韩少功

 

YUELAIYUEDUODERENZHAOBUDAOHUOXIAQUDELIYOU。MEIGUO《GUOJIALIYI》WANGZHAN2019NIAN6YUE3RIBAODAO:2009ZHI2017BANIANJIANGAIGUODENIANQINGRENZISHALVZENGZHANGLE56%,YANZHONGYIYUZHEZAIBUTONGNIANLINGDUANDEQINGSHAONIANZHONGFENBIEZENGZHANG69%ZHI100%。XIANGGUANXIAOXISHI,MEILIANSHETONGNIAN9YUE14RIBAODAO:ERSHINIANLAIHECHENGAPIANLEIYAOWUZAOCHENGDESIWANGRENSHUZENGZHANG800%YISHANG。ERLIANHEGUOERTONGJIJINHUIHESHIJIEWEISHENGZUZHITONGNIAN11YUE5RIBAOGAO,YIFUGAIRENKOU1/5DEYIYUZHENG,GUJIZAIWEILAISHINIANHUOSHIWUNIANNEIJIANGCHAOGUOAIZHENG,CHENGWEIQUANQIUDIERDAZHIWANGJIBING,ZAIBUSHAODIFANGCHENGWEIDIYIDASHASHOU。

侠客棋牌ZHEIYIQUSHIWUGUANPINKUN。FASHENGZUIGAOZISHALVDEBUFAFUGUO,BUFAFUGUODEDOUSHIHEDAXUE,DAOSHIYUQUANQIUSISHIDUOGEZUIBUFAZHANGUOJIADEZHONGHELVJIDI。

ZHEIYIQUSHISIHUYEWUGUANDAODEJINGU。LISHISHANGZAOCHENGGEZHONGYISHENXUNJIAO、XUNDAO、XUNZHU、XUNQINDEYISHIXINGTAI,QIAHAOZAIZHEIGESHIDAITANTA,RANGWEIYUZONGYUDEXIAOFEIZHUYIZUIGAOFENGZHI。

NEIMEMEINIANYUE80WANRENDEZISHA,SHUBAIWANRENDEZISHANG,YIRUYICICIXUEXINGZHANZHENG——DIRENZAINALI?DIRENYOUSHISHEI?

FAGUOSHEHUIXUEJIATUERGAN(Émile Durkheim)XIEGUOZHUMINGDE《ZISHALUN》。ZAITAKANLAI,XIFANGJINDAIYILAISUOTUICHONGDEGERENZHUYI,POSUILE“ZUOWEIZHENGTIDESHEHUI”,SHIGERENYUJIATING、ZONGJIAO、SHEHUIXIANGTUOLI,RANGYIXIERENGANDAOSHENGHUOKONGXUBINGSHIQUMUBIAO,YINCISHIYIZHONGJIDUANGERENZHUYICUISHENGLE“LIJIXINGZISHA”。YANXIA,RUGUOWOMENZHUYIYIXIASHENBIANXIANGGUANANLI,SHAOSHAOLEJIEYIDIANANQING,KANKANHENDUODANGSHIRENNEICANGBAIDEMIANKONG、LENGMODEYANSHEN、GUDUDEBEIYING,TEBIESHINEILIZHUDUOSICENGXIANGSHIDEDIJIXINLISHIGU,HAIYOUWUDUANDEJINZHANGGUANXI,NEIMEZHONGXINXIANGQITUERGAN,BUSHISHENMENANSHI。

僧侣或家族的社会主义

BUSHAORENRENWEI,ZUIZAODEGERENZHUYILAIZIYOUMUZHEYIGEGEGULINGLINGDEZHANBAO。NEIXIEXIANMINMEIYOULINJU,HUOZHESHUOLINJUZONGZAIYUANCHUDEDIPINGXIANNEIBIAN。XIANYUYIZHONGGANGXINGDESHENGCHANFANGSHI,TAMENXUYAOYOUJU,YIBUDUANFAXIANXINDESHUICAO;YEBIRANSANJU,YIBIANJUNYUNFENPEIGEJIADESHUICAO——ZHADUIKENDINGHUITUZENGNIUYANGMISHIZHINAN。YUZHIXIANGYIDESHI,NONGGENGSHEHUILIZHANGQIDINGJUHEJUJUDEDAJIAZU,ZAIZHEILIBUKEXIANGXIANG。DAYUZHISHUIYILEISHUILIJIANSHESUOXUYAODEDAGUIMOJIQUNXIEZUO,ZAIZHEILIYEJIWUGENYOU。CHULEZHANZHENG,QILINGBALUOGEXINGQISHIDESHENGHUOTUJING,GENGSHIZHEILIDERICHANG。

BUGUO,YIYOUMUWEIZHUYAOSHENGJIDEXIFANGXIANMIN,BINGBUSHIZHIRENGEREN,ZHIZHONGGEREN,ZHIYOUGERENHUA(HUOXIAOJIAHUA)DEXISU。TAMENYOUGUOXINGHUIHECUNSHELIDUOJIANDEHUZHU,QIMAHAIYOUZONGJIAO。ZONGJIAODEJIAOCHANGONGYOU、LVJISHOUJIE、BOAIJIPIN,JIUSHIDUIGERENZHUYIDEZHIHENG,CHABUDUOSHIYIZHONGSENGLVSHEHUIZHUYI,TEBIESHIHEXIANGHUMOSHENGDEXIACENGMINZHONG,BIRUYAOUDALUSHANGNEIXIEZUJIMANZHANGERFUZADEMURENHENANMIN。RIHOUDE《WUTUOBANG》(TUOMASI·MOER)YU《TAIYANGCHENG》(KANGPANEILA),ZUOWEIRENMENDUIMEIHAOSHEHUIDELIXIANG,DUOSHIZAIJIAOTANGDEZHONGSHENGLIMENGFA。

侠客棋牌LINGYIZHONGXINGTAISHI,RUJIACHENGZHANGYUDONGYA,YOU“YURETONGJI”DENGYINONGTIAOJIAN,YITUOWENGUDEJIAZUTIZHIHEQINYUANGUANXI。RENMENZAISHENMEDIFANGYIZHUJIUSHIJIDAI,SHENZHIJISHIDAI,YINCIGENGKANZHONG“XIAOTI”:YIQIANZHENINGJUZONGXIANGDEZHANGYOU,YIHOUZHEHEMUHENGXIANGDETONGBEI,BIANZHIQINSHUQINQINGWANGLUO。NAPAXIANGWAIYANSHEN,YESHIYI“FUZI”TUIJI“JUNCHEN”,YI“TONGBAO”TUIJI“BAIXING”,YIJIAYUGUO,SHIGUOWEIJIA,WANGGENZISHANGSHUO,HUOKECHENGZHIWEIJIAZUSHEHUIZHUYI,SHAOJIAFANGDABIANSHITIANXIA“DATONG”DEXIANGXIANG。

ZHIDEZHUYIDESHI,16SHIJIYIHOU,ZONGJIAOYEHAO,RUJIAYEHAO,DOUCHENGLEXIANDAIQIMENGZHUYINIANYADEQIWU。《SHENGJING》SHUO:“SHANGDIAISHIREN”。DANSHANGDISHISHENME,SHEINENGSHUODEQING?SHINEIGERANGTONGNVWEIYUNERSHENGBINGYISHENGXUEQINGXISHIRENYUANZUIDEYEHEHUADASHU?《SHANGSHU》CHENG:“TIANSHIZIWOMINSHI”。NEIME“TIAN”YOUSHISHENME?BAIYUNCANGGOUBUJIUSHIYIXIESHUIZHENGQI?LEIGONGDIANMUYIYUDAOBILEIZHEN,BUYEDEANRANXIAGANG?

XIANRAN,YINWUWULIXUE、SHENGWUXUE、TIANWENXUE、RENLEIXUE、JINGJIXUEDENGYIWEIZHICHENG,QUEFAZUGOUDEZHENGJULIANHELUOJILIAN,XIANRENMENZHINENGBAYIZHONGQUNTIGUANHUAIHEDAODELIXINGDAERHUAZHI,HANHUQICI,COUHEYIDIANGUSHIXIANGXIANGHEWUDUANGEYAN,ZUIZHONGGUIYINYUSENGLVDE“SHENYI”HUORUSHENGDE“TIANDAO”。ZHEIZAIRENLEIWENMINGZAOQIYEXUGOULE——FANGDAO16SHIJIYIHOU,JIUBUDARONGYITINGRUER,QUESHAOSHIYANSHIHEFANGCHENGSHIDEPEIZHI。

YIGEKEXUEDESHIDAIZHENGZAIDAOCHANG。

侠客棋牌SUIZHE“SHENYI”HE“TIANDAO”TUIQU,BAOKUOJIAOHUI、RULINDEFUBAIZISUNQIGONGXINLI,QUNJIGUANXIDEZUIDAYICISHIHENGYOUCIKAISHI,GERENZHUYIYEKAISHIYOUYIZHONGWENHUAJIYIN,ZHANGXIANWEIYIZHONGWENHUAJULIU。ZHIYOUDAOZHEISHIHOU,YIXIEZHONGGUOXUEZHECAIKAISHIMIANSHENGYOUSE,XINSHENGBUAN,JIANQIWEICI。FEIXIAOTONGDANXINXIFANGWENHUAZHANGYU“YANGJI”ERDUANYU“KEJI”。QIANMUHUAIYIXIFANGWENHUABUGUOSHIPIANLIRENXINGDE“XIAOWOJIAO”ERFEI“DAQUNJIAO”。LIANYANFUYESHOUOUZHOUYIZHANDECIJI,YIFANJIANDINGXIHUAPAIDELICHANG,GUBUSHANGZIJISUOYIJIEDE《TIANYANLUN》(HEXULIZHU),ZAIWANNIANXIEJIXUESHENGDEYIFENGXINZHONG,TONGCHIXIFANGSUOWEIBUGUOSHI“LIJISHAREN,GUALIANXIANCHI”,FANERSHIZIJICENGEPIGUODEKONGMENGZHIDAO“LIANGTONGTIANDI,ENZEHUANYU”。BUGUO,ZHEIXIESHENGYINLAIZIYIGEJINGJILUOHOUDENONGGENGSHEHUI,HENKUAIJIUBEIXUEXIFANG、GANXIFANG、TONGXIFANGYIGEYANGDEJIJINSHENGLANGSUOYANMEI,BINGBUNENGZUZHIGERENZHUYIXIEGONGYEHUADASHI,ZAIQUANQIUFANWEINEIYILUGAOGEMENGJIN。

▍重己、崇私、尚恶的现代伦理启蒙

侠客棋牌KANLAI,“GEREN”ZHISHIYIXIANGXIANDAIDEFAMING。

YINGGUOSHENGWUXUEJIADAERWENYOULISHIJIE,XIECHULE《WUZHONGQIYUAN》,DONGYAOLEJIDUJIAODECHUANGSHILUN。TATICHUZIRANXUANZE、SHIZHESHENGCUN、YOUSHENGLIETAI,HUODELEDAPISIZHONGFEN,YEPAISHENGCHUBUSHAOKUAZHANGDEJIESHIHUOFAHUI。SIBINSAI、HEXULI、HUOBUSI、MAERSASI……ZHEIXIEDAPAIXUEZHEZHENGXIANGBA“GERENZIYOUJINGZHENG”SHIWEIXIANDAILUNLIDEHEXIN,BA“ZIRANXUANZE”JIANHUAWEIRENJIANHUZHENGDAFA。

JIBIANDAERWENBUCENGZHEIYANGJIDUAN。

ZAIZHEIXIEREN“KEXUE”DEMUGUANGLI,RENYESHIYIZHONGDONGWU,RENLEISHEHUIYESHIXIONGXIANCONGLIN,SHIRUOROUQIANGSHIDEDIEXUETUCHANG,SHIYIQIERENFANDUIYIQIERENDE“YONGWUXIUZHIDEZIYOUHUNZHAN”(SIBINSAIYU)——ZHEIJIBAOKUOGETIZHIJIANDEHUNZHAN(HUOBUSIDENGQIANGDIAODE),YEBAOKUOQUNTIZHIJIANDEHUNZHAN(KAER·SHIMITEDENGQIANGDIAODE)。NAPATARENHUOTAMENHEYANYUESE,DANWULUNFUHAOHAISHIQIGAI、BAIPIFUHAISHIHEITOUFA、MOSHENGLURENHAISHIZHIAIQINPENG……YANGEDISHUO,DUIRENHEYIGESHENGMINGZHUTIERYAN,DOUSHIQIANZAIDEDUISHOU,YOUTIANRANDEDIYI,YOUXIONGXIANDEHUZHUAHEYINGZUI,QICUNZAIBENSHENJIUSHIWEIXIE。ZHEIZHONGSHEHUIDAERWENZHUYI,CHABUDUOCENGBEIHEIGEERYIYUDAOPO:“ESHITUIDONGLISHIJINBUDEDONGLI。”

DAZHENGZHISHIBIYOUDAZHENGZHIDAO。SHIZHIZIBENZHUYIYEMANSHENGZHANG,LVEDUOYUXIAOTIAOLUANXIANGFENCHENG,ZHANZHENGYUGEMINGSICHUMAOYAN,QUANQIUDONGDANGBUAN。JIHUMEIGERENDOUKONGHUANG,DANXINZIJILUORUJIE、POCHAN、LIUWANG、MIEJUEDEDIERTIAN。ZAIZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGXIA,TUZIJILEYEYAOYAOREN,RENMENDOUWUFAZUOYIDAIBI,BIXUMOQUANCAZHANGGANDIANSHENME,YUSHI“SHENYI”HUO“TIANDAO”DEXINLINGJITANGZIRANCHENGLEFEIHUA,GENGXIANGSHIZIWOJINGSHENQUSHI,LIANSHEHUIZHUYIZHEYETINGBUXIAQU,DUIBUSHANGXIN,YONGBUSHANGSHOU——DAOSHIENGESIDUOCIYINSHUHEIGEERDE“EDONGLI”SHUO,GENGYUANYIYONGLIYIDEYINGDAOLILAIJIESHILISHIHEDONGYUANMINZHONG。

MINZHUZHIJIUSHIYIZHONGZHENGZHIGERENZHUYI。ALUNTE(Hannah Arendt)SHUOXIANDAIZHENGZHIDETEZHENGJIUSHI“SIRENLIYIBIANCHENGGONGGONGSHIWU”。OUKEXIAOTE(Michael Oakeshott)YEJIANGYINGGUOSHIDEDAIYIZHI,DINGYIWEI“LUNLIXUEZHONGQUELIDEGETIZHUYIZAIZHENGZHIZHEXUESHANGDEDUIYINGWU”。YIRENYIPIAO,DANGRANDEGETIBENWEILE。ZHIYUMINZHU,NEIBUGUOSHITONGGUOBOYIHEQIYUEDEFANGSHI,ZHUIQIU“SHENGMING、ZIYOU、CAICHAN”(LUOKEYU)SANDAGERENQUANLI,XIANGDANGYUDAJIANYIZHONGAAZHIDELINSHIJITI,ZAIWUXIANQIDELINGHEYOUXIZHONG,XINGCHENGYIZHONGZHENGCHENGLESHAYANGJIUSHAYANGDEJIZHI,YOUJIHUIJIUZAIZHENGXIAQUDEJIZHI。YINGGAISHUO,ZHEIDUIYUJISHIJIEFANGSHEHUIZHONGXIACENG(TEBIESHIZUIXUCAICHANQUANDENANXINGGONGSHANGYEZHE),HUANXINGJIAODAMIANJIDERENQUANYISHI,YIYIFEIBIXUNCHANG。ZHISHIYOUCIFUXIAYIZHONGZHONGJI、CHONGSI、SHANGEDELUNLIXINGBANMANG,YIZHONGJICHUXINGDEZHISHIPIANMIAN,DAOHOULAICAIZHUJIANKANDEQINGCHU——BIRUMINZHUJIKEYIJIESHUSHENQUAN、JUNQUANNEIZHONGXUWEIDEZHENGTIXING,YIDANXUYAOXIANGWAIZHENGDUO,YEKEYIZOUHUORUMO,TONGXIANGZHONGZUZHUYI、ZHIMINZHUYI、FAXISIZHUYIDESHALU。

侠客棋牌SHICHANGHUASHIYIZHONGJINGJIGERENZHUYI。ZUOWEIYIWEIZHONGLIANGJIBIANSHOU,HAYEKE(Hayek)JIHEIMAKESI,YEMIEKAIENSI,PIPINGYIQIEHONGSE、FENSE、BAISEDEGUOJIAGANYUHESHEHUIFULI,JUSHUOYIDUYOUZHUYUNIUZHUANMOUXIEXIFANGGUOJIADEJINGJISHISU,ZHISHITADELUNLIXUEJIDIAN,RENGYANXISIBINNUOSHA、LUOKE、KANGDE、NICAI、HEIGEER、HUOBUSIYIMAI,SHIGERENZHUYIDEZHONGSHICHUANREN。ZAI《TONGXIANGNUYIZHILU》YISHUZHONG,TAXUANCHENGGUOYOUHUAYILEICHUYU“RENWEIDESHEJIHEQIANGZHI”,YINCISHIBIBAIDEWUTUOBANG;ERSIYOUZHIHESHICHANGZIBENZHUYIDENEIZAIYOUSHI,BUKEZHANSHENGDEZUIDALIYOU,NAIYIN“ZISHENGZIFAERSHENG”,SHIYIZHONG“ZIRANZHIXU”。ZHEIHUATINGSHANGQUERSHU,YUSHEHUIDAERWENZHUYIDE“ZIRANXUANZE”MINGXIANZHUANGLIAN。SHISHISHANG,CONGYADANG·SIMIDAOMIERDUN·FULIDEMAN(Friedman),ZHULIUJINGJIXUEJIADOUZHEIMESHUO,DAXUELICHABUDUODOUSHIZHEIMEJIAODE。ZAITAMENKANLAI,RENLEIZHEIXIEYIGUANHOUZIMIANDUISHIWUHELINGDISHI,HUZHENGSHI“ZIRAN”,HUZHUDANGRANJIUSHIQIANGZHI;ESHI“ZHENSHI”,SHANDANGRANJIUSHIXUWEI……ZHEIYIXUSHISHUBAINIANLAIYICHENGPUBIANGONGSHI,BANSHANGDINGDING,BUYANERYU,YIZHIRICHANGSHENGHUOZHONGGEZHONGSHUAJIANSHIHUAIDESIYU,DADUONENGYINQIZAICHANGZHEHUIXINYIXIAOHUOJIJIYANPI,ZUYIZHENGMINGTADECHANGSHIHUA、MOQIHUA、SHENZHIDANHUA。HAYEKEBUGUOSHICONGDANZAICITIQUXUEWEN——JIBIANTAZAIRIHOUDEJINGJIWEIJIZHONGZAOYULENGQUE。

WENHUALINGYULIDEGERENZHUYIGENGSHIYIXIANGFENCHENG,QIZHONGFULUOYIDEDANGRANSHIBUKELOUTIDEYIWEI。TATUICHULEGERENZHUYIDEFEILIXINGBAN,YINGXIANGZHISHENZHIYUAN,YIZHIZUOJIALUOMAN·LUOLANTIMINGTAHUONUOBEIERWENXUEJIANG,LIYOUSHI“TADEJINGSHENFENXIXUE……ZAIGUOQUSANSHINIANJIANSHENSHENYINGXIANGLEWENXUEJIE”——HOULAIHAICHAYIDIANJIUZHENHUOLE。BIDE·WOSEN(Peter Watson)KAOLVDAO“XIANDAIZHUYIKEYIKANZUOSHIFULUOYIDEWUYISHIDEMEIXUEDUIYINGWU,”GANCUIBAZIJIDEDABUTOUQUMING《SIXIANGSHI——CONGHUODAOFULUOYIDE》。BUGUO,JUZHEIBENSHUSHUO,ZAIFULUOYIDEYIQIAN,“WUYISHI”YEHAO,“LIBIDUO”YEHAO,ZAOYISHILIUXINGHUATI,BINGFEIFUSHIFAMING。TADEFAMINGBUGUOSHIBAXINGYUSHIWEISUOYOUYIZHENGDEGENYUAN,YOUSHISUOYOUCHUANGZAOLIDEAOMI。ZHEISHITABAODEYISHIDAMING,QUEYIZAIYIKAOLINCHUANGSHUJUZAOJIA,CHABUDUOSHI“JIANGHUPIANZI”SUOWEI(WOSENYU)。YOUYISIDESHI,WENHUAQUANGENBENBULICAIJINGSHENYIXUEJIEDEZHIYIHEJUBAO。WAILAIDEHESHANGJIUSHIHAO,JIUSHILING,JIUSHI“KEXUE”。SHIREN、XIAOSHUOJIA、HUAJIA、YINGPINGRENDENGHAISHIFENFENTOUBENFUMEN,REPENG“BENWO/ZIWO/CHAOWO”ZHEIYIGAODUANMOSHI,BATAREN、SIXIANG、DAODE、FALV、GONGQUANLI、YISHIXINGTAIDENGTONGTONGSHIWEIYAPOXINGLILIANG,SHIWEIWUYISHIDETIANRANZHIDI,YUSHENSHENG“BENWO”SHIBULIANGLI。

侠客棋牌YEXU,SHENWEIDANGANHU,ZHEIXIERENBINGBUJUEDEQUNTIYOUDUOZHONGYAO,BUZAIHUQUNTIZAINALIHEZENMEYANG,YIZHIZHIYEXINGDISHANZHANGGERENSHIJIAO。TAMENZUIXIHUANLIFAZHIWAIDEYIXIANGTIANKAI,CHABUDUODOUSHIKAOBIZILAIXIUSIXIANGDE,NEIMEYONGHUFUMENDEGERENHUA+FEILIXING,JIUZAIRONGYIBUGUO。YUSHI,“ZIWO”CONGCICHENGLEWENHUAQUANPINDUZUIGAODEYONGCI,“ZENYANGDOUXING”(DADAPAIYU),“TARENJIDIYU”(SATEYU),“YIQIEZHANGAIDOUFENSUILEWO”(KAFUKAYU)DENGLIUXINGJINJU,MANMANDEJINGSHENFENXIWEI,MANMANDEYISIHEERMENG,SUZAOCHUGEZHONGYOUBIDE、FANGLANGDE、GUJUEDE、HUISEDEWENYIFENG,SHIFANGCHUZHENTONGKUHUOZHUANGTONGKU、ZHENFENGKUANGHUOJIAFENGKUANG、ZHENDUOYUANHUOMAOPAIDUOYUANDEWENBEN,GAIXIELE20SHIJIQUANQIUDABANGEWENHUABANTU。

侠客棋牌SHENZHIGAIXIELEHOULAISHIJIESHANGDABANGEWENKEDEMIANMAOHEXINGNENG。

XIANGDUIYULIKESHENG,XIANGDUIYULIKEDEYISHIYIERSHIER,HOULAIDE“WENQING”MENGENGKENENGZILIAN、ZIBI、ZIKUANG,YITELIDUXINGZIXU,SHENZHIMEIJIFENWULITOUHUOSHENJINGZHI,BUBAZIJIDESHENGHUOGAODELUANZAOZAO,JIUBUHAOZAIQUANZILIHUNYIBAN。HOULAIDEQINGSHAONIANYAWENHUA,QIZHONGZUIFUXIAODENEIXIEGUANGYI“WENQING”,BUZAIGONGZHONGMIANQIANBAZIJIQINGXUWANGTUIFEILIZHENG,WANGXUWULIZHENG,WANGYAOSIYAOHUODEDIBUZHENG,JIUYISIPINGYONGDEFEIWU,YOUFU“XIANFENG”HE“QIANWEI”DEZIWORENSHE。

LUXUNCENGDUIFULUOYIDEBUYIWEIRAN,ZAI《TINGSHUOMENG》YIWENZHONGJIFENGGUO:“YINGHAICHUSHENGBUDUOJIU,WULUNNANNV,JIUJIANQIZUICHUN,JIANGTOUZHUANLAIZHUANQU。MOFEITAXIANGHEYIXINGJIEWENME?BU,SHEIDOUZHIDAO:SHIYAOCHIDONGXI!”

侠客棋牌ZHISHIZHEIZHONGSHENGYINZAIDANGSHIWEISHUSHENSHAO。

ERQIEYOUXIEPIPINGJIAHAIYIWOFENGSHANGQIAN,ZAILUXUNDEXIAOSHUOLIDAWAHEERMENG,YIXINJIUCHUTAZHEIGEANZANGDEFUMENFENZI,YIWEIHUZHENGGEWENKEDETUANJIEGANHEZHENGTIGAN。

▍整体大于部分之和

YIXIELVXINGZHEZAINANMEIZHOUSENLINBIANYUANMUDUGUOYIMU:YICIBUSHENSHIHUO,SHIHUANGHUOXIANGYIGUAHONGSEDEXIANGLIANWEIXIANGYIGEXIAOSHANQIU。YIQUNMAYIBEIHUOBAOWEILE,YANKANHEIYAYADEYIPIANJIANGZANGSHENHUOHAI,SHENZHIYIZAIRELANGZHONGSANFACHUZHUOSHANGDEJIAOCHOU。TURAN,YILIAOZHIWAI,ZHEIXIEWUSHENGDERUOXIAOSHENGMINGBINGWEIZUOYIDAIBI,JINGKAISHIXUNSUXINGDONG,NIUJIECHENGYITUAN,XINGCHENGYIGEHEISEDEYIQIU,XIANGHEANTURANHUAHUAHUADIGUNQU。CHUANYUEHUOLANGDESHIHOU,YIQIUBUDUANBENGFANGCHUWAICENGMAYIBEISHAOJIAODEBAOLIESHENG,DANYIQIUBUJIANSUOXIAO。QUANKAOSHAOJIAODEYISHIZHISIYEBULIKAIZIJIDEGANGWEI,ZHISIYEXIANGHUJINJINGOULIAN,ZHIDAOZHENGGEYIQIUZUIZHONGCHONGXIAHELIU,ZAIYIPIANBOBODEYANWUZHONG,YINGDEBUFENXINGCUNZHEDECHENGGONGTUWEI……

侠客棋牌ZHEIYIGUSHISUIZHE《MAYIDEGUSHI》JIQIXUESHUBAN《MAYI》CHUANWENYUSHI。

侠客棋牌ZAIZHEIGEYIQIUQIAN,RENMENYEXUHUIGANKAIWANQIAN,LIANXIANGDAORENJIANDEZHISHIYINGLIE,NEIXIEZAIZAINANHUOZHANZHENGMIANQIANCENGJINGZHENSHIDEFUTANGDAOHUO,YIWUFANGU,FENBUGUSHEN,JINGTIANDIQIGUISHEN。SHAOSHAOBUTONGDESHI,ZUOWEIYIZHONGGAOZHINENGDONGWU,NENGGOUDALINGDAI、DUSHIGE、DINGWAIMAIDEZHILIZHIREN,KENENGHAIBIBUSHANGMAYINEILIDEQIMIAO、MINJIE、MOQI、TUANJIEYIZHI,JINGWURENHENUOFUHETAOBING。

侠客棋牌QIAOHEIBAN:ZHEIYESHI“ZIRANZHIXU”!

动物并不是道德家,并不都是温情脉脉和高风亮节。但一只蚂蚁会总是将入腹的半消化物反哺同类,让它们分享营养;几只蟹可以帮一只仰面朝天的蟹翻身,以助其恢复行动能力;一群海鸥常相互紧密配合,协同反击来犯的猛禽;一群大象还会对一具象尸依依不舍,于是久久地绕行和凄厉长号……这都是“自然秩序”的一部分,而且是大部分。它们在生物学家们的笔记、档案、著作、标本库里车载斗量——至于完全独居的动物,其实为数不多,且易于衰退和折损。因此,在更多的生物学家看来,首先是合群,首先是互助,才是自然界的首要通则,是动物强大(比如延长寿命)和进化(比如发展智力)的最大优势。这坐实了整体大于部分之和的道理。整体决定着各个部分发生作用的情况”(美国物理学家卡普拉语),于是惠及整体的“部分+”开始出现,不再是散沙化的各个部分。这与热力学第二定律也形成暗合与呼应——作为一种对有机现象的物理学解释,该定律把组织有序、共生互利看作负熵的生命化特征。

ZAIZHEIGEYIYISHANG,FANDUISHEHUIDAERWENZHUYIDE,ZUIYINGGAISHIWULIXUEJIAHESHENGWUXUEJIA,BAOKUODAERWENDELINGYIMIAN——BIRUTAGUANZHUGUOMAYIHEMIFENGDELITAXINGWEI,HAIJILUGUOQIEDIAOZHEYITIAOYUYUANFU30YINGLIYIZHENGJIUMUMANGHUOBANDEDONGRENGUSHI。

ZAIGETIZHIJIANHEQUNTIZHIJIAN,DONGWUCHENGRANBUFAHUZHENG,BUFAYOUWEIDEHUOBUSIHEKAER·SHIMITE。SUOWEITIANXIAXIXIJIEWEILILAI,TIANXIARANGRANGJIEWEILIWANG。ZHISHI“RUOROUQIANGSHI”YUANFEISHISHIQUANBU。QIAQIAXIANGFAN,“SHIROUDONGWUDESHUMUSHIDUOMEWEIBUZUDAO”(EGUODILIXUEJIAKELUPAOTEJINYU),SHIZAISHIBEIRENMENKUAZHANGDETAIDUOLE。DONGWUYIBANLAISHUOYEBINGBUQUESHAOSHIWUHEKONGJIAN,YIZHANZHILEIDUOSHUOURAN。RUOFANGDAOZHONGQUN、SHENGTAI、QIHOUDEDAFANWEILAIKAN,RUTONGSHIXIAWANGMINSHUODELAIYIDIANGUANCHA“SHENGWEI”,JIUKEYIFAXIAN:DONGWU“ZUIHAIPADEBINGBUSHIQITADONGWU,ERSHIJIHUMEIYINIANDOUYAOFASHENGDEQIHOUTURANBIANHUA”(DEGUOSENLINXUEJIAAERDENGYU),HAIYOUCHUANRANBING。QINGZHUYI,ZHEIXIEHONGGUANSHISHIDAYIYUWEIGUANSHISHI。KUNCHONG、YULEI、NIAOLEI、BURULEIDEDAGUIMOJIQUNQIANXI,JIUSHIZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGXIADETUANJIEQIUSHENG,GOUCHENGYIMUMUSHENQIDEZHUANGKUOTUJING。ZAIZHEIYIGUOCHENGZHONG,TUOQUNZHEWANGWANGMINGYUNBEICAN——XIANGFAN,ZUZHIJIUSHIXIWANG,JILVJIUSHICHULU,HEZUOJIUSHIKANJIABENLING,DANDANGYUXISHENGCAISHIPUSHIZHENLI,SHI“CONGLIN”LIBIBEIDEZHENGYI,CHABUDUOJIUSHIDONGWUJIEBUYANZIMINGDE“SHENYI”YU“TIANDAO”。DANGTAMENZHONGYUDIDAYAOYUANDEANQUANDI,YEXUHUIRENBUZHUYONGMINGJIAO、CHUXU、YUZHEN、YECHOUYILEILAIJIAOLIUXINDE:

DONGWUZHIWEIJI,NEICAIHUITIANZHUDIMIENI。

GERENZHUYIWUSHIHUOYANGAIZHEIYIDAKUAI“ZIRANZHIXU”HE“ZIRANXUANZE”,SUANNAMENZI“KEXUE”?KANBUDAOWEIGUANLIYIZHIWAIDEHONGGUANLIYI,KANBUDAODUANQILIYIZHIWAIDEZHANGYUANLIYI,LIANMOUZHONGKECHIXUDEGERENZHUYIDOUSUANBUSHANG,JIBIANDUIGERENLAISHUOYEHENBUGOUYONG,HENBUFUZEBA。

侠客棋牌TAMENYOUKEXUEYOUZHEXUEYOUYISHUDIFANFUZHETENG,ZHETENGCHUHENDUOGAOXUELIHEDAMINGTOU,DAOTOULAIFANERBURUMENGDONGDECHONGYUNIAOSHOU——JINKAOYICHUANDESHENGLIBENNENG,JIUNENGZHIJUEDAOZUIDALIYISUOZAI,BAOKUOQINGYICHAOYUEBOYILUNLIDE“QIUTUKUNJING”。ZHEISHIYIGEOUMEIDAXUELICHANGYONGDEJINGDIANANLI,SHUODESHILIANGGE(SHEDINGGENGDUOYECHABUDUO)XIANFANBEIJU,MINGZHIGONGTONGDILAIDEJIEGUOZUIYOU,DANYINQUEFADUITONGHUODEXINRENHEZHONGCHENG,ZHIQIUZIJIJIANSUN,YUSHISHUANGSHUANGXUANZEBEIPAN。ZHEIYANG,TONGHUODILAIDEHUA,ZIJIJIUNENGBEIYOUDAISHIFANG;TONGHUOTANBAIDEHUA,ZIJIYEKEWANGTANBAIZAIXIANERBEIQINGPANYIDIANDIAN。SHISHISHANG,TAMENBUYUEERTONGZHENGXIANGBEIPAN,BAANQINGYUETUYUEDUO,BUKENENGDADAOJIEGUOZUIYOU,QIZISHENLIYIZUIDAHUADESUANJI,WUYIYUSHIDEQIFAN,DUIZIJIXIADAO。ZAIGAIANLIDETUIDINGXIA,“TAMENFENBIEHUOXING8NIAN”。

在这里,同那些愣头愣脑的昆虫、鱼类、鸟类、哺乳类相比,个人主义者的“最大化”在哪里?人们眼睁睁地发现,微观有效再一次中观、宏观的有效。他们利益理性的相加,居然加出了一个糟糕的集体非理性,有何优越可言?

HEKUANG,CONGXIAOBULUODAOQUANQIUHUA,CONGXIAOZUOFANGDAOKUAGUOJIQUN,RENLEISHEHUIYIJINRUYIGEZUZHIXING、HULIANXING、ZHENGTIXINGCHENGDUYUELAIYUEGAODEXINXINGTAI,SHENGCHANFANGSHIHESHENGHUOFANGSHIGENGYILAIGONGSHENGHULI,GENGXUYAOQUNTIGUANQIE。RENMENNENGJIDEZHENGQIJISHIWATEGAIJINHEFAMINGDE,DIANDENGSHIAIDISHENGFAMINGDE,FEIJISHILAITEXIONGDIFAMINGDE……DANHULIANWANGNI,SHOUJINI,5GNI,CHAODAONI,NAMIJISHUNI,RENZAOWEIXINGNI,LIANGZIJISUANJINI,RUCIDENGDENG,TAMENFENBIESHISHEIFAMINGDE?SHEINENGDADESHANGLAI?KEJIAN,NAPAZAIKEJIYANFALINGYU,DANQIANGPIMADESHIDAIYEYIYUANQU,GERENFENDOUDEZAOXINGRIJIANMOHU,HEIYAYADEWUMINGYINGXIONGQUNXIANGQUEYUELAIYUEDUO。YANFAJIHUDOUCHENGLEDAXIEZUO、ZHANGZHOUQIDECHIJIUGONGYE,CHENGLEYIXIEDAGUIMODETUANTISAIHEJIELISAI。RUHUAWEIGONGSICHUANGSHIRENRENZHENGFEISUOSHUO:5GKAODEJIUSHI“HEZUOYUYOUHAODELILIANG”,KAODESHISHUQIANGESHUXUEJIA、WULIXUEJIA、HUAXUEJIAJIQITAZHUANYERENCAIYIQIPUSHANGQU,CHIXUDUONIANJIZHONG“CHAOYIGECHENGQIANGDEQUEKOUMENGGONG”。YESHIZAIZHEIGEBEIJINGXIA,YANXIAHENDUOQIYEDEGEZHONGRENCAIXUANYONG,JIYAOKANZHISHANG,GENGYAOKANQINGSHANG,SHENZHIQIANGDIAOHOUZHEDEQUANZHONGXUDA80%。

侠客棋牌SHENMESHIQINGSHANG?SHUOZHIBAIYIDIAN,JIUSHIYIZHONGDAODEJUEWU,YIZHONGSHIQUNZHEHELIQUNZHEDEXINXIONG、YANJIE、XINGQING、NENGLI,YIZHONGNENGTUIJIN“HEZUOYUYOUHAO”DEYANGGUANGPINZHI。

▍“唯一者”们的世纪困局

侠客棋牌ZHANGUOSHIDAIDEYANGZIZHEXUEZHUZHANG“BAYIMAOERLITIANXIABUWEIYE”,HENKUAIBEIZHONGGUOZHISHIJIEZHULIULAHEI。YIQIANDUONIANHOU,SIHUSHIYANGZIFUTIDEDEGUORENSHIDINA(Max Stirner)XUANSHI:“RENDOUSHILIJIZHUYIZHE。”“LIJIZHUYISHIZIWOYISHIDEBENZHI,SHILISHIFAZHANDEQUSHIHEZHENLI。”“SHENMEDUIWOLAISHUOSHIZHENGDANGDE,NEIMETAJIUSHIZHENGDANGDE。”TAFANDUIYIQIEJILV、ZUZHI、DAODE、GUOJIAYIJIZONGJIAO,ZHONGSHENGMIZUIYU“WO”ZHEIGESHIJIESHANGDE“WEIYIZHE”HE“CHUNGEREN”,KANCHENG“BAIWOJIAO”DEYANGBIZU。DANGMAKESIHEENGESIZAI《GONGCHANDANGXUANYAN》ZHONGHAOZHAO“QUANSHIJIEDEWUCHANZHELIANHEQILAI”,TAZHENFENGXIANGDUIDIJIAOBAN:“ZHENZHENGDELIJIZHUYIZHEMEN、WEIYIZHEMENLIANHEQILAI!”

JUENGESISHUO,TAZHEIWEIPENGYOUQISHIWEIRENWENHE,ZHISHIYOUXIEXUEJIUQI。TANIANJIN49SUIJIUZAIPINKUNZHONGSIQU,DAGAISHINEINIANTOUJIBIANSHEHUIDAERWENZHUYIZHENGXIANG,TADE“QINGSHANG”YEYIDINGHEHUAILETAIDUOREN,HEZOULEZIJIDEZHIWEI、MIANBAO、JIANKANG、HEZUOREN、QINYOUDEXIAOLIAN。

侠客棋牌CHABUDUOSHIYIGEOUBANYANGZIDEGUSHIZHONGYAN。

YEXU,“CHUNGEREN”“WEIYIZHE”DEYIGENJINZAISHIJISHENGHUOZHONGGENBENXINGBUTONG,ZUIZHONGZHINENGHAIJI。ZHEIYANG,NAPASHIWEILEGONGGONGGUANXIDEYINGXIAOCELVE,XINFENGZHEKANLAIYEXUYAOJIFENHANXU,JIFENWANZHUAN,ZAIJIAJIFENBIANTONG,LISHIDINAYUANYIDIAN,BIRUYONG“GERENZHUYI”LAIPIEQING“LIJIZHUYI”,YOUYONG“ZIWOSHIXIAN”LAIBAOZHUANGGERENZHUYIHEJIDUANGERENZHUYI,YONG“WUZHIHUASHIDAI”ZHIDAI“LIYIHUASHIDAI”HE“GERENLIYIHUASHIDAI”,RANGYONGYUBUNEIMEMINGANHECIER,NENGYUDAODE、GONGZHONG、JINGSHEN、SHIYUYUANFANGZHILEIHUATIMAMAHUHUJIANRONG,SHENZHINENGDAISHANGPINGMIN(MINCUI)ZHUYI、MINZUZHUYIDEMIANJU,QIANGZHANDAODECWEI。ZHEIJIUSHISHUO,TONGXINGDEHUAYUFENGGEWUBIGAIBIAN。ZAIHENDUODIFANG,GERENZHUYIYOUCICONGYIZHONGWENHUADACHAOZHUANXINGWEIYIZHONGWENHUAANLIU,YOUSHIKANSHANGQUBUGUOSHIWENHUAYAJIANKANG,BUNEIMEYAOJIN。

SHEHUIZHUYIGEMINGSHIQIONGRENBAOTUANNAOFANSHENDEGUSHI,CONGWUWUZHIHECAIWUDEYOUSHI,ZHINENGYIJINGSHENLILIANGHEDAODELIXIANGWEILISHENZHIBEN,SHISHISHANGYEYIDUBENGYONGCHU“BUFEN+”DE“DAWO”QIXIANG,ZHIJINWENNUANZHEHENDUORENDEJIYI,SHENZANGYULAOZHAOPIANHUOLAOGEQU。BUGUO,YIDANJINRUHEPINGSHIQI,GONGTONGDEWEIJIYALIHUANJIE,CAIFUHEZIYUANZHUJIANFENGYU,DAJIADEGERENLIYIZHONGHEDUJIANGDI,DAMIANJIDESIYUJIUBIRANGUILAI,SHENZHIKENENGBUCHANGXINGDEJIABEIXILAI——GONGYOUZHIZHINENGYAYICHUTADEXUWEI。DEYUDEZHENGZHIHUA(RU“WENGE”QIANHOUXUEXIAOLIDE“SIXIANGPINDEKE”LIZHIJIANGJIEJIDOUZHENG),HUODEYUDEJINGJIHUA(BIRU1980-1990NIANDAIGEDIGUANFANGDIANSHITAIDEXINNIANHEYU,JIHUQUANSHI“GONGXIFACAI”,DUIGONGWUYUAN、JIAOSHI、YISHENG、JIZHE、ZONGJIAORENSHIYESHIRUCIREQINGLIZHI),HUISHIQINGKUANGGENGZAO。SHISHISHANG,ZIYINRUSHICHANGHESIYOUQUAN,YIXIEDIFANGDEXIAOPINBUXIAOCHANG、XIAOPINBUXIAOTAN、XIAOPINBUXIAODIAO,MEISHENMELEBUQI,BUZHIDEDAJINGXIAOGUAI,BUGUOSHICIQIANMOUXIERENZHENGZHITOUJI、ZHENGZHIQISHI、ZHENGZHIGOUXIANHEPOHAIDEGAITOUHUANMIAN,QIJIAZHIGUANDEHUAPOQUESHIYIMAIXIANGCHENG。

WANGYUANLIKAN,ENGESIDUOCIYINSHUHEIGEERDE“EDONGLI”SHUO(SUIWEIGONGKAIKENDING),YIZAIWEIDAZHONGZHENGLI,YOUZHENGYIDENEIHE,SHEJIQIANWANWANSHENGLINGJIEJIU,BAOKUODAOBIZIBENZHUYIGAIGE,QIYIYIZENMEGUJIAYEBUWEIGUO。DANZHEIKENENGBEIWUJIEWEIZHENGLIJIYIQIE,YIRUHOULAIDE“FENTIANDI”“FUQILAI”“GDPFANLIANGFAN”DENG,YIDANBEIKANZUOZUIGAOMUBIAO,NAPASHIZUIGAODEQUNTIMUBIAO,YEJIUYISI“WENHUADATAIJINGJICHANGXI”(XIANGDANGYU“LINGHUNDATAIROUTICHANGXI”),BAJINGSHENSHIWUJIANGGEWEIZHENGLISHOUDUAN。ZHEIKENENGQINGHUFUZUZHIHOUJIHUTONGYANGDUODEWENTI,YEJIZIJIDEHEFAXINGZENGJIAFENGXIAN——BIJINGJINGJIFAZHANNANMIANSHOUCUO、SHISU、TINGZHI、YUDAOJIXIANZHISHI,BIJINGRENJIANZUIDADEZHENGYI,SHIBANGZHURENMENZAIRENHESHIHOU,BAOKUOPINKUNRIZILIYENENGHUOCHUZUNYANHEXINGFU。

GDPYUANBUSHIXINGFUDEQUANBU。

ZIBENZHUYISHEHUIYEMIANLINJIAZHIGUANKUNJING。JINGUANGEDIQINGKUANGBUJINXIANGTONG,DANSHEHUIDAERWENZHUYISHINEILIGONGTONGDEQIANSHIJINSHENG,SIYOUZHICHUANTONGSHENHOU,“BAIWOJIAO”SHENZANGYUGEZHONGBINBINYOULIZHIHOU,SUIJINGDUOFANWEIJIHEGAIGE,SHEHUIDEFENGXIANHEDONGDANGRENGPIN。RUQINHUIZAI《QUNJIQUANJIE》YIWENZHONGFENXIDE,YIBANQINGKUANGXIA,OUMEIZUO、YOULIANGPAIGEZHIYIDUAN——QIANZHE(MEIGUOMINZHUDANGDENG)ZAIJINGJISHANGPOYOU“QUNTIPAI”MOYANG,ZANCHENGGUOJIAGANYUHEQUANMINFULI,TONGQINGNVXING、SHAOSHUZUYI、ZHONGXIACENGQUNTI;ZAIWENHUASHANGZEPIANXIANG“GERENPAI”,CHABUDUOSHIXINGJIEFANG、DUOTAIQUAN、TONGXINGLIAN、FANZONGJIAO、ZONGYUZHUYIWENHUADELALADUI。XIANGBIZHIXIA,HOUZHE(MEIGUOGONGHEDANGDENG)ZAIWENHUASHANGHENXIANG“QUNTIPAI”,ZUIYANEQINGNIANRENDEZIYOUFANGRENHEJUZHIGUAIZHANG,YIZHIZHONGSHIJIATING、GUOJIA、ZONGJIAODECHUANTONGNINGJUGONGNENG;ZAIJINGJISHANGDAOSHI“GERENPAI”,ZUIXINYUSIYOUZHI,CHONGSHANGGERENFENDOU,ZUIFANGANGONGHUI、GAOFULI、GUOYOUQIYEZHEIXIEFANGAISHICHANGZIYOUDEEZHENG。YIDANQIBUSHUN,RENBULEAOBAMADEYIBAOGAIGE,JIULUANKOUZHENGZHIMAOZI,BAZONGTONGHUACHENGTOUDAIHONGWUXING、SHENZHELVJUNZHUANG、ZHANZAITIANANMENCHENGLOUDEHONGSELINGXIU。

侠客棋牌ZHIYUQIONGREN,MEIRENSHUOBUGAIQUBANG。ZHISHIZAIZUOPAIKANLAI,ZHEISHUYUGONGGONGLINGYU,YINGTONGGUOGONGQUANLIYUYIZHIDUXINGANPAI;ERZAIYOUPAIKANLAI,ZHEISHUYUSIRENLINGYU,ZHINENGYIKAOAIXINGETIDEZHIYUANCISHAN——BUSHAOHUAERJIEFUHAOQUESHIYEYUANYIKANGKAIJIENANG。

侠客棋牌ZUOZHESIHURENWEI,ZHEIZHONGZUOYOULIANGPAIDEXIANGHUCUOWEI、XIANGHUKAWEI,CHABUDUOYISHIYIZHONGJIAOHAODEZIRANPINGHENGLE。ZHISHIDUZHEDEYIDIANKENENGZAIYU,GECHIYIDUANQISHISHIGEYOUXUANPIAOLIYIDEQIANZHIBA,FOUZE,SHUANGFANGGOUTONGQILAIHEZHIYURUCIZHUANGLONGZUOYAXINBUZAIYAN?YIBAOWENTI、YIMINWENTI、ZHONGZUWENTI、KONGQIANGWENTI、LIULANGZHEWENTI、JICHUSHESHILAOJIUWENTI、CHANYEKONGXINHUAWENTI……HAIYAOBUYAOJIEJUE?WEISHENMEZONGSHIWUFAJIEJUE?WEISHENMEYIXIELIANRIBEN、XINJIAPO、HANGUODENGCIDENGJINGJITI(GENGBUYAOSHUOZHONGGUO)DOUNENGJIEJUEDE,JIUSHISIHUOYEJIEJUEBULE,LAOSHIZHIBUZAILIANGPAIXIANGHUBAFEN、XIANGHUSIKE、XIANGHUBAOZUFENDEXUHAOZHONG?YUZUOZHEDUIMEIGUODEZHIDUXINXINBUTONG,BUSHAOMEIGUORENDAOSHIJUEDEZHEIZHONGZHIDUYIJINGYOUBING,YEXUYAOTONGJIAGAIGE(RUFULANGXISI·FUSHANDENG);HUOZHESHUO,ZHIDUZAIHAO,YEFEILINGDANMIAOYAO,BUYIDINGZHIDELEWENHUAHERENXINGDEYINANWANZHENG。2010NIAN1YUE27RIDE《JIDUJIAOKEXUEZHENYANBAO》ZAIWENZHICHU:MEIGUOXUANMINMEN“JIYAOKUANGHEHAICHIYOUBUYAOKALULI,JIYAOHUIJINRUTUYOUXIANGYAOCHUXU,JIYAOXINGJIEFANGYOUXIANGYAOWANZHENGJIATING,JIYAOXIANGSHOUZHOUDAODEGONGGONGSHESHIHESHEHUIFULI(ZUOYIZHUZHANG)YOUBUYUANJIAOSHUI(YOUYIZHUZHANG)……”YOUYIZHONG“JIANFEIKELE”SHIDEJIUJIEHEZIWOFENLIE。ZHEIYISICHABUDUOSHI,GUAIBULEZUOPAI,YEGUAIBULEYOUPAI,SHIZHEIYIJIERENMINZHENDEBUXING。XUANMINMENBENSHENYIZUOYIYOU,FEIZUOFEIYOU,SHIZUOSHIYOU,XIANGBATIANXIAHAOSHIZHANQUAN,YOUXIANGBAZERENTONGTONGTUIXIE,YINCIZHINENGRANGMINZHUSIJI,XIANYUYIPIANDAODELUNLIDESHENSHENNIZHAO。

MIANDUIZHEIYANGYIJIERENMIN,ZHENGZHIJIA(NAPASHIYOUXIUZHENGZHIJIA)NENGZENMEYANG?ZHENZHENGKEXINGDEPOJUZHICEZAINALI?

▍人口崩溃是最后的“自然”?

侠客棋牌ZHENDUANGERENZHUYI,JIATINGDAGAISUANDESHANGYIXIANGTEBIEZHONGYAODETIJIANZHIBIAO。

侠客棋牌JIATINGSHIZUIXIAODE“QUN”,ZUIXIAODE“GONG”,ZUIJIBENDESHEHUIXIBAOHETUANJIEDANYUAN,JIFEIXIAOTONGSUOSHUO“CHAXUJIEGOU”ZHEIYITONGXINYUANDEZUIXIAONEIJING,YINCISHIEZUGERENZHUYIDEZUIHOUYIDAOFANGXIAN。HEXULI(Henry Huxley)SHUOGUO:“RENSHENGSHIYICHANGLIANXUBUDUANDEZIYOUHUNZHAN。CHULEYOUXIANDEHEZANSHIDEJIATINGGUANXI,HUOBUSISUOSHUODEMEIGERENDUIKANGSUOYOURENDEZHANZHENG(war of each against all),SHISHENGCUNDEZHENGCHANGZHUANGTAI。”ZHEILIDEJIATING,SUIBEITABIANWEI“YOUXIAN”HE“ZANSHI”(limited and temporary),DANHAISUANSHITAMIANQIANGHUOMIANDEWEIYIQUNTIXINGSHI。

侠客棋牌BUXINGDESHI,YANXIADUIYUHENDUORENLAISHUO,“JIA”ZHEIJIANSHIYEYINANYIQICHI,“JIA”DEGAINIANRIJIANKONGDONG。BUJIUQIAN,MEIGUODEXIAOCHANGSHU《XIANGXIARENDEBEIGE》TOULOU:ZUOZHECONGQIONGRENQUYILUDAPINDAODAXUEMINGXIAO,FAXIANHENDUOTONGLINGREN“CHANGWEI‘XIONGDIJIEMEI’ZHEIGECIDEYISISHANGTOUNAOJIN:NIMUQINQIANRENZHANGFUMENDEHAIZISUANBUSUANNIDEXIONGDIJIEMEI?RUGUOSHIDEHUA,NIMUQINQIANRENZHANGFUMENHOULAIYOUYOULEHAIZINI?……”QISHI,MEIGUOYOUYOUTAI-JIDUJIAODECHUANTONGDIANDI,YIBANLAISHUOWEIXIJIATINGHAISUANGOUNULIDE,ZHISHIDUIYUHENDUORENLAISHUO,“QUANJIAFU”DEZHAOPIANGUOYUSHECHI,XIANGXIANGDOUTAINAN。JIEXIALAI,BIZHEYUDAOFEIZHOUMOUGUOYIQINGNIANZUOJIAPJUN。TASHUOGAIGUODEXINZHENGFUTOUJUZIBANJIAOYU,YINGKAOSHANGXIANZHEZHIXUTIANXIEYIZHANGHANYOUJIATINGQINGKUANGDEBIAOGE,BIANKEMIANFEISHANGDAXUE。DANJURANSHIZHEIYIXIAOXIAODEBIAOGE,JINGJIANGDABANQINGNIANDANGZAIMENWAI,YINWEITAMENYANXIAGENBENMEIFAZHIDAOFUMUFENBIEZAINALI,SHENZHIBUZHIDAOFUQINSHISHEI,BUZHI“JIANHUREN”SHISHADONGXIYIJIGAIRUHELIANXI……

侠客棋牌DUINEILIDE“JIATING”,WOMENGAIRUHEXIANGXIANG?

侠客棋牌HAOBA,ZAILAIKANYIKANDONGYA。ZHEILIDEXIANMINCENGYIJIAZUWEIJIAZHIHEXIN,CHUANGZAOGUO“GUOJIA”ZHEIYIHECHENGCI,XUEQINYISHIGENSHENDIGU,JUEFEI“YOUXIANHEZANSHI”(HEXULIYU)DEXIAOSHI。1920NIANDAIMO,TAOXISHENGDENGTUIDONGZHIDING《QINSHUFA》,JIXIANGSAOCHUFUXIUDEZUQUAN、FUQUAN、FUQUAN,YOUXIANGFANGDUXIFANGFALIZHONGDEGERENBENWEI,ZHIHENGGERENZHUYI,ZHISHAOZAI“GUOJIA”HE“GEREN”ZHIJIANXIERU“QINSHU”YIHUAN,CONGHUNYIN、CAIWU、RENLUNZHIXU、HUZHUZERENDENGFANGMIANLAIGONGGU“JIA”DEDIWEI,GONGGU“ZHONGGUOBENWEIDEWENHUAJIANSHE”。ZHEIYUEGUO、YINDUDENGDIYIXIEXUERENCENGQITUYILIFASHOUDUAN,WEIHUTAMENDECUNSHECHUANTONG,KEWEIYIQUTONGGONG。DANZHEIYILEINULIJUNGAOSHIBAI。YANXIAGUORENMENZHONGXINRECHAOXIAOWENHUA,YONGFALVCUIERNVMEN“CHANGHUIJIAKANKAN”,BUGUOSHIDAJIACHIHOUHUIYAO,WANGYANGBULAO。

HANGUOTONGJIJU2019NIAN8YUE28RIFABUSHUJU,XIANSHIGAIGUOZONGSHENGYULVYIJIANGZHI0.98,DIYUJINSUIQIHOUDERIBEN(1.42),ZAIQUANSHIJIEDIANDI,YIWEIZHERENKOUBENGKUIWEIJIYIJINGDAOLAI(WENDINGRENKOUDEZONGSHENGYULVXUYAODADAO2.1)。ZHONGGUOYEBUMIAO,MINZHENGBU《2017 NIANSHEHUIFUWUFAZHANTONGJIGONGBAO》XIANSHI,GEDILIHUNSHUYISHENGZHIHUOCHAOGUOJIEHUNSHUDEYIBAN,QIECONGLINIANQINGKUANGKAN,QIANSHENGHOUJIANGDEZONGQUSHIKONGNANNIZHUAN,ZHENGZAIZHUTUISHENGYULVYILUPODI(YIZHI1.7),YIGE“WEIFUXIANLAO”DEXIAOSEQIANJINGHESHEBAOKUNJUZHENGZAIHERANBIJIN。ZHEIYIQIELINGRENZHENJING。SIHUYIYEZHIJIAN,WEIHUN、WEIYU、BUHUN、BUYUZAIDONGYAYIYUWEIXINCHAO,ERNVBEIHENDUORENSHIWEIJINGJIFUDANHUODUIZIJIXINGFUDEQINFAN,“LEIJUEBUAI”ZHENGDAFUDUXUERUO、JIANSHAO、QUXIAOJIATING。ZHEIYIQIEJURANFASHENGZAIWANGRINEIGEQIANMOXIANGLIAN、JIQUANXIANGWEN、ERSUNMANTANGDEDONGYA,RUGUOBUSHUOSHICHENGDUZUISHEN,ZHISHAOYESHISUDUZUIKUAI!

JIATINGBUSHIRENLEIZUIJIBENDE“ZIRANXUANZE”HE“ZIRANZHIXU”MA?JINGZIHELUANZIHAIYAO“ZIRAN”DAONALIQU?MEILAIYANQU、TANQINGSHUOAI、NANHUNNVJIA、SHENGERYUNV,ZHEIXIEGULAODEBUNENGZAIGULAODEXUNCHANG,ZENME“ZIRAN”LAI“ZIRAN”QUDE,JINGZAIDANGJINBIANCHENGLEQUANSHEHUIJINJIERJIANJUDEJIUYUANGONGCHENG——NANDAODUANZIJUESUNCAISHI“ZIRAN”SUOXIANG?ZICHENGWEIZIYOUZHUYIZHEDEYISELIERENHELALI(Yuval Noah Harari),KENDINGBUHUIXIANGXINZHEIYIDIAN,BUXIANGXINYOUGUAN“ZIRAN”DEJINGDIANJIASHE。TASHUOGUO:“YUWANGBINGBUSHICHUYUZIYOUXUANZE”,“ZIYOUYIZHI”BUGUOSHI“ZIYOUZHUYIDESHENHUA”,YIBIANDEXIANGDANGWEIXIAN。RENLEIYIBAOLUCHU“KEXUNHUADEDONGWU”ZHENMIANMU,NEIXIE“ZUIRONGYIBEICAOZONGDERENJIANGSHINEIXIEXIANGXINZIYOUYIZHIDEREN”。

侠客棋牌QISHI,DUXIN“ZIRAN”DEZHISHIJIEZHULIU,YIKAISHIJIUCANYULEDUIRENLEIDE“XUNHUA”,CANYULEHAYEKESUOYAN“RENWEIDESHEJIYUQIANGZHI”,BAOKUOWEINVQUANZHUYIJIUSHIWAJIEQIANWANJIATINGDE“RENWEI”——ZHISHAOSHI“RENWEI”ZHIYI。QISUMINGJIAO“ZUO”。BENLAI,SUIZHEGONGYEHUASHIXIAN,ZHANZHENGYUSHENGCHANDOUYUELAIYUEBUZAIYIKAOJIROU,NVXINGJIEFANGLANYELANBUZHU。NVRENKAOSAJIAO、CHONGBAI、SHIHOU、FUCONGLAIYIFUNANRENDERIZIYIQUBUFAN——ZHEIYIGUOCHENGHAIZAIJIXU。BUGUO,ZHEIBINGBUBUYIWEINVRENKANLEJIBUHANJU、JISHOUFENSEXIAOSHI、JIPIAN“MIMENG”GONGHAODEDUJITANGWEN,JIUYOULIYOUZHANGYAWUZHUADATIANXIA,JIUKEYIYAOQIU“NIFUZEZHENGQIANYANGJIA,WOFUZEMAOMEIRUHUA”,BAZIJIDANGZUOSHENGHUOBUNENGZILIZHE,KAOZHUANYEGANGJING+GONGZHUBING,JIANGNANXINGBAQUANNEIYIDUZIHUAISHUIQUANTAOZHAOBAN。BU,ZHEIZHONG“ZUO”,ZHEIZHONGBUZUOBUSI,YUNVXINGJIEFANGHAOWUGUANXI,ZONGSHIZHIXIANGHUANJUEZHONGYIQIEKENENGDE“TIANGOU”,BAOKUONANRENYEBAOKUONVREN,BIRUNANFANGDEMUQIN、JIEMEI、NVQINQI、NVTONGSHI、NVLINJU,GENGBUYAOSHUONEIXIEKANSHANGQUDIWEIDIXIADENVTANFANHENVBAOMU。HUANJUHUASHUO,ZHEIZHONGZUNBEIDENGJIDEXINKUAN,BUKENENGDAILAIXINGBIEDEPINGDENGYUHEXIE,ZHIKENENGJIADALIANGXINGGOUTONGCHENGBEN,ZAOCHENGGENGDUOYIPAILIANGSANDEGUNANGUANV。

“FANPAOPAO”CHABUDUOYESHIYIGENANBANDEGONGZHUBINGHUANZHE,YIFEN“BAIWOJIAO”YANGBEN。ZHEIWEI2008NIANWENCHUANDADIZHENZHONGDEXINWENRENWU,BEIDACAIZI,JUSHUODANGJIAOSHIHAIBUCUO,JINGZAIQINGDUDIZHENSHIQIXUESHENGERXIANPAO,HAIRENWEINAPADIUXIAZIJIMUQIN,YELISUODANGRAN,YINWEITA“SHIYIGEZHUIQIUZIYOUHEGONGZHENGDEREN”,YINCIBUXUYAOXIANRENHOUJIYILEIXUZHAOZI。ZHEIWEI“CHUNGEREN”“WEIYIZHE”DEGAODIAOZIXUAN,YINQILEYICHANGGONGGONGYULUNFENGBO。ZHIDEZHUYIDESHI,ZHISHAOZAIFENGBOZAOQI,ZHIYISHENGYINBINGBUZHANYOUSHI,BAOZHI、DIANSHI、WANGLUOSHANGWEITAZHANTAIDEJINGYINGDAKAZHONGDUO,SHENZHIYOURENCHENGSONGTAWEI“ZHONGGUODIYIWENKEJIAOSHI”,LIANZHENGFUGUANWANGYECENGZAIWENZANQI“CHENGSHISHIZUIKEGUIDEMEIDE”。ZHIDAOHOULAI,YOURENBANCHUTAITANNIKEHAOCHENCHUAN(BANCHUHUANGJIGUANG、GUANYUNZHANG、FOTUOYILEIGUJIBUGUANYONG),NATAYUXIFANGSHENSHIHEYISHIDEMEIDEXIANGBI,CAISHIGONGYIFENGTOUKAISHIZHUANXIANG。BUGUO,DUITADEZHICHISHENGLIANGKONGPAYIJIRENLIUXIASHENSHENHANYI,TEBIESHIZAIQIANWANNVRENDEXINLI。XIANGXIANGKAN,RUGUONANRENDOUZHEIYANG,DOUHENGXIAYITIAOXINZHEIYANGLE,HUNYINDEWENNUANHELANGMANHAISHENGXIAJIHE?“TIANGOU”ZHONGYUBAOLULANGXING,NEIMEYIGEGEXIAOGONGZHUHAIDANGBUDANGDEXIAQU?

ZAIGENGDUODICENGMINZHONGNEILI,JIATINGDANGRANHAIYIWEIZHEYIDADUIJUTINANTI。YOUXIEKUNNANSHIXINLIDE。XIAOFEIZHUYISHISHANGDIAOGAODAJIADEWEIKOU,QIONGRENYEYAOXIANGFURENDEFU,YAOBIZHAOZHEGUANGGAOGUORIZI,NEIMEWUFANG、WUCHE、WUBAOBAO、BUNENGCHIHEWANLETIANTIANSHUANG,JIANZHIJIUMEIFAHUO,JIUSHISHIZUDEKUBI,HUNYINZIRANWUCONGTANQI。ZAILINGYIFANGMIAN,YOUXIEKUNNANDANGZHENSHIWULIDE。FANGJIABIAOSHENG,YIYAOFEIKANZHANG,HUAZHUANGHEYINGCHOUCHENGLEZHICHANGGANGXU,ZINVDEKEWAIBANSHIWUDIDONG,GEZHONGSHENGHUOCHENGBENXIJIEQIANBAO,ZIJIDENEIFENPOZHIYENAYITIANHAIKENENGBUBAO。ZAIZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGXIA,HUNYINNEISHIJIBIANCHENGLE,QIBUYESHIZITIANQIKU?YIDANYANGYUCHUERNVJIANGLAIYANZHONGDEQINGMIEHEYUANHEN,WEIFUMUZHENAYOUDIFENGKEZUAN,YOUHEYIMIANDUICANSHENG?

侠客棋牌YUSHI,XINLIHEWULIDELIANGTOUJIAJIZHIXIA,SHUANGZHONGJIANAOZHONG,YOUXIERENHUOYOUCHUTOUDEJIHUI,DANXUEXI、LAODONG、JIEJIANZAITAMENYANLIGENGSHIDUOMEZHAYANDECHAOJIKUBIHE。RUGUOTAMENBUYUANZHEIYANG,BUYUANZHEIYANGQUEXINYANHEDIUFENER,NEIMELUNWEI“DIAOSI”DEGAILVBIDINGBUXIAO。

DAOZUIHOU,ZUOWEIYIPIAN“YUANZIHUA”DESANSHA,ZHEIXIERENJIWUQUNTIKANGZHENGDEYIYUAN,YEWUGETIKANGZHENGDENENGLI,YIJUGERENZHUYILIYILIXINGDEJINGSUAN,RUOZHEDEZUIHOUCHULUHEZIJIUFANGLVE,DANGRANZHINENGSHIDUIGENGRUOZHEXIASHOU,BIRU“KENLAO”——QUFUMUNEILIYAOYAQIECHI,LIANKUDAINAO,PAIZHUODAYI。

ZHIDAOFUMUXIAOSHI,ZHIDAOQITAGENGRUOZHEYEXIAOSHI(HUOGAOBUDING),ZHEIXIEZAIDICENGHEBIANYUANPIAOLAIPIAOQUDEDUXINGREN,XIANGXINMANSHIJIESHIMIANMAIFU,WUCHUBUSHITAOLU,WUYIBUSHICAODAN,ZHONGYUHUOCHENGLEYIDAPIYOU“ZHA”YOU“SANG”DEYOUHUN。

“WOXIANGYOUYIGEJIA……”ZHEIYANGDEGECHANGRANGTAMENLEILIUMANMIANXINTOUDIXUE。DANCHULEDUPINHUOYIYU,TAMENDEJIAYUANSIHUYIWUJIKEXUN。

ZAIQIAOHEIBAN:ZHEISHIYIGE“ZIRAN”DEGUOCHENG,HAISHI“XUNHUA”DEGUOCHENG?SHIYIQIEBENGAIRUCIHAISHIYIQIEBUGAIRUCI?

侠客棋牌MEIGUODIANYING《CHAOTUO》(2011NIAN)LI,YIGENVXIAOYIMIANDUIYIWEIHUNBULINDEWENTINVSHENG,MIANDUIYIZHANGYONGYUANDELENGLIANJIQITIAOXINDELIMU,ZHONGYURENWUKERENFACHUPAOXIAO:

侠客棋牌HE,SHANGDI!NIZHENFUQIAN,ZHENLINGWOZUOOU!

NIXIANGZHIDAOSHISHIMA?DIYI,NIJINBULERENHELEDUI,YEDANGBULEMOTE,YINWEINIYIWUSUOZHANG,MEIYOUBAOFUHENULI。NIZHINENGQUTONG80%DEMEIGUOLAODONGLIJINGZHENGYIFENXINSHUIDIWEIDEGONGZUO,ZHIDAONIZUIHOUBEIDIANNAOQUDAI!DIER,NIWEIYIDECAINENG,SHIRANGNANRENMENSHANGNI,RANGNIDERENSHENGBIANCHENGTONGKUBUKANDEJIANIANHUA,ZHIDAONIWUFARENSHOU,ZHIDAOMEIYITIANMEIYIGEXIAOSHIDOUNANYIRENSHOU,QINGKUANGHAIHUIBIANDEGENGZAO!

侠客棋牌XIANZAI,WOMEITIANLAIDAOZHEIGEBANGONGSHI,KANZHENIMENZUOJIANZIJI。SHUOSHIHUA,SHUSHIWUDUTAIRONGYILE,ZAIHUNIMENCAIXUYAOJUDADEYONGQI!

DANNIMENBUPEI!

BUPEI!

侠客棋牌GUN!GUNCHUQU!GUNCHUQU!GUNNIMEI!

侠客棋牌NVXIAOYIMAKULEZIJI。ZAINEIYIKE,LIANGGENVRENDOUSHISHANGHAIZHE,YEDOUSHISHOUHAIZHE,QUEBUZHIDAOYIQIEDEYIQIEWEIHEHUIBIANCHENGZHEIYANG。

DUIYUTAMENLAISHUO,FUERTAIDEYIJUHUAYEXUBUHESHIYI,QUEYEBINGFEIDUOYU:“XUEBENGSHIMEIYOUNAPIANXUEHUAHUIRENWEIZIJIFUYOUZEREN。”

▍僧侣或家族的社会主义“上帝”的原型与化身

侠客棋牌MUQINWEISHENMEZONGSHISHOUDAOGESONG?

侠客棋牌YIGEMINGXIAOCAIZI“ZIYOUHEGONGZHENG”DIQIMUERTAO,PAODEBISHEIDOUKUAI,WEISHENMEZONGRANGRENJUEDEBUDUIJING?YINWEIMUQINBINGBUSHIAAZHIXIADELINGYIFANG,BUSHIBOYIZHEHEJIAOYIZHE,TONGCHANGYIWEIZHEFENGXIANHEXISHENG,YIWEIZHEQUANLIDEZIWOFANGQI,YIWEIZHEZIWOZERENDEZUIDAHUA,ERBUSHIZIWOLIYIDEZUIDAHUA——ZHISHAOZAIERNVMIANQIANSHIZHEIYANG,CONGERYISHIERNVSHENGMINGDEYIBUFEN。RENMENRIHOURIYESINIANDE,SHIMUQINBAJIALIJINYOUDEYIZHANGBINGJILENI,CONGWEIKOUXIAZIJIYINGYOUDENEIYIBAN。RENMENRIHOULEIRUYUXIADE,SHIMUQINCHENGDANLECHENZHONGDEJIAWUCAOLAO,CONGWEIXIANGDAOWUKEHOUFEIDESUOWEIMUQUAN(RUGUONVQUAN、TONGQUAN、MINQUAN、ZUQUAN、GUOQUANDENGDOUSHIHELIDEHUA),BUHUIZIJIMEIXIYIGEWAN,YAOQIUNIYEBIXIYIGE,SHENZHIANNIANLING、TILI、SHILIANGDEGONGPINGJISUANYAOQIUNIDUOXIYIGE。DANGCHEHUOHUODIZHENXILAI,MUQINZUIKENENGXIAYISHIDIBANILOUZAIHUAILIHUZAISHENXIA,BUXIYIMINGHUANMING,BINGBUZAIHUZIJIDEANQUAN、JIANKANG、MEILIYIJIXINGZIYOU。

MUQINSHIRENLEIDAODELUNLIDEQIDIAN,JIHUSHISHANGDIDEYUANXINGHEHUASHEN。YIMUAIWEIDAIBIAO、WEIGAOBIAODESUOYOUMEIHAOQINGGANHEGAOSHANGJINGSHEN(BUFEN+),CAISHI“ZIRANXUANZE”HE“ZIRANZHIXU”DEZUIDAMIMI,YIZHONGHAOHANWUBIANHEWUCHUBUZAIDEWEIDALILIANG,SHIRENJIANDEYIYANXUZHIJIN,YEZHIDEJINGLIYICI。

侠客棋牌BUCUO,GERENDANGRANYESHIYINGDAOLI。ZHIYAOJIQIRENHAIWEITIDAIRENLEI,SILIJIUZHENZHENQIEQIE,GERENZHUYIYEJIUWUFAXIAOMIE,XIANGGUANDEZHIDUYUWENHUAYUANYUANLIUZHANG,XUYAOYIZHONGBAORONG、ZUNZHONG、YINDAO、XIEDIAO、HELILIYONG——ZHEIZHENGSHIQUNTIGUANHUAIDEYINGYOUZHIYI。

侠客棋牌BUJINRUCI,ZAIYIGEZUZHIXING、HULIANXING、ZHENGTIXINGGENGQIANGDERENLEIXINSHIDAI,ZUZHIGERENZHUYIDUIGERENDEWEIHAIPOZAIMEIJIE,SHIZHONGJIANQUNTIGUANHUAIDEZHONGYAOYICHENG。FOUZE,RUGUORANGGERENZHUYIDEYINXINGWENYIJIXUFANSHISHIJIEDEFANGFANGMIANMIAN,FANSHISUOYOUDEZHIDUHEWENHUA,RENLEIJIUZHINENGHUARUYIZHONGKEBEIDEZIYOULUOTI。ZAINEIZHONGQINGKUANGXIA,DUOSHAONIAN、DUOSHAODAIDEQIMENGJILEIYEMEIYONG,LIXINGZHEIZHONG“JIQINGDENULI”(XIUMOYU),YIBULIUSHENJIUSHIZHENGTENGSIYUDEXIAONULI。ZHISHI、SIXIANG、YUNDONGDENGDOUHUICHENGDUBUTONGDICHENGWEIYIDIJIMAO,JIWUXINGAN,YEQUENAOZI,CHANGCHANGBUGUOSHIYIXIEXIAORENDEJIEQIAOSHANGSHIHEMOUCAIFENZANG。TAMENDEQIHAOWUHUABAMEN,DANZHEIPAIHUONEIPAIDOUANFUYIKEYOUDULINGHUN,SHUODAODIDOUSHIXIAOSUANPANPAI、YOUKOUWUXINPAI、RUXITAISHENPAI、SHUANGZHONGBIAOZHUNPAI,NIYIXIUJIUQIWEIKEZHI,NIYIRENZHENJIUXIANSHULE。

JINYIBUSHUO,NEIZHONGSANSHAHUAYESHIQUANLI、ZIBEN、ZONGJIAORENXINGHEEBIANDETIAOJIANJIUWEI,SHILIYIGUATOUMENZUIGANANQUAN、ZUIKEFANGXIN、ZUISHAOMINZHONGYALIHEQUNTIFANKANGDEHAORIZI,SHENZHISHITAMENZUIKENENGBEIWUNAIZHEMENFENGWEIJIUSHIQIANGRENCONGERJIAYIPANWANGHEHUANHUDESHIKE。

侠客棋牌DEGUODESHIDINAZHIHOUYOUXITELE,ZHEIYIQIANJIANBINGBUYAOYUAN。

DUIZHEISHI,NIBURENZHENKENENGJIUGENGSHULE。

注释

1.AIMIER·DIERKAIMU:《ZISHALUN》,XIEPEIYUN、SHUYUNYI,TAIHAICHUBANSHE2016NIANBAN。

侠客棋牌2.FEIXIAOTONG:《WENHUALUNZHONGRENYUZIRANGUANXIDEZAIRENSHI》,ZAI《FEIXIAOTONGJIUSHIXINYU》,ZHONGQINGCHUBANSHE2005NIANBAN。

3.QIANMU:《ZHONGGUOWENHUASHIDAOLUN》,SHANGWUYINSHUGUAN1948NIANBAN。

4.HANNA·ALUNTE:《RENDEJINGKUANG》,WANGYINLIYI,SHANGHAIRENMINCHUBANSHE2009NIANBAN。

侠客棋牌5.MAIKEER·OUKEXIAOTE:《ZHENGZHIZHONGDELIXINGZHUYI》,ZHANGRULUNYI,SHANGHAIYIWENCHUBANSHE2003NIANBAN。

侠客棋牌6.BIDE·WOSEN:《SIXIANGSHI:CONGHUODAOFULUOYIDE》,HUCUIEYI,YILINCHUBANSHE2018NIANBAN。

侠客棋牌7.BOTE·HUOERDUOBULE、AIDEHUA·WEIERXUN:《MAYIDESHEHUI》,ZHONGXINCHUBANSHE2019NIANBAN。

8.DAERWEN:《RENLEIDEYOULAI》DI4ZHANG,PANGUANGDAN、HUSHOUWENYI,SHANGWUYINSHUGUAN1983NIANBAN。

侠客棋牌9.MAIKESI·SHIDINA:《WEIYIZHEJIQISUOYOUWU》,JINHAIMINYI,SHANGWUYINSHUGUAN1989NIANBAN。

侠客棋牌10.QINHUI:《QUNJIQUANJIE》,ZAI《FENGHUANGZHOUKAN》2006NIANDI8QI。

11. Thomas Henry Huxley, “The Struggle for Existence in Human Society,” in Thomas Henry Huxley, Collected Essays, Volume IX, Evolution & Ethics and Other Essays, D. Appleton, 1899.

侠客棋牌12.J. D. WANSI:《XIANGXIARENDEBEIGE》,LIUXIAOTONGYI,JIANGSUFENGHUANGCHUBANSHE2017NIANBAN。

侠客棋牌13.TAOXISHENGDENG:《ZHONGGUOBENWEIDEWENHUAJIANSHEXUANYAN》,《WENHUAJIANSHE》DI1JUANDI4QI。

14.Yuval Noah Harari, “The Myth of Freedom,” Guardian, http://www.theguardian.com/books/2018/sep/14/yuval-noah-harari-the-new-threat-to-liberal-democracy.