[导读]当前中国教育正面临多个层面的“两难困境”:一面是素质教育轰轰烈烈20年,如今却陷入“麻烦治理”,另一面是应试教育不断强化,大有“军备竞赛”之势;一面是力推教育大众化,另一面却是高度功利化的教育观念和精英化的教育资源分配。本文论者认为,中国推行教育改革多年却依旧麻烦不断,其原因就在于教育制度问题本身,在于人们的教育价值观还停留在上个世纪。教育是大写的政治,当前社会一方面批判教育导致阶层固化,一方面又追求高度的教育精英主义,这是思维分裂的过程,也是一种迫不得已的结果。面向未来,新的教育价值观亟待重塑,而教育的良性发展,不仅需要个人和家庭的努力,更需要政府承担起公共责任。本文是2018年10月27日文化纵横“一期一会”主题沙龙的纪要文稿,包括21世纪教育研究院杨东平先生所作的“改革开放40年以来的教育发展与改革”主题演讲,以及修远基金会研究中心主任柯贵福先生所作的点评。本次沙龙由《文化纵横》杂志社和南都公益基金会《南都观察》主办,新华书店总店-新华互联电子商务有限责任公司协办和支持。特此编发,以飨读者。

 

素质教育的“麻烦治理”

侠客棋牌JINNIANZHENGZHIGAIGEKAIFANGSISHINIAN,GEGELINGYUJINIANGAIGEKAIFANGDEWENZHANGCENGCHUBUQIONG。ZAIJIAOYULINGYU,HUADONGSHIFANDAXUEYUANZHENGUOJIAOSHOUTICHULE“SHUANGYOUXIAN”DESHUOFA,JIANGGAIGEKAIFANGYILAIZHONGGUOJIAOYUDEFAZHANJINGYANGAIKUOWEI“LIANGGEYOUXIAN”:GUOJIAYOUXIANFAZHANJIAOYU,JIAOYUYOUXIANMANZUGUOJIAFAZHANXUYAO。

CONGZHEIGEJIAODUCHUFA,KEYIJIANDANKUITANGAIGEKAIFANG40NIANYILAIDEJIAOYUFAZHANJIQISHISHICENGMIANDEQINGKUANG。2012NIAN,GUOJIACAIZHENGXINGJIAOYUJINGFEIZHANGDPDEBILIDADAO4%,GAIMUBIAOSHIZAI1993NIAN《ZHONGGUOGUOJIAJIAOYUGAIGEHEFAZHANGANGYAO》TICHU,YUANDINGYU2000NIANSHIXIANDEGUIHUAZHENGZHENGZHIHOULE12NIAN,SHUOMINGGUOJIADEJIAOYUFAZHANYIJIUCHUYUYIGEDITOURUDEZHUANGTAI。

侠客棋牌DUIGAIGEKAIFANG40NIANLAIJIAOYUFAZHANJINXINGLISHIHUIGU,YIBUTONGJIEDUANDEJIBENJIAOYUTEZHENGWEIBIAOZHUN,1978NIANZHI1988NIANKESHIWEIDIYIGESHINIAN,ZHEISHIHUIFUZHENGDUNHEKAITUOCHUANGXINDESHIQI,JIAOYUGAIGEGANGGANGCONGZHEILIQIBU。DIERGESHINIANSHIPAIHUAIMIMANG、XUNZHAOXINDAOLUDEGUODUSHIQI。DISANJIEDUANYI1998NIANGAODENGJIAOYUDAKUOZHAOWEIBIAOZHI,YUCITONGSHI,90NIANDAIMOQIDONGYIXILIEJICHUJIAOYUDEBANXUETIZHIGAIGECUOSHI,BAOKUOJIANGGONGBANXUEXIAOZHUANWEIMINYINGXUEXIAO、GAOZHONGJIAOYUYOUCHANGSHOUFEIDENG,ZHEIZHONGJIAOYUSHANGYEHUAHESHICHANGHUADELUXIANZAIHENDACHENGDUSHANGZAOCHENGLEXIANZAI“MAFANZHILI”DEJUMIAN。

SUZHIJIAOYUDE“MAFANZHILI”ZHUYAOBAOKUOSIGEFANGMIAN。ZUIHEXINDESHIZHONGXIAOXUESHENGDEJIANFUWENTI;ERSHIKEWAIPEIXUNRE;SANSHIGAOKAOZHIDUGAIGE;ZUIHOUSHISUZHIJIAOYUDETUIJIN,ZHEIFANGMIANZAIDACHENGSHIDEYOUXIUXUEXIAOYOUHENDAJINZHANDE,DANCONGQUANGUOZHENGTILAIKANRENGRANFASHANKECHEN,“SUZHIJIAOYUHONGHONGLIELIE,YINGSHIJIAOYUZHAZHASHISHI”。

 

应试:与素质教育如影随形

SUZHIJIAOYUDEGAINIANCONGSHANGSHIJIJIUSHINIANDAICHUXIAN,DAO1999NIANBANBU《ZHONGGONGZHONGYANG、GUOWUYUANGUANYUSHENHUAJIAOYUGAIGE,QUANMIANTUIJINSUZHIJIAOYUDEJUEDING》,QINEIHANYIZHISHIJIAOYULINGYUZHENGLUNDEREDIAN,DANSUZHIJIAOYUZHANZAIYINGSHIJIAOYUDEDUILIMIAN,ZHEIYIDIANSHIDAJIADEGONGSHI。

YINGSHIJIAOYUBEISHIWEI“FUHUO”HE“QIANGHUA”BANDECHUANTONGJIAOYU,QIZHONGZUIHEXINDESHIZHONGXIAOXUEZHONGDIANXUEXIAOZHIDU,ZHEIXIEZHANBISHENSHAODEZHONGDIANXUEXIAOCHENGWEILEYINGSHIJIAOYUZEXIAOJINGZHENGDEZHUYAOMUBIAO,YEZAOCHENGLEXIANZAIJILIEDEXUEYEJINGZHENGJUMIAN。ZAIZHIQIANTICHUFANGZHI“PIANZHUI”(JIFANGZHIPIANMIANZHUIQIUSHENGXUELV)DEZHENGCEKOUHAO,ZHI90NIANDAI,“PIANZHUI”ZHUJIANDINGXINGWEIYINGSHIJIAOYU。YINGSHIJIAOYUXIADEJINGZHENGCHENGDUYUELAIYUEJILIE,QIWEIHAIYEYUELAIYUEDA。

1981NIAN,ZUOWEIJIAOYUBUGUWENDEYESHENGTAOZAI《ZHONGGUOQINGNIAN》ZAZHIFABIAO《WOHUYU》YIWEN,HUYUGEFANGMIANGUANZHUZHONGXUESHENGZAIGAOKAOZHONGYAXIAFUDANGUOZHONGDEWENTI,YINQISHEHUIDEQIANGLIEFANXIANG。1982NIANJIAOYUBUDETONGZHIZHONG,YAOQIU“JIXUBANHAO”ZHONGDIANZHONGXIAOXUEDETONGSHI,CHULIHAOZHONGDIANXUEXIAOYUFEIZHONGDIANXUEXIAODEGUANXI,“BAOZHENGZHONGDIAN,JIANGUYIBAN”。ZHEIYITONGZHIZUOWEIDUIXUESHENGGAOKAOYALIGUODAWENTIDEHUIYING,QISHISHIYUANYUANBUGOUDE。

侠客棋牌ZHONGGUOJICHUJIAOYUZHILIANGZAIPINGGULINGYUQUDELEBUSUDECHENGJIU,DANTONGSHI,YINXUESHENGCHENGSHOUJUDADEXUEYEYALIERBAOSHOUGONGZHONGPIPING。YIGUOJIXUESHENGPINGGUXIANGMUPISA(YOUOECDZUZHI,ZHENDUI15SUIQINGSHAONIANJINXINGDESHUXUE、KEXUEHEYUEDUSANXIANGNENGLIDECESHI)WEILI,2012NIANZHONGGUOSHANGHAIZUOWEIDAIBIAOCANYUCESHI,ZAICIGAOJUBANGSHOU,DANDANGSHISHANGHAIDELELIANGGEDIYI:XUEYECHENGJIUDIYI,XUEYEFUDANDIYI。JUTILAISHUO,SHANGHAIXUESHENGPINGJUNMEIZHOUZUOYESHIJIANDA13.8XIAOSHI,QUANQIUPAIZAISHOUWEI,EROECDGUOJIADEXUESHENGMEIZHOUHUAFEI5XIAOSHI,QITAYAZHOUGUOJIARUHANGUO、RIBEN,XUESHENGDEZUOYESHIJIANZHIYOUSHANGHAIDEERFENZHIYIDAOSANFENZHIYI。XUEYECHENGJIUDIYISHIYIGUOZHANGDEXUEXISHIJIANWEIDAIJIADE。

 

择校热、培训热与应试教育的制度根源

ZAIYANGDONGPINGLAOSHIKANLAI,YINGSHIJIAOYUZAIZHUJIANEHUA,QIBIAOXIANXINGSHIYESHIDUOZHONGDUOYANG:QIYI,SUIZHEJIAOYUPEIXUNYEDEFAZHAN,YINGSHIJIAOYUDE“SHUZIHUA”SHENGCUNWUKONGBURU;QIER,WEIYINGSHIJIAOYUBIANHUDESHENGYINYUELAIYUELIZHIQIZHUANG,HENDUORENJIANGQISHIWEIQIONGREN“SHANGSHENG”DEWEIYITUJING。

侠客棋牌WEIHEYINGSHIJIAOYULVJINBUZHI、YUYANYULIE?YOURENSUZHUYUWENHUACHUANTONG,RENWEIKEJULIUXIADEYINGSHICHUANTONGZAIRUJINGEZHONG“XIAOSHENGCHU”、“CHUSHENGGAO”MOSHIZHONGDEDAOLEYANXU。DANZHEIZHONGSHEHUIXINGPIANHAO,HUOZHESHUOZHONGGUOJIAZHANGWANGZICHENGLONGDEQIWANG,SHIYIZHONGZHANGQICUNZAIDEBEIJINGYINSU。CIWAI,HAIYOUHENDUOQITADEJIESHI,RULAODONGLISHICHANGDEXUQIU、ZHONGCHANJIEJIDEJIAOLVDENGDENG,ZHEIXIEYINSUDOUBUSHIJUEDUIXINGDE,ZUIZHIJIEDEYUANYINSHIJIAOYUZHIDUDEWENTI。

侠客棋牌1999NIAN,JIAOYUBUWEILEGUANCHE《YIWUJIAOYUFA》,CUJINYIWUJIAOYUDEJUNHENGFAZHAN,YAOQIUSUOYOUDEZHONGDIANGAOZHONGBIXUYUCHUZHONGTUOGOU。ZHONGDIANGAOZHONGYUCHUZHONGTUOGOUDEGUIDINGHAICUISHENGLE“ZHUANZHIXUEXIAO”,JIZHONGDIANGAOZHONGZIBANDECHUJIZHONGXUEZHUANBIANCHENGMINYINGJIZHI,YAOSHENBIANWEIGAOSHOUFEIDEFANPAIXUEXIAO,YONGYUMIBUJIAOYUTOURUDEBUZU,SHIDEJIAOYUFAZHANJINRULEYIGEJIAOYUCHANYEHUADEGUIDAO。2005NIANQIANHOU,GUOWUYUANKAISHIZHENGDUNZHUANZHIXUEXIAO,YAOQIUGEXUEXIAOMINGXIXINGZHI,FEIGONGJIMIN,DANZHEICIZHENGDUNZAIHENDUODIFANGBINGBUCHEDI,ZHIZHIJINRIXUDUOXUEXIAODECHANQUANYEMEINENGWANQUANJIEDINGQINGCHU。

JIANLIYIGEZHENGCHANGDEJIAOYUZHIXU,HAIXUYAOGUIFANJIAOYUFANGZHENHEJIAOYUDEJIBENJIAZHI。DANGJINSHEHUIQIANGDIAOXUESHENGDE“QUANMIANFAZHAN”,GAIJIAOYUFANGZHENSHISHENRURENXIN,DANXIANSHISHENGHUOZHONGSHANGBINGBUJINRAN,YINZHUIQIUQUANMIANERDAOZHIPINGJUNHEPINGYONGFAZHANDEXIANXIANGBUZAISHAOSHU。

侠客棋牌JIAOYUGONGPINGDEJIAZHIBEIRENRENCHENGSONG,DANZAISHIJIDEJIAOYUXIANSHIZHONGQUERANGWEIYUXIAOLVYOUXIAN、SHENGXUELVYOUXIAN……ZAIYINDU,SILIXUEXIAOXUHUACHU25%DERUXUEMINGEJILAIZIDISHOURUJIATING、SHENGHUOSHUIZHUNDIXIADEXUESHENGHECANZHANGXUESHENG,ZHEIJIUSHIJIAOYUGONGPINGDEGAINIAN,ZHEISHIFADINGDEJIAOYUZHIDU。

侠客棋牌ZHONGGUODEJIAOYUSHIGAODUGONGLIZHUYIDE,ZHEIYUWENHUACHUANTONGZHONG“WEIYOUDUSHUGAO”、“DUSHUZUOGUAN”DESHUOFAMIBUKEFEN。ZHONGGUODEJIAOYUYESHIFEICHANGJINGYINGZHUYIDE,ZHEILIDEJINGYINGZHUYIZHIXIANGYIZHONGJIAZHIGUAN,JIZHENGGEJIAOYUZHIDU、ZIYUANDEPEIZHIYIJIJIAOYUDEZHONGXIN,DOUPIANXIANGSHAOSHUJINGYING。ERQIE,DUONIANYILAIJIAOYUFAZHANDEZHONGXINDOUPIANXIANGGAODENGJIAOYU,JIAOYUZIYUANDEPEIZHIQINGXIANGYUCHENGSHI。

 

从应试教育突围:是可能的吗?

侠客棋牌RUJINSHENGXINGDESUZHIJIAOYU、JICHUJIAOYUGAIGE,QIHEXINGAINIANSHI“CONGYINGSHIJIAOYUTUWEI”。

侠客棋牌YAOSHIXIANZHEIZHONGTUWEI,JUBUDEXIUXIUGAIGAISHIYUANYUANBUGOUDE。YOURENRENWEIZHENGTIDEJIAOYUFANSHIXUYAOZHUANXING,YIYOURENTICHUYAO“HUANSAICHANG”,ZHUANYIDAOXINDEXITONGZHONGLAIJINXINGGUIHUA。YANGDONGPINGLAOSHIRENWEISANGEYINGXIANGJIAOYUBIANGEDEYINSUZHONG,ZUIZHONGYAODESHIJIAZHIGUAN,QICISHIJIAOYUZHIDUJITIZHIYUZHENGCE,DISANSHIJIAOYUJISHU。YIHANDESHI,XIANSHISHENGHUOZHONGZHEISANZHEDEZHONGYAOXINGSHIDIANDAOGUOLAIDE。JIAOYUJISHUYIZHIBEIFUYUZHONGYAODESHIMING,GENGYOUSHENZHERENWEIZHIYAOSHIXIANJIAOYUXINXIHUA,SUIZHESHIJIANDETUIYIJIUNENGGOUFAZHANDAOWEILAIJIAOYU,ZHEIQISHISHIYIZHONGBENMODAOZHI。JIAOYUDEXIANDAIHUABUJINJINYIWEIZHEYINGJIANSHESHIDEGAISHAN,YOUQISHIXIANZAIDAWEILIUXINGDEHULIANWANGXINXIJISHU,YEBUJINJINSHIJIXIAOSHUIPINGDETIGAO,SUOWEIRUXUELV、SHENGXUELVDENGDENG。JIAOYUXIANDAIHUADEHEXINZHIBIAOSHIJIAOYUPINZHI,ZHEIYUCHANGBEITIDAODEJIAOYUZHILIANGHAIYOUXIEXUCHAYI。XIANZAIQUXIANGYUYONGJIAOYUPINZHILAIQUDAIJIAOYUZHILIANG,JIUSHIXIWANGBIMIANBAJIAOYUZHILIANGXIAYIDILIJIEWEIKAOSHIFENSHUHESHENGXUELV,JIAOYUPINZHIBAOKUOXUESHENGDESHENXINJIANKANG、RENGEFAZHAN、JINSHILVDENGDENG,ZAIZHEIZHISHANGPEIHEZHEJIAOYUZHILIDEXIANDAIHUA,CONGERSHIXIANXUESHENGDECHONGFENFAZHAN。

侠客棋牌ZAITANLUNJIAOYUGAIGEHEFAZHANSHI,TEBIEXUYAOFANSIDEYIGEWENTISHI:SHENMESHIHAODEJIAOYU?

SHIJISHANG,QUANQIUFANWEINEIDEJIAOYUYANJIUYIZHIZAISIKAOJIAOYUMUBIAO,XUNQIUZAIDINGYIZHISHI、XUEXIYUJIAOYU。2016NIANLIANHEGUOJIAOKEWENZUZHIFABIAOLEYIXIANGZHONGYAOYANJIUBAOGAO《FANSIJIAOYU:XIANG“QUANQIUGONGTONGLIYI”DELINIANZHUANBIAN?》,QIZHONGZHICHU“JIAOYUDEJINGJIGONGNENGWUYISHIZHONGYAODE,DANWOMENBIXUCHAOYUEDANCHUNDEGONGLIZHUYIGUANDIANYIJIRENLIZIBENLINIAN。JIAOYUBUJINGUANXIDAOXUEXIJINENG,HAISHEJIZUNZHONGSHENGMINGHERENGEZUNYANDEJIAZHIGUAN,ERZHEIZAIDUOYANGHUASHIJIEZHONGSHISHIXIANSHEHUIHEXIEDEBIYAOTIAOJIAN”。ZHEILIPIPANDESHIZAIZUIJINERSHINIANYILAI,ZHENGGESHIJIEDEJIAOYUFAZHANXIANRUDAOLEGONGLIZHUYIDEXUANWOZHONG,YOUQISHIZAIRENLIZIBENLILUNCHUXIANZHIHOU,DANRENLIZIBENLILUNDEQUEXIANZAIYU,BAJIAOYUDEFAZHANXIAYIDILIJIEWEIRENLIZIYUANDEKAIFA,DAOZHILEJIAOYUDEGONGLIZHUYI。DANGBAJIAOYUDEFAZHANJIANLIZAIYITAOJINGGUOGAODUGUIHUASHEJIDEJIZHISHANG,JIAOYUQISHIYEJIUBIANCHENGLEGUOJIADEYIXIANGCHANYE,ZHEIYUJIAOYUCHUSHIFAZHANDEHEXINGAINIANSHIYOUHENDAQUBIEDE。ZAIZHEIZHONGYIGUOJIAWEIDANWEIDE、GONGLIZHUYIJIAOYUFAZHANDEJIAGOUXIA,RENMENYEJIUSANGSHILEDUIRENLEIMINGYUNGONGTONGTIDEGUANHUAI。ERQIEDANGZHEIZHONGGUOJIAGONGLIZHUYIZHUJIANZHUANHUAWEIGERENGONGLIZHUYI,MEIGERENZHIGUANXINZIJIDEZHIYEFAZHAN,SUOWEIQUANMIANFAZHANDEGONGMINJIAOYUYEJIUCHENGLESHETAN。

JIAOYUDEJINGJIGONGNENGWUYISHIZHONGYAODE,DANSHIJIAOYUDEFAZHANBIXUCHAOYUEDANCHUNDEGONGLIZHUYIGUANDIANHERENLIZIBENLINIAN。JIAOYUBUJINGUANXIDAOXUEXIJINENG,HAISHEJIDAOZUNZHONGSHENGMINGHERENGEZUNYANDEJIAZHIGUAN,ZHEIZAIDUOYUANHUADESHIJIEDANGZHONGSHIYOUQIZHONGYAODE。2015NIAN,21SHIJIJIAOYUYANJIUYUANZAIQIJUBANDELIFEJIAOYUCHUANGXINFENGHUISHANGFABIAOLEYIXIANGRENBENZHUYIJIAOYUXUANYAN:“CUJINJIAOYUDERENWENHUA、DUOYUANHUA、SHEQUHUA、SHENGHUOHUA,GAIBIANZHANGQIYILAIJIAOYUZHONGLIQINGWEN、ZHIYUZHISHANGDEJIAZHI,CHONGSHIJIAOYUDERENWENNEIHAN,SHIJIAOYUCHONGMANAIDEQINGGANHESHENGMINGDEWENDU。”ZHONGGUOJIAOYUGAIGECHUXIAN“MAFANZHILI”DEZUIGUANJIANYUANYINZAIYU,ZAIHULIANWANGJISHUGAOSUFAZHANDE21SHIJI,JIAOYUDEJIAZHIGUANQUEHAITINGLIUZAISHANGGESHIJI,ZHEIYESHIYANGLAOSHIJIANGJIAZHIGUANSHIWEIYINGXIANGJIAOYUBIANGEDEHEXINYINSUDEYUANYIN。

SHULIXINDEJIAOYUJIAZHIGUAN,SHOUXIANYAOCHAOYUEDANCHUNGAOKAOZHIDUGAIGEDESHIJIAO,YAOSHIXIANGAOZHONGJIAOYUJUNHENGFAZHAN、GAOZHONGJIAOYUDEDUOYANGHUA,GAIBIANXIANJIEDUANSHENGXUEJINGZHENGDEDANGUIDAOMOSHI,SHIXIANXUESHENGDEDUOYUANFAZHAN。QICIYAOCHAOYUEDANCHUNDECAIZHENGSHIJIAO,YIFANGMIANGAISHANJIAOYUTOURUDEJIEGOU,CONGGUODUZHONGSHI“WU”ZHUANYIDAOZHUYAOZHONGSHI“REN”,LINGYIFANGMIANXUYAOGONGJICEGAIGE,GULIDUOYANGHUABANXUERUSHEHUIBANXUE、JIAZHANGBANXUE、ZAIJIASHANGXUEDENGDENG,GOUJIANYIZHONGXINJIAOYUSHENGTAI。ZUIHOUSHICHAOYUEDANCHUNKEGAIDESHIJIAO,CONGKECHENGGAIGEZOUXIANGXUEXIAOGAIGE。ZHEISHIYIJIAOYUJIABANXUEHEXUEXIAOZIZHUGUANLIWEIZHUTIDEBIANGE,BEIJINGRIRIXINXUETANG、YUNNANCHUXIONGXINGLONGMEILIXIAOXUE、FUXIBANDENGXINXINGXUEXIAOJIUSHIZAIZHEIZHONGLINIANXIADANSHENGDE。

 

教育是大写的政治议题

侠客棋牌KEGUIFURENWEI,JIAOYUSHIYIGEZHENZHENGDEGONGGONGXINGYITI,TASHIDAXIEDEZHENGZHI,SHIZUIDADEZHENGZHIYITI,YINWEITASHEJIDAOYIGESHEHUIJIAGOUHEJIATINGJIEGOUDEZAISHENGCHANWENTI,YEJIUSHIZHONGGUOGUOJIAHEMINZUDEXIAYIDAIFAZHANWENTI,YEGUANXIDAOMEIYIGEJIATING、MEIYIGERENDEFAZHANWENTI,GUANXIDAOXIAYIDAIRUHENENGGOUGENGHAODESHENGHUO。ZHIQIANBEISHIZUONIANQINGRENDE80HOU、90HOUHENDUODOUCHENGLEJIAZHANG,80HOUSHENZHIYIJINGCHENGWEIJIAZHANGDEZHULIU,TAMENDUIJIAOYUDESIKAOHUICHENGWEIYINGXIANGSHEHUIFAZHANGUANJIANYAOSU。

KEGUIFUYIBEIJINGWEILI,ZHICHUZHONGCENGJIATINGSHIJIAOYUHUODONGZUIWEIJIJI、ZUIWEIZHUYAODECANYUZHE。ZHONGCENGJIATINGDEJIAZHANGBENSHENSHOUGUOLIANGHAODEJIAOYU,ZHEIZHONGQIESHENTIHUICHUANGZAOLEPOQIEDEXUQIU,DUIXIAYIDAITOURUJIAOYUZIYUANDEJUEXINHENDA。DANZHONGCENGJIAZHANGMEIYOUJUDADECAIFUHUOSHIYEJIXIAYIDAIJICHENG,ZHONGCENGJIATINGDEHAIZIWANGWANGHAISHIYAOJINRUDAOGAOKAOTIXI,ERZAIBEIJING,ZHEIJIUYIWEIZHECONGHAOYOUERYUANDAOHAOXIAOXUE、ZAIDAOJINGYINGZHONGXUE、ZUIHOUBEIDAQINGHUAZHEIYANGDELUXIAN。ZHEIBIRANSHIDUIJIATINGZONGHEZIYUANTOURUDEBIPIN,JIAZHANGBUJINYAOTOURUDALIANGDESHIJIAN、JINGLI,HAIYAOTOURUDALIANGDEWUZHIZIYUAN,BIRUMAIXUEQUFANG。JIAOYUJINGZHENGHUIBAZHENGGEJIATINGDOUWANGZHEIGEGUIZESHANGGAN,LEISIYUJIAOYULINGYUDEJUNBEIJINGSAI。KEGUIFURENWEI,ZHEIYITAOBUSHENHELIDEYOUXIGUIZE,QIZHIDINGZHEZHENGSHIXUEXIAO、ZHENGFUYIJIJIAOYUCHANYEHUADEQITAZHONGYAOCANYUZHE。PIPANZHIDUDEJIAZHANGMENQUEYOUBAHAIZIWANGHAOZHONGXUE、HAOXIAOXUESAI,TAMENZAIZHEIGEYOUXIGUIZEZHIZHONGZHISHIYONGJIAOTOUPIAODECANYUZHE,BUNENGJIECHENGZUZHILAIFANDUIGUIZE,SUOYIJINGUANTAMENSHENGYINXUANNAO,DANSHIQUEQUEFAZHENGCEYINGXIANGLI。

JIEZHE,KEGUIFUTANJIZHONGXIBUDIQUZHONGDIANZHONGXUEDE“QIAJIAN”XIANXIANGYOUCHENG“HENGSHUIXIANXIANG”。ZHEIDAOZHILIANGGEWENTI,YISHIYOUZHIJIAOYUZIYUANDEGUOYUJIZHONG,YIGEDIJISHIJIBENZHIYOUYIGESHENGJIZHONGDIANZHONGXUE,ZHIYOUJIJINQUCAINENGHUODEKAORUHAODAXUEDEJIHUI,ZAOCHENGLEYANZHONGDEBUPINGDENG。ERSHIXIANGCUNWENHUAFENWEIDEEHUA,NONGCUNJUMINYUANLAIKANDEDAOSHENBIANRENNENGKAOSHANGHAODAXUEYOUHAOGONGZUOYOUHAOCHULU,DANJINTIANDAJIATURANFAXIANZAIZENMEDUYEZHINENGSHIYIBANXUEXIAO、ZHAOBUDAOGONGZUO,HAIBURUQUDAGONG,JIUMEISHENMERENYUANYIHAOHAODUSHULE。

侠客棋牌TAHAITANJIJIAOYUWENTIZAIZHONGGUORUCIFUZADEYUANYIN。TARENWEI,JIAOYUCHULELILUNSHANGDESANGEGONGNENGJICHUANDIZHISHI、PEIYANGRENGE、YIJIXUANBARENCAIZHIWAI,HAIYOULIANGGEJIEGOUXINGGONGNENG,YIGESHIWEIXISHEHUIFENGONG,LINGYIGEYIGESHIJIEJIZAISHENGCHAN。JINGYINGZHUYIDEJIAOYUJIUSHIJINXINGZIYUANFUQUAN,XIANZAIYIXIEYANGQI、ZHONGYANGBUWEI、YIJIDAXINGKUAGUOQIYE,XUDUOZHIDINGXIANGZHAOPINJIGEXUEXIAODEBIYESHENG,SHENZHIZHIYAOBEIDA、QINGHUADEXUESHENG,ZHEIYANGDEZIYUANJIJUSHIDELONGDUANJIEGOUYUELAIYUEQIANGHAN,ZAIJINGYINGJIAOYUTIZHIXIASHEHUIJIEGOUBIRANGUHUA。XIANZAIDAJIAYIFANGMIANPIPANSHEHUIJIEJIGUHUA,YIFANGMIANYOUGAODUDEJINGYINGZHUYI,ZHEIQISHISHIYIGESIWEIFENLIEDEGUOCHENG,DANZHEISHIWEILERANGZINVZAISHEHUIZHONGGUOSHANGGENGHAOSHENGHUOPOBUDEYIDEXUANZE。YINWEIDANGXIADEXUANBATIXIYUHAIZISUZHIDETIANRANDUOYUANHUATEZHENGSHIBUPIPEI,TAKEYISHIBIEGEFANGMIANDOUBIJIAOPINGJUNDE“GAOSHUIZHUN”,QUEHENNANSHIBIEMOUFANGMIANYOUTEZHANGDEREN。

KEGUIFUZHICHU,DUOYUANHUARENCAIXUANBATIXIDEQUESHI,KENENGYUSHENGCHANLIFAZHANSHUIPINGYOUGUAN,XIANDAIJIAOYUTIXICHANSHENGYUDEGUO,TAYUDEGUOGONGYEHUAJINCHENGMIQIEXIANGGUAN。JINTIANYIJINGDAOLEDISANCI、DISICIGONGYEGEMINGSHIDAI,WOMENDEJIAOYUTIXIYUCHANYETIXIDEFUZABIANQIANBUPIPEI,KENENGSHIBIJIAOGUANJIANDEWENTI。ZIDONGHUADAILAILAOGONGSHIYE、RENGONGZHINENGDAILAIZHONGCENGZHIYEDEXIAOMIE,PUTONGHEZHONGDENGZHILINANDUDEGONGZUOXIAOSHILE,DANXIANYOUDEJIAOYUTIXIHAIZAIYUANYUANBUDUANSHENGCHANZHEIYANGYIPIXUESHENG,TAMENSHENZHIZHAOBUDAOGONGZUO、YANGHUOBULEZIJI。KAOGERENHUOKAOJIATINGQUJIEJUEZHEIYIWENTICUNZAIXIANGDANGDADEKUNNAN,TAZHINENGYOUZHENGFUZHUDAO、JIANFUQIGONGGONGZEREN,TAYESHIGUOJIASHIXIANCHANYEZHUANXINGHUOZHEMINZUFUXINGBIXUCHENGDANDEYIGEZEREN。