHIXIANE,DADUOYIGAOXIAOFEIWEIMUBIAO,SHENZHIBIANXIANGLIURUGUSHIHELOUSHI,BUJINJIAOLUANSHEHUIZIJINDEHELILIUXIANG,ERQIEBAHENDUODANGSHIRENTUIRUXIANJING。JIEJIEJIEYICHAOBUSHENJIUCHENGLEXUEXUEXUE,XIANGGUANDEMINGANBAODAOSHIJIANBAODUAN——ZHEILIBUFANGMINGZHIWEISHEDAI。

侠客棋牌SHEDAISHEZUDAJUYUEGUOLEDAI、ZUDEHELIDU,SHIBAHAOSHIBANHUAI。ZHISUOYIBAZHEILIANGJIANSHIFANGZAIZHEILIYIQISHUO,SHIYINWEITAMENYOUGONGTONGTEDIAN,HELIZHUTUILEYIZHONGXUGAOXIAOFEI,YINGGOULELINGYIZHONGXUGAOCAIFU,YESHIXIANDAICAIFUDELINGYIBUFEN。ZHEIYEXUYOULIYUMOUXIEQIONGXIAOZIWEILAOXIANFU,SHAOLAODUOFU,ZAIBUJIYESUAN“NIFU”HE“FANGFU”LEYIBA;YEXUHAIYOULIYUJIANGDIQUANSHEHUIDEZIYUANXIANZHILV,RANGGUQIHEBAOMAWUJINQIYONG——SHECHIPINXINGYEFUPINYOUHEBUHAO?BUGUOSHIQINGDELINGYIMIANSHI,XUGAOXIAOFEICHAOGUOBIYAODEFANGHUOXIAN,JIUSHIYIZHONGYINZHENZHIKE,CHENGWEIJINGJIYUNXINGZHONGJUDADEDINGSHIZHADAN。ZIGUYILAIYOUJIANRUSHEYI,YOUSHERUJIANNAN。SHEDAISHEZUSUOQIAODONGDEYIPIANFANRONGBUGUOSHI“DABAITIAO”JINGJI,“XINGFENJI”JINGJI,ZUIZHONGZHIKENENGTUNSHILAODONGDEYIYUANHENENGLI,YAKUASHIYESHENGCHAN。

DAIHEZUDELINGYIGEGONGTONGTEDIAN,SHIYOUYIYUDIBANBENGONGYESHIDAI,CHENGXIANCHUYIZHONG“NIYOU”HUNTONGYU“SUOYOU”DEQINGXING。ZHEILIDESHIYONGZHEBUBISHIYONGYOUZHE,ZHIPEIQUANXISHILESUOYOUQUAN。BUQIUWEIWOSUOYOU,DANQIUWEIWOSUOYONG,ZHEIYILIUXINGSHUOFASHICHUANTONGZUOYIZUIGUANQIEDE“SUOYOUZHI”,CHUXIANLEQUANYIDEXIANGDUIRANGDU、XIANGDUIFENJIE、XIANGDUIDUOZHONGXING,CHUXIANLECHANQUAN、WUQUANDEPIAOLIUHE“YETIHUA”(KAIWEN·KAILIYU),YIRUZHONGGUOXIANGCUNTUDIDESUOYOUQUAN、CHENGBAOQUAN、JINGYINGQUANCHUXIANXIANGDUIFENLI。ZHEIYANGXIALAI,SHEDAISHEZUZHECHENGLE“YOUCHAN”/“WUCHAN”ERYUANBIAOZHUNXIADEBIANYUANREN,ZENMEZHANWEIYEBUDUI,CHANGYOUYIZHONGBUWUTANTEDEZIWOHUANJUE,HAOXIANGZIJISHENMEDOUYOU,YOUSHENMEDOUMEIYOU;HUOZHESHUO,ZAILVYUEWUYUSHISHENMEDOUYOU,ZAIZIJINLIANDUANLIESHISHENMEDOUMEIYOU;ZAIDAIZUCAIFUPENGZHANGSHISHIXIAOJIEXIN,ZAIDAIZUCAIFUTURANQINGLINGSHISHIYAHUANMING——BUZHISHENMESHIHOU,LIANGZHONGGANSHOUDOUKENENGFENBIEJIDUANHUA,FANGDASHEHUIXINLIDONGDANGDEZHENFU。

侠客棋牌NEIME,TAMENGAIBEIFANGZAIJIEJITUPULIDENAYITOU?MOFEITAMENZHENSHIZAIJIANZHENG“YETIHUA”SHIDE“GONGCHANZHUYI”MEIMENGCHENGZHEN?

⋯⋯

侠客棋牌XINXINGDECAIFUXINGTAIYEXUHAIYOUQITA。

侠客棋牌BUYONGSHUO,ZHEIXIECAIFUXINGTAIGEYOUTEDIAN,YOUZAISHIJISHENGHUOZHONGXIANGHUSHENTOU、XIANGHUZHONGDIE、XIANGHUJIFA、XIANGHUJIELI,GONGTONGBIANZHILEYIMUPUSHUOMILIDEXIANDAIHUA。YIGECHENGGONGDEKUAIQIANSHOU,CONGQIONGGUANGDANXUNSUBIANSHENDAFUHAODERENSHENGCHUANQI,JIETOUXIAOBAOSHANGDUOCIHUISHENGHUISEMIAOSHUDENEIZHONG,TONGCHANGHUITIGONGRUXIAXIJIE:DAXUEWENPINGHUOCHUANGYIWENXUAN(ZHINENGCAIFU),WAIGUOLVKAHUOGAOGUANHAOYOU(SHENFENCAIFU),ZULAIDEXIEZILOUHELALAIDEKEYIDAIKUAN(DAIZUCAIFU),LOUSHIHUOGUSHISHANGDEPENMANBOMAN(JINRONGCAIFU)⋯⋯DANGSHIRENZAIZHEIXIECAIFUZHIJIANQIAOMIAOGOUDUI,RANHOUYIGEXIANYUFANSHENJINRUSHENMEPAIXINGBANG,TONGCHANGBEISHIWEITIANZONGQICAIDECHUANGYEBAODIAN。ZHISHIXIAOBAOWEITIDAODESHI,ZHENJINGQUANQIUDE“PANGSHIPIANJU”QISHIYEJUYOUZHEIYIGUSHILIDEQUANBUJIYIN。

ZHEIYANGSHUO,BINGBUSHISHUOZHEIXIECAIFUDOUSHIBUDAODEDE。SHISHISHANG,RUTONGLAODONGZHEDESHOUCHENG、XINZIDENGCHUANTONGCAIFU,XINXINGCAIFUZHONGDEYIBUFEN,BUGUOSHILAODONGJIAZHIDEYANSHEN、YANSHENG、ZHUANHUAN、YUANQIDUIHUAN,HUOBENSHENJIUSHIXINXINGLAODONGDECHENGGUO,YOULIYUJINGJIFAZHAN,YOULIYURENMIN。

侠客棋牌QUFENDENANDIANKONGPAZHISHIZAIYU:NALICAISHISHIQINGDEHELIDU?“TUOSHIXIANGXU”DELINJIEXIANZAINALI?MEIYIZHONGCAIFUDEYIHUAJIZHISHISHENME?XINXINGTAICAIFUSHIZENYANGZAIYIZHONGTOUJIZIFEIDEYIHUAGUOCHENGZHONG,CHENGWEILEXUNI/XUGAODEPAOMO(HUOSUCHENGPAOMOCAIFU),CHENGLEYOUDUZICHAN,CONGLAIZILAODONGHEFUWUYULAODONG,BIANCHENGLELAIZIBOXUEHEFUWUYUBOXUE?

二、理解“阶级”的方法

侠客棋牌RENHETUILUNDOUZHISHIYIZHONGGAILVXINGMIAOSHU,“JIEJI”SHUOYERUCI。SHUOWUGUIPAOBUGUOTUZI(LANTUWEIBIRUCI),SHUOSHUIBEISHAOZHISHESHIYIBAIDUZHENGFA(GAOYUANQUWEIBIRUCI),SHUOZICHANJIEJIFANDUIWUCHANJIEJIGEMING(KAIMINGLAOBANWEIBIRUCI)⋯⋯DOUSHIZAIYIDINGTIAOJIANXIA,ZHENDUIJUDAYANGPINLIANGDEGAILVXINGZONGJIE,SHUYU“YOUGUILVDESUIJISHIJIAN”(SHUXUEJIABONULIYU)。

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TONGYIGENJINDERENSHUOHUAZUIFEILI,YEHENWEIXIAN。

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侠客棋牌XIANSHIYIFASHENGLEJUDABIANHUA,HAIJIANGFASHENGJUDABIANHUA。YINGGAISHUO,YANXIA“JIEJI”BUSHIXIAOSHILE,ZHISHIBIANHUALE,CHENGLEYIZHONGLIUDONGDEDINGWEI,DUOMIANDEXINGTI,QUANYAJIAOCUODEJUMIAN。RUOCONGBOXUEZHEIYIDIANKAN,QISHIBUNANKANCHUYIZHONGXINDEBOXUEFANGSHIZHENGYIJUNTUQI,ZHENGYUWEIDASHI,TONGCHANGZAIJINGJI“TUOSHIXIANGXU”DELINJIEXIANZHOUWEIHUADONG,YISHUANGXU(XUNI/XUGAO)CAIFUWEIDASHAQI,LITUIJINRONGCAIFU、ZHINENGCAIFU、SHENFENCAIFU、DAIZUCAIFUDEEBIAN,ZHENGZAISHIXIANDUIMINZHONGZUIFENGKUANG、ZUIXIONGXIAN、ZUIKUAIJIE、ZUIQUANMIAN、ZUIDAGUIMODEXIJIE。YAZHOU1997NIANJINRONGWEIJI,ZHENGGEXIFANG2008NIANYILAIDEJINGJILIANHUANDIZHEN⋯⋯BUGUOSHIZUIZAODEJIGEXUEXINGTUCHANG。ELUOSIDE“XIUKE”BENGKUIYEYUZHIBUFENYOUGUAN。NEIXIEYANLAODONG、BULAODONG、FANLAODONG、MIELAODONGDEXIJIEZHE,WANDEJIUSHIYIXUBOSHI,YILANBOQIN,YIWEIBOCHENG,LITUYONGDADAXIAOXIAODE“PANGSHIPIANJU”LUANZHONGQUSHENGQINGQUTIANXIA。TAMENSHUJIHUYIXINGCHENGYIGETOUJIZIFEIJIEJI,HUOJIAO“KUAIQIAN”JIEJI,HUOJIAO“KUAIQIAN”ZICHANJIEJI——QIWEIHAIYUANCHAOQITABOXUEZHE。

侠客棋牌SHUODAOZHEILIDE“KUAI”,RENHESHIYEQISHIDOUSHI“KUAI”BULEDE,NAPAKEXUEHEWENYIYECONGLAISHIYUSUBUDA。CONGYEZHEJIBIANOUYOULINGGANQIJI,YOUDUNWUTIANJIHEYITONGBAITONG,DANLINGGANWUBUYIZHANGQIDEXUEXI、SHIGAN、SHIYAN、CUOZHE、JINGYANJILEI、WAIBUTIAOJIANZHUNBEIWEIQIANTI,YIJIANNANDEMOPAGUNDAHEOUXINLIXUEWEIQIANTI,ZONGTISHANGSHUOKUAIBUDAONALIQU。XIANGBIZHIXIA,“KUAIQIAN”JIEJIDEBOXUEXINGJIUBIAOXIANWEI,QUXIAOQIANTIZHAIGUOZI,SHANCHUGUOCHENGTIAOLONGMEN,PIANPIANYAOTUYIGEBULAOERHUO——NAPATAMENZOUMENZI、SHUAXINJI、DAOCHUPEIKE、SHENYEGUANDANYEHENXIANG“LAODONG”,BUYIDINGBIBIERENXIAOHAOHANSHUIYUKALULISHAO。YIGEKALULICELIANGBIAOYANXIAKANLAIYIBUZUYIQUFENLAODONGYUBOXUE。

CANYU“KUAIQIAN”BOXUEDEQUNTI,JIZHUYAOSHOURULAIYUANYU“KUAIQIAN”DENEIZHONG,SUIYIJINRONGGUATOU/FUBAIGUANLIAO/WENHUAJIANSHANGSANWEIYITIWEIHEXIN,QUEHANYOUDAFUDE、XIAOFUDE、WEIFUDEGELEI,YOUSHOUGUDE、ZIGUDE、SHAOGUDE、DUOGUDEGELEI,SHIYIZHONGCHAOYUEJIUSHIJIEJITUPUDEXINXINGJIHE。JIUGERENERYAN,TAMENBUYIDINGSHIEGUN,MAOCHUXIEJIENANGJIUZAIHUOTIAOHEJIURENDESHIJIWANQUANKENENG。LINJUWANGLAOTOUJIUCENGSHIGEHAOSUOZHANG、HAOXIAOZHANG,GUANGXIANCHUZHONGDEMINGXIAOCHUSHEN,ZHISHISHIDUONIANLAICHENFUYUGUHAI,YIZHICHAODAOZIJIATINGYONGRESHUIQI(JIESHENGDIANFEI)、TINGYONGBINGXIANG(WUXIANKEBAO)、LAOPOXIATIANSHANGJIEYESHEBUDEHEYIPINGKUANGQUANSHUIDEJUEJING——SHIBUSHIHENXIANG“WUCHANJIEJI”?DANQIAQIASHITA,LIANZUOMENGYEYIXINPANWANGHUAERJIEDEHUANGJINWANLIANGSHAGUOLAITUOSHIJIUMIN,ZUOMENGYEPANWANGGUOJIAQUANMIANQIFANG,YIBIANTADANSHIHUJIANGXIYINGWANGSHI,NIUYANGGECAIGAOQIAOHUANQINGJIEFANG。TADEHOUBANBEIZIXIANGDANGYUYIBUPANJIEFANG、QIUJIEFANG、XIANGXINJIEFANGDEDIHOUDOUZHENGSHI,BUXIANGXINZAIZIYOUHEGONGPINGDEGUSHIGUIZEXIA,TAYUHUAERJIEDAHENGMENJIUBUSHIYIJIAREN。WEICITATONGYIGEGELAOTONGXUE、LAOTONGSHI、LAOQINQINAOFANYEZAISUOBUXI。

侠客棋牌QIANWANGEWANGLAOTOU、ZHUNWANGLAOTOUJIUZHEIYANGGOUCHENG“KUAIQIAN”TIXIZUILIXIANGDEPANGDADIBUHEHAILIANGMODUAN,ZHIDAOTAMENZUIZHONGBEIJINGTUNZHIQIAN,YEWUBIJIANDINGDIXIANMU、RENTONG、GENCONG、XIANGXINZIBENDAE。WEILEZUODAOZHEIYIDIAN,WEILECHIXUBUDUANTIGONGZHEIZHONGZUIMEIHAODEDIBUHEMOSHAO,YINGJIAMENKENDINGZHIDAO,BAOCHIWENHUAXINAOBIBUKESHAO,XINGZHENGQUANLIHUOMINGHUOANDECHUSHOUBIBUKESHAO。

YINCI,JIUMOUZHONGJINGJI、ZHENGZHI、WENHUADEQUANFANGWEITUIBIANERYAN,JIUYIZHONGJIZHIHEXINTAIERYAN,“KUAIQIAN”BISHIRENJIANDAE。“KUAIQIAN”DANGYUSHIYEDANGDELIANGZHONGXINLILUOJIJIHUYIKAISHIJIUXINGRUSHUIHUO,XUJUBUTONGDECHONGDONGDAOXIANG:QIYI,HOUZHEWULUNMIANDUIDUOSHAOTONGXINGJINGZHENG,CONGZONGTISHANGSHUO,QUANSHEHUIDEDADUOSHURENYUEFU,GOUMAILIYUEQIANG,ZIJIDEXIAOSHOUKONGJIANJIUYUEKENENGDA,ZUOSHIYEJIUYUEYOUXI。ERQIANZHEWULUNMIANDUIDUOSHAOTONGXINGJINGZHENG,CONGZONGTISHANGSHUO,QUANSHEHUIDEDADUOSHURENYUEKUI,YUESHISUNBINGZHEJIANGLANSHOULANJIAO,ZIJIDEYINGMIANJIUYUEKENENGDA;ZHEIBAOKUOSHIYEJINGJIYUESHIYIPIANPIANXIHUOTINGBAI,NEILIDEXUEKUYUEBEICHOUGAN,DAIDALIANGSHEHUIYOUZIBILENGJIURE,ZIJIDEXINGQINGLASHENGJIUYUEYOUCHONGZUYINDAN。QIER,HOUZHEJUEDEQUANSHEHUIDADUOSHURENYUEZHI,YUEDONGMING,YUESHENQINGQISHUANGQIUZHENWUSHI,SHICHANGGONGPINGJIUYUEYOUBAOZHANG,HAOCHANPINHEHAOFUWUJIUYUEYOUCHULU;ERQIANZHEJUEDEQUANSHEHUIDADUOSHURENYUEYU,YUEXUWANG,YUELIUSHENWUZHURENYUNYIYUN,ZIJIHUYOUZUOJUDEJIYUJIUYUEKENENGDUO,“JIANYANGMAO”DESHOUYIJIUYUEKENENGDA。HUANJUHUASHUO,CHUYUYIZHONGXIAYISHIDEBENNENGFANYING,CHUYUYIZHONGZAISHANGYANSHANGDEYINGDAOLI,HOUZHEYEBISHIWENHUAJIANSHEDESHOUYIZHEHECUJINZHE,ERQIANZHEBISHIWENHUABAIHUAIDESHOUYIZHEHECUJINZHE。

ZHEINANDAOBUSHIYIZHONGJIEJIDOUZHENG?ZAIZHEILI,JIHUYONGBUZHEDAODEPINGJIACHUCHANG——QIANZHEDELVEDUOXING、JISHENGXING、FANSHEHUIXING、HAIYOUYINMIDEFUSHIXING,YIBUNANBIANBIE。

RUOROUQIANGSHI“CONGLINFAZE”FANFUSHANGYANDELISHIZHONG,YOUYICHANGKANGZHENGDAXIYIJINGKAICHANG。ZHEIYEYIWEIZHE,“KUAIQIAN”ZICHANJIEJICONGFANMIANCUISHENGDESHIYEJIEGONGYUESHU,LAODONGZHEGONGYUESHU,ZUOWEIDANGXIAZUIDADELIANGGEWENMINGGONGYUESHUJIAODIE,ZUOWEI“RENMIN”DEZUIXINDINGWEI,ZHENGHUZHIYUCHU。

ZHISHIHENDUODANGSHIRENDUICIKENENGWUSUOYISHI。

HUOBUZHIRUHEYANSHUO。

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侠客棋牌JUTIQINGKUANGDEJUTIFENXI。BUTONGQINGKUANGDEYOUBUTONGYANSHUO。SHENCHUYIGEBANZHIMINDIGUODU(MAKESICONGWEIDAIGUO),DANGNIANMIANDUIWAIQIANGZIBENDUBA,FANFANDITANZICHANJIEJIWUYIYULANGFEISHIJIAN。SHIJIANZHETICHU“MAIBANJIEJI”、“MAIBANZICHANJIEJI”JIUDUILE,JIUNENGQIANZHUNIUBIZI,JIUMOZHUNLEMAI,NENGYURENMENDESHIJIGANSHOUHUORANGUANTONG。SHENCHUYIZHONGZHUANZHIZHUYIGUANBENWEIJIXISHENSHENDEGUODU(MAKESIYECONGWEIDAIGUO),DANGNIANMIANDUIGUANLIAOZIBENZUODA,FANFANDITANZICHANJIEJIJIUBUGUOSHIGEXUESAOYANGWENBUDUITI。SHIJIANZHEDAOTENGCHUYIGE“GUANLIAOJIEJI”、“GUANLIAOZICHANJIEJI”YEJIUDUILE,JIUZHAODAOLEZUIQINGXIDUIJIAODIAN,ZHAODAOLEZUIJIATUPOKOU,NENGBAGENGDUODEJIJIYINSUTUANJIEQILAI,BARENMENGENGDUODERICHANGGANJUE、QIESHENJINGLI、JIETANXIANGYI、ZHISHIJIEDU、QUNTIQINGXUDOUDIAODONGQILAI,NINGJUQILAI,SHIXIANZUIGAOXIAOLVDESHEHUIDONGYUAN。ZAIZHEIYIDIANSHANG,ZHENZHENGDEMAKESIZHUYIZHEYIZHIZUIQIAOBUQIMAKESIFUDUJI,ZUIBUYUANMOFANGFUDUJIDEQIANGDIAO。

HENDUOWANGSHIZUYICHENGWEIHOURENDEQIDI。

(ZUOZHEDANWEI:HAINANSHENGWENLIAN)

注释:

[1] 国际慈善组织乐施会(Oxfam):《99%民众的经济》,2017年1月16日。

[2] 引自《经济导刊》2016年第6期张云东文。

[3] 理查德·佛罗里达:《创意阶层的崛起》,司徒爱勤译,中信出版社2010年版。

[4] 比如他认为欧洲现代史中更取决定性作用的,是超越阶级的新教/天主教差异。参见马克斯·韦伯:《新教伦理与资本主义精神》,于晓、陈维纲等译,生活·读书·新知三联书店1987年版。