✪ WANGLISHENG / ZHONGGUOSHEHUIKEXUEYUANJINGJIYANJIUSUO

 ✪ WANGQINGTAO / SHANDONGSHIFANDAXUEMAKESIZHUYIXUEYUAN

 

[导读]近期,崔永元事件引发舆论震动,旁观之余,人们也对事件折射出的资本逻辑和价值危机,展开了深入反思。一些人士指出,中国影视业的市场化值得肯定,但这一过程也伴随着对是非善恶价值观的嬉笑怒骂,以及对历史叙事的恣意涂改,因而在某种程度上解构了自1949年以来形成的中国人的精神世界。崔永元手撕影视圈大佬并赢得广泛支持,似意味着人们对于这种价值解构过程的反抗。循此理路,本文作者回溯了从毛时代到邓时代的精神价值体系演变历程,剖析改革开放以来资本逻辑的全面渗透,如何肢解了当代中国人的精神生活。作者认为,当代中国的价值重建,要在统合社会主义和市场规律的基础上深植价值信念的基点,而不能任由资本逻辑全面瓦解中国人的主流价值体系。文章仅代表作者观点。特此编发,以飨读者。 

侠客棋牌DENGXIAOPINGSHIDAIDEGAIGEKAIFANGSHIJIANLIZAIDUIMAOZEDONGSHIDAIDESIXIANGFANSIHESHIJIANJIAOZHENGDEJICHUZHISHANG。CONGGAODUCHOUXIANGDESHEHUIJINGSHENYURENMENSHIJIANDEGUANXILAIKAN,MAOZEDONGSUOTUIXINGDESHEHUIZHUYISHIJIANSHIGAOYANGGONGCHANZHUYILIXIANGMUBIAODESHENSHENGXINGSHIYE,ERDENGXIAOPINGDEGAIGEKAIFANGSUIRANCONGLAIMEIYOUFANGQIGONGCHANZHUYILIXIANGMUBIAODEHUAYUTIXI,DANSHIZAITUIJINZHONGGUOXIANDAIHUADELISHIJINCHENGZHONG,TONGGUODUISHICHANGJINGJISHOUDUANDELISHIXUANZEHEYIGONGYEHUAWEIHEXINDEXIANDAIHUAMUBIAODESHIJIAN,ZHENGGEZHONGGUOSHEHUIDESHISUHUAJINCHENGYIJIYOUCIDAILAIDESHISUHUATEZHENGRIYIZHANGXIAN。ZAINONGCUNSHIXINGJIATINGLIANCHANCHENGBAOZERENZHI,ZAICHENGSHIZESHIJINGJITIZHIDESHICHANGHUAGAIGE,QIJIEGUOSHIGETICONGGUOJIASHENGHUOHESHEHUISHENGHUOHUIGUIYUGERENSHENGHUO,GETIDERENSHENGMUBIAOCONGGONGCHANZHUYIDEHONGDASUQIUHUIGUIDAOXIANSHIDEJIATINGYUGERENSHENGHUO,JINGSHENCHONGGAOBEIWUZHIYUWANGSUOJIEGOU,SHEHUIBENWEIDESIWEILUOJIRIYIBEISHICHANGHUASUOTUIDONGDEZIBENLUOJISUOTIDAI。

侠客棋牌HUANYANZHI,YIGONGCHANZHUYIWEIZHONGJIMUBIAODERENSHENGXINYANGZAISHEHUIYUNZHUANZHONGSHIQULEZUIZHONGDONGLIDEGONGNENG,ZHONGGUOSHEHUIJIXUXINDESHIDAIJINGSHEN。BENWENJIEYOUGOULEMAOZEDONGSHIDAIZHIJINZHENGZHI/SHEHUIWENHUADEYANBIAN,ZHIZAIDUIDENGSHIDAIDESHISUHUASHEHUIZHANKAILISHIXINGFANSI,CONGERWEIDANGDAIZHONGGUORENDEJINGSHENZHONGJIANTIGONGYIGEJINGJIAN。

 

毛时代的精神世界

MAOZEDONGSHIDAISHEHUIJINGJIYUNXINGDEYIGEXIANZHUTEDIANJIUSHIZHUZHONGDUIZHONGGUORENDELINGHUNDESUZAO,SHENZHIJIANGQISHIWEIDANGHEZHENGFUDESHOUYAORENWU。JUTIERYAN,MAOZEDONGSHIDAIDEGEMINGSHIBUBUSHENRUDE,CONGSHENGCHANZILIAOSUOYOUZHIXINGSHI,DAOSHENGCHANZUZHIXINGSHI,ZAIDAORENDESIXIANGNEIRONG——QIGUANJIANSHIRENMENDUISIYOUCAICHANDETAIDU,KEYIKANCHU,MAOZEDONGSHITUYIRENMENDUISIYOUGUANNIANDEGENCHULAISHIXIANDUISHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUDEZUIZHONGBAOZHANG。MAOZEDONGLITUWEIQIZHENGZHILINIANQUELIJINGSHENGENJI,JIQUANGUORENMINDUISHEHUIZHUYIDERENTONG,CONGERDADAOQUANZHONGGUORENDEJINGSHENDEGAODUTONGYI。ZHONGGUOCHUANTONGSHEHUIYECENGSHIXIANGUORUJIASIXIANGDE“DAYITONG”,DANQISHEHUIJIEGOUSHILISANDE,JIMEIYIGEGETIDEJUECEDOUFUCONGYUZIJIDENEIZAIFADU,ANZHAOGETIDE“LIANGXIN”FAZE,YI“TUIJIJIREN”DELILULAIJUECE,ZHEIZHONGSHEHUIJIEGOUBIRANSHIYIPANSANSHA,ERMAOZEDONGDUISHEHUIZHIXUJIANGOUDEZUIZHONGMUBIAOSHISHIXIANZHONGGUORENJINGSHENDETONGYI,YEJIUSHIBUJINYAOSHIXIANGUOJIAZHIDUCENGMIANSHANGDEQIANGZHIXINGTONGYI,ERQIEYAOSHIXIANQUANGUORENMINJINGSHENCENGMIANSHANGDETONGYI。ZAIYIDINGYIYISHANGKEYISHUO,MAOZEDONGWANCHENGLEZHEIGESHIMING,SHIXIANLEZHEIGEHONGWEIMUBIAO,ZHEISHIQIGONGJISUOZAI。

WEILESHIXIANDUIZHONGGUORENDELINGHUNGAIZAO,MAOZEDONGSHULILELIANGKUAIPAIZI,QIZHONGZHIYISHI“DAZHAIJINGSHEN”。1964NIAN8YUE26RI,《SHANXIRIBAO》FABIAOTIWEI《DAZHAIJINGSHENDEWEIDALILIANG》DESHELUN,DUIDAZHAIJINGSHENDEGAIKUOTONGYANG“TUCHULE‘JIEJIDOUZHENG’,ZHICHU,DAZHAIJINGSHENJIUSHIJIANCHIJIEJIDOUZHENG,BASHEHUIZHUYIGEMINGJINXINGDAODIDEGEMINGJINGSHEN,JIUSHIZILIGENGSHENG、FENFATUQIANG、GUZUGANJING、LIZHENGSHANGYOUDEKEXUEJINGSHEN,JIUSHIJIANCHISHIYAN、SHISHIQIUSHIDEKEXUEJINGSHEN。YIJUHUA,DAZHAIJINGSHENJIUSHISHIDAIJINGSHEN,SHIBEIMAOZEDONGSIXIANGWUZHUANGQILAIDEZHONGGUOWUYINONGMINWEIDAJINGSHENMIANMAODESUOYING”。

侠客棋牌“LEIFENGJINGSHEN”ZESHILINGYIZHONGLINGHUNSHENCHUNAOGEMINGDEDIANXING。1963NIANMAOZEDONGQINBITICI“XIANGLEIFENGTONGZHIXUEXI”,“JIUSHIHAOZHAORENMENYAOXUEXILEIFENGTONGZHIREAIDANGREAIRENMIN,SHEJIWEIGONG、DAGONGWUSIDEFENGXIANJINGSHEN”,“XUEXILEIFENGTONGZHILIZUBENZHIGANGWEI,ZAIPINGFANDEGONGZUOZHONGCHUANGZAOCHUBUPINGFANYEJIDE‘LUOSIDINGJINGSHEN’”;“XUEXILEIFENGTONGZHIKUGANSHIGANBUJIBAOCHOU、ZHENGZUOGONGXIANDEJIANKUFENDOUJINGSHEN”。SHEHUIZHUYIDEBENZHITEZHENGJIUSHIGONGYOUZHIHEJIHUAJINGJI,GONGYOUZHIXUYAORENMENGENCHUSIYOUCAICHANGUANNIAN,YIWUSIDEGUANNIANLAIJIANSHEYIGEXINGONGYOUZHISHEHUI,QILISHIHUODONGSHIZIYOU、ZIJUEDEHUODONG,ZHEIZHONGSHIJIANHUODONGQIAHAOSHIMEIGERENDEZIWOSHIXIAN。LINGWAI,XUEXILEIFENGSUOQIANGDIAODE“LUOSIDINGJINGSHEN”,YESHIRENZAISHEHUIHUODONGZHONGQUELILEGETIJIAZHI,JIGERENANFENYUMOUYISHEHUIJIAOSE,DANMEIYIGETIDOUDUIZIJIDEJIAOSEYOUZHECHONGFENDELIJIE,DOUCONGSHEHUIZHENGTIZHONGHUOQUZIWODEJIAZHI,BINGQIEDUIZHEIYIJIAOSECHONGMANRENTONG,YINWEIZHEIZHONGLIJIESHIJIANLIZAIDUISHEHUIZHUYISHIYEZONGTIDELIJIEJICHUZHISHANGDE,GETIDENULISHENZHIXISHENGYINWEIZHENGTIDEYIYIERCHANSHENGYIYI。MAOZEDONGWEIZHONGGUORENMINQUELILEGONGCHANZHUYIFENDOUMUBIAO,BINGQIEWEILEZHEIGEMUBIAOSHIXIANLERENDESIXIANGYUXIANSHI,SHENGHUOSHIJIEYULIXIANGSHIJIEDEHEYI,YUSHI,MAOZEDONGSHIDAI,ZHONGGUOSHIYONGMAOZEDONGSIXIANGWUZHUANGQILAIDESHIJIE,SHIYIGESHENSHENGDESHIJIE。

MAOZEDONGYIYISHANGDESHENSHENGSHIJIE,SUIRANSHIXIANLEJINGSHENZHIXUYUSHEHUIZHIXUDEGAODUTONGYI,DANSHIQUEYOUWEIJINGJIFAZHANDEGUILV,ZHISHIZHONGGUOJINGJIFAZHANBUJINRURENYI,BUJINMEIYOUSHIXIANXIANDAIHUAFAZHANDEYUQIMUBIAO,SHENZHILIANWENBAOWENTIYEMEIYOUJIEJUE。GAIGEKAIFANGYINRUDESHICHANGJIZHIBINGBUSHIDUISHEHUIZHUYIYUANZEDEFOUDING,ERSHIZAIJIANCHISHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUDEQIANTIZHIXIA,TONGGUOSHICHANGDEZUOYONGCUJINJINGJIFAZHAN。JINGGUOJISHINIANDESHIJIAN,ZHONGGUODEXIANDAIHUAJIANSHECHENGJIUFEIRAN,QUDELESHIJIEDIERDAJINGJITIDEDIWEI。ZHEISHUOMING,GAIGEKAIFANGSHIZHONGGUOFAZHANDELISHIBIYOUZHILU,ZHEIZHONGXUANZESHILISHIDEBIRAN,DANSHI,YIGEYIWAIDEHOUGUOSHI,SHICHANGJINGJITIZHIJIZHIDEZHENGTIZUOYONG,ZAICUJINLEJINGJIFAZHANDETONGSHI,DUIJIANLIZAIJIHUAJINGJIJICHUSHANGDEJINGSHENZHIXUYEQIDAOLEQUANMIANJIEGOUDEZUOYONG。ZAIZHEIZHONGZHENGTIYIYIBEIJIEGOUZHIHOU,GETIBUBIZAIZUOWEISHEHUIYOUJITIDEZUCHENGBUFENERCUNZAI,ERSHIBEINARULEZIBENLUOJIZHONG,BINGYUYUANYOUDESHEHUIZHENGTIXIANGTUOLI,GETIBUJINBUKENENGCONGZHENGTIZHONGQUELIZIJIZAISHEHUIZHENGTIZHIZHONGDEYIYI,ERQIEGETIDEHUODONGJIUSHIDUIZIWODEFOUDING。

ZIBENLUOJIFAZHANDEJIDUANHOUGUOSHI,MAOZEDONGQINGXINDAZAODEJINGSHENZHIXUYUSHEHUIZHIXUHEYIDESHENGHUOSHIJIEBUFUCUNZAI,HENDUORENYOUQISHIYIDAPINIANQINGREN,ZAIZIBENDELUOJIZHONGMANGMUDESUIBOZHULIU,JINGSHENWUSUOGUIYI。ZHEISHIYIZHONGFEICHANGKEPADESHEHUIJINGSHENZHUANGKUANG。XINZHONGGUOCHENGLIZHIHOU,MAOZEDONGBINQILECHUANTONGZHONGGUORENDEXINYANG,BINGCHENGGONGDIYIMAOZEDONGSIXIANGZHANLINGLEZHONGGUORENDEJINGSHENLINGYU,DANZAISHICHANGJINGJITIAOJIANXIA,BEIMAOZEDONGSUOFOUDINGDIAODECHUANTONGXINYANGMEIYOUHUIFU,MAOZEDONGSIXIANGYOUMIANLINZHEBEIJIEGOUDEMINGYUN。

ZHENGXIANGNICAISHASISHANGDI,FUHUOLERENXINGYIYANG,GAIGEKAIFANGXUANGAOZHEMAOZEDONGSIXIANGDEQUSHENSHENGHUA,FUHUOLEZHONGGUORENDERENXING,TUXIANLEZHONGGUORENDE“RENDEJIAZHI”。NICAICENGJIANG:“SHANGDISILE”,BINGGAOHU“ZHENGSHIWO,SHIWO——SHASILESHANGDI”。SHANGDIBISI,YINWEI“SHANGDIKANJIANYIQIE,SHANGDIYEKANJIANLERENLEI——ZHEIGESHANGDIBIDINGYAOSIQU!RENLEIBUNENGRONGRENZHEIYANGYIGEZHENGREN——HUOZHE!”HUANYANZHI,XIANDAIRENBUNENGRONGRENZHEIYANGYIGEJUGAOLINXIADEJIANDUZHE,TAMENYAOHUOCHUZIWO,QIYIYUDESHIJIESHIRENXINGDESHIJIE,“LIANZONGJIAOYEYIRANSHINEIZHONGDUIMEIDEYUQIUDEJIEGUO(HUOZHENENGGOUJINGSHOUZHI):ZUIHOUDEJIELUNHUOXUSHI——YAOBAWORENDEJUEDUICHOULOU,MEIYOUSHANGDI、LIXINGDENGDENGDECIZAI(Dasein)”。ZHEIZHONGDUIRENDETIANRANBENZHIDECHONGFENKENDINGGUYIYOUZHI,ZAIGUXILAZHEXUEZHONGJIUJIYUQICHONGFENKENDING,ZHEIYESHIWENYIFUXINGMINGHAOLAIYUANDEGENYOUZHIYI。

ZAINICAINEILI,SHANGDISILE,DAXIEDERENZHANLEQILAI,NICAIBAHUOSHENGSHENGDERENHAIJILERENZIJI;ZAISHICHANGJINGJISHIDAI,MAOZEDONGSIXIANGDEQUSHENSHENGHUAQUESHIBUZHENGDESHISHI。SHICHANGJINGJIDAKAILERENYUZHEIGEPANDUOLAMOHE,FUHUOLEREN,DANGRANYEJIUESHALEJIANLIZAIJIHUAJINGJIJICHUZHISHANGDESHENSHENGSHENGHUOSHIJIEDESHENGMINGXING,CONGCI,BUJINLAOBAIXINGHUIFULERENXING,MAOZEDONGBENRENYEBEIHAIYUANWEIYIGEPUTONGDEREN,BEIHAIYUANCHENGYIGEHUOSHENGSHENGDEREN。

ZAISHEHUIJINGSHENDEYIYISHANG,YUQISHUOMAOZEDONGCHENGGONGDIXIAOMIELECAICHANSIYOU,DAOBURUSHUOTACHENGGONGDIXIAOMIELERENMENDUISIYOUCAICHANDEYUWANG。YUCIXIANGSHIYING,ZAIMAOZEDONGSHIDAIZHIHOUDESHEHUILI,YUQISHUOSHICHANGJINGJIJIESHULEZHONGGUOYIGONGCHANZHUYIXINYANGWEITEZHENGDEZHENGGEJINGSHENSHIJIE,DAOBURUSHUOSHICHANGJINGJISHIFANGCHULERENXING,CUISHENGLERENDEWUXIANDEYUWANG。

 

改革开放与资本逻辑的兴起

DUISIYOUCAICHANZHANYOUDEYUWANGCHENGWEIGAIGEKAIFANGYUJINGJIFAZHANDEYUANDONGLI,ZHEIYESHIDEGETICHENGWEIJINGYUSUANJIDEGEREN,HUOZHESHUOSHILIXINGJINGJIREN,DANZAIZHENGGESHEHUILAIJIANG,JINGYUSUANJIDEGERENBINGBUNENGJIECHENGYIGELIXINGDESHEHUI,ERSHIMEIGEGETIDEXINGDONGDOUYIZIWOWEIMUDE,CONGERBASHEHUIBIANCHENGYIGEYIQIERENFANDUIYIQIERENDEZHANCHANG。ZHEICHANG“YIQIERENDUIYIQIERENDEZHANZHENG”DEGENYUANJIUSHIYIGE“SI”ZI,ZHENGRUMAKESISUOSHUO:“LIJIZHUYIDEGERENSHIZIBENZHUYISHEHUIDECHANWU;JINGZHENGZUICHONGFENDIFANYINGLELIUXINGZAIZIBENZHUYISHEHUIZHONGDEYIQIERENFANDUIYIQIERENDEZHANZHENG。”ZIBENZHUYITIAOJIANXIA,ZHEICHANGZHANZHENGDAOZHIRENYURENDEQUANMIANYIHUA。

MAKESIHEENGESIDEFENXIJIQISHENKE,DANZHUYAOXIANYUJINGJIXUECENGMIANSHANG,ZHISHAOZAIZHEILI,HULVELEJINGJIXUEBEIHOUDEJINGSHENYINSU。YEXUYOUXUEZHEHUIJIANG,TAMENZAONIANYIJINGJIEJUELEJINGJIXUEBEIHOUDEZHEXUEWENTI,ZHEILIKEYIFANGKAISHOUJIAOZHIJIECONGJINGJISHIJIAOQIERUSHEHUIWENTI。ZHEIZHONGSHUOFAFEICHANGMIANQIANG。SHISHISHANG,XIFANGSHEHUIZAIJINGJIYUNDONGBEIHOUSHISHENDUDEZONGJIAOLINIANDEJINGSHENZHICHENG,ZONGJIAOSHIZIBENZHUYIWENMINGHEZHIXUDEWEIHUZHE。YUZHIXINGCHENGXIANMINGDUIZHAODESHI,ZHONGGUOGAIGEKAIFANGGUOCHENGZHONGMINZHONGDESIXIANGXINNIANCONGJINGUZOUXIANGMISHI,QIDUIGONGCHANZHUYIDEXINYANGZHUANBIANWEIDUIJINQIANDEXINYANG,DANZHENGRUMOUXIELUNZHESUOTICHUDE,ZAIJINQIANMIANQIAN,“RENDESHENGMINGDEJIAZHIBEIBIANDILE,RENDESHENGMINGDEXIANGSHOUHELEQUSANGSHILE。BENLAISHIRENCHUANGZAODE、RENYONGLAIWEIZIJIFUWUDEJINQIAN,XIANZAIFANERDAOZHUANGUOLAI,CHENGLERENDEZHUZAI”。

侠客棋牌SHICHANGJINGJIJISHIDUIZIBENLUOJIDECHENGREN,YESHIQIXINGQIDECUIHUAJI,YINWEIYOUSHICHANGJINGJIZHIDUBAOJIAHUHANG,ZIBENLUOJISHENTOUJINRENMENSHENGHUODEGEGELINGYU,GEGEJIAOLUO,GEGECENGMIAN,BINGCHENGWEITAMENDESHENGHUOYUANZE,SUOYOUSHIWUDOUBEIBIAOSHANGLEJIAGE,TAOYONGNICAIDUIYIQIEJIAZHIDEDUANYAN——“XIANZAIWOMENCHENGZHIWEIWENHUA、JIAOYU、WENMINGDEYIQIE,ZHONGYOUYITIANBIJIANGZHANZAIGONGZHENGDESHENPANGUANJIUSHENMIANQIAN”,ZAIZIBENLUOJIDEQUSHIXIA,“WOMENCHENGZHIWEIWENHUA、JIAOYU、WENMINGDEYIQIE,XIANZAIDOUZHANZAILEGONGZHENGDESHENPANGUANHUOBIMIANQIAN”JIESHOUCAIJUE,YISHANGLUNDUANZAIXIANSHISHEHUIZHONGDEBIAOXIANJIUSHIXIAOSHIMINSHENGCUNWEIJIAN,QUANLIJIDUFUBAI,YIJILIYIJITUANSHENGXING。

侠客棋牌YINGDANGKANDAO,XIFANGZONGJIAOYINDAOXIADESHICHANGJINGJIYUZHONGGUOMAKESIZHUYIYISHIXINGTAIXIADESHICHANGJINGJICUNZAIGENBENBUTONG,QIYI,DANGQIANZHONGGUODESHICHANGJINGJISHISHEHUIZHUYISHICHANGJINGJI,DANWULUNSHEHUIXINGTAIRUHEBUTONG,SHICHANGJINGJIDEBENZHISHIXIANGTONGDE,JI“YAORANGSHICHANGZAIZIYUANPEIZHIZHONGQIJUEDINGXINGZUOYONG”,ZHEIZHONGGONGTONGXINGJUEDINGLEDONGXIFANGDESHICHANGJINGJIJIANSHEBIRANZAOYUXIANGTONGDEKUNJING;QIER,YUZIBENZHUYISHICHANGJINGJIXIANGBANSUIDEZONGJIAOXINNIAN,YUMAKESIZHUYIDEYISHIXINGTAIYOUGENBENBUTONG。XIFANGDEZONGJIAOXINNIANGENZHIYUSHIMINSHEHUI,ZHEIYIGUOCHENGZAIXIFANGSHEHUIDEZHENGZHIJIEFANGZHONGYIJINGWANCHENG,ZAIMOUZHONGYIYISHANG,XIFANGDEXIANDAIWENMINGDIANDINGZAIZHENGZHICONGZONGJIAOZHONGJIEFANGCHULAIZHEIYIQIANTISHANG;YUZHIBUTONGDESHI,ZHONGGUODEMAKESIZHUYIXINYANGSHIGUOJIAYISHIXINGTAI,SHIYIZHONGZHENGZHIXINYANG,ZHEIZHONGDUIMAKESIZHUYIDEXINYANGZAIMAOZEDONGSHIDAISHENRURENXIN,DANZAIGAIGEKAIFANGZHIHOU,DUIMAKESIZHUYIDEXINYANGCHENGWEIDANYIDEZHENGZHIYISHIXINGTAI,DUIMINZHONGSANGSHILESHUOFULI,TONGSHIYOUMEIYOULINGYIZHONGXINYANGJISHITIANBUMINZHONGJINGSHENSHIJIEDEQUEWEI。YOUCI,PUTONGMINZHONGDEJINGSHENSHIJIEYUGUOJIAYISHIXINGTAIXIANGFENLICHENGWEIDANGJINSHEHUIDEGENBENWENTI,ERZHEZHIJIANDEJINZHANGYULIEHENNANYIMIHE。

侠客棋牌SHIJUYILI,GAIGEKAIFANGYUJINGXIADENONGCUNJINGJITIZHIGAIGE,QIHUAYUBIAODASHIJIATINGLIANCHANCHENGBAOZERENZHI,QISHIZHIHEHEXINSHI“FENTIANDAOHU”,ZHEIZHONGGAIGELINIANYUZHONGGUOCHUANTONGSHEHUIZHONGDENONGMINGEMINGYISHISHIGAODUQIHEDE。ZAIGEMINGNIANDAI,NONGMINDEJIJICANYUYUANYUQISIWEISHENCENGZHONGDUITUDIZHANYOUDEYUANSHIYUWANG,NONGMINYUTUDIDETIANRANGANQINGYOUCHENGWEINONGCUNGAIGEDEJIBENTURANG。ZAIDENGXIAOPINGDUISHEHUIZHUYIBENZHIDEGUIDINGZHONG,QILILUNJIEGOUDEZHENGTIYIYUN,YEYINGHELEZHEIZHONGWENHUAZHUZHANG。DENGXIAOPINGJIANG,“SHEHUIZHUYIDEBENZHI,SHIJIEFANGSHENGCHANLI,FAZHANSHENGCHANLI,XIAOMIEBOXUE,XIAOCHULIANGJIFENHUA,ZUIZHONGDADAOGONGTONGFUYU”,DANGONGTONGFUYUMEIYOUCHAOYUENONGMINZHANZHENGDEZHUZHANG,HUOZHESHIYANZHENONGMINZHANZHENGDEZHUZHANGGENGJINLEYIBU,QIZAISHEHUIZHUYIDEJINGSHENBENZHICENGMIAN,MEIYOUTICHUGENBENDEGUIDING。

侠客棋牌LISHISHISHIZHENGMING,DENGXIAOPINGJILEGETIJIEFANGDEWUZHIZHICHENG,QUEBINGWEIJIYUGETIJIEFANGDEJINGSHENJITUO。GAIGEKAIFANGDESANSHIDUONIAN,SHIGETIXIANGGETILIYIHUIGUIDESANSHIDUONIAN,[16]YESHIZIBENLUOJISHENGXINGDESANSHINIAN。

KEGUANDISHUO,ZUOWEIZHONGGUOGONGCHANDANGDEZHIDAOSIXIANG,DENGXIAOPINGLILUN、“SANGEDAIBIAO”ZHONGYAOSIXIANG、KEXUEFAZHANGUAN,YEJIUSHIZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYILILUN,ZHIYINZHEZHONGGUOJINGJIDEGAOSUZENGZHANG,ZHONGGUOXIANDAIHUADEGUANGDUHESHENDUZHUJIANKEYUSHIJIEFADAGUOJIAXIANGBIJIAN。DANSHI,YUMAOZEDONGSIXIANGXIANGBI,ZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYILILUNTIXIQUEYOUBUZU,MAOZEDONGSIXIANGDEZUISHENCENGCISHIZIRANKEXUEHEBIANZHENGFA,QIZHONGJIANCENGCISHIRENDEJIEFANG,ZUIDICENGCISHIJUNSHILILUNYUSHEHUIZHUYIJIANSHESIXIANG,ERZHENGGEDEZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYILILUNZHISHIZHENDUIXINSHIQIDESHEHUIZHUYIJIANSHEZHANKAIDE,TAMEIYOUCHUJIMAKESIZHUYIDEHEXIN——RENDEJIEFANGWENTI,DANGRANJIUGENGMEIYOUCHUJIDAOZIRANKEXUECENGCI。DENGXIAOPINGZHISHIZAIFANGFALUNSHANGTAOLUNGUOKEXUEYUJISHU,“WOSHUOKEXUEJISHUSHIDIYISHENGCHANLI”,YEJIUSHISHUO,MAOZEDONGSIXIANGYUZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYILILUNSUOJIEJUEDEWENTISHIBUTONGDE,MAOZEDONGSIXIANGSHOUXIANJIEJUEDESHIZHONGGUORENDEXINYANGWENTI,QICICAISHIRUHEGEMINGHERUHEJIANSHEDEWENTI,ERZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYILILUNJIUSHIYOUGUANRUHEJIANSHESHEHUIZHUYI,YIJIJIANSHEZENYANGDESHEHUIZHUYIDEWENTI,QINEIHANSHIBUTONGDE。

侠客棋牌ERZHEDECHAYIZHISUOYIRUCIXUANSHU,GENBENYUANYINBINGBUSHIMAOZEDONGSIXIANGBIZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYILILUNYUANWEISHENKE,ERSHIYINWEIERZHESUOMIANDUIDESHIDAIWENTIGEYI。MAOZEDONGSHIDAIDESHOUYAOWENTISHIZHENGMINGMAKESIZHUYIDEHEFAXING,CONGERRANGZHONGGUORENJIANLIDUIMAKESIZHUYIDERENTONG,ERZAIDENGXIAOPINGSHIDAI,MAKESIZHUYIZUOWEIZHONGGUOGONGCHANDANGDEZHIDAOSIXIANG,YIJINGSHANGSHENGWEIGUOJIAYISHIXINGTAI,ZHEISHIYIGEBUKEGENGGAIDESHISHI。XINDESHIDAIJICHENGLEMAOZEDONGSHIDAIDUIMAKESIZHUYIDEXINYANG,YINERZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYILILUNSUOGUANZHUDEJIUSHIDANGDAIZHONGGUODESHEHUIZHUYIJIANSHEWENTI,YUMAOZEDONGSIXIANGDEJIEGOUDANGRANBUXIANGTONG。RUCIKANLAI,YIMAOZEDONGSIXIANGDEBIAOZHUNLAICEDUZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYILILUNYESHIBUHESHIDE。

ZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYILILUNZAIMAKESIZHUYIQUANBULILUNTIXIDANGZHONGDEWEIZHIYUMAOZEDONGSIXIANGXIANGBIYESHIBUTONGDE,YINGDANGSHUO,MAOZEDONGSIXIANGDEJIEGOUGENMAKESIZHUYILILUNTIXI(XIAYIDEMAKESIZHUYI,ZHUANZHIMAKESIHEENGESISUOCHUANGLIDEMAKESIZHUYILILUN)DEJIEGOUSHIYOUXIANGTONGZHICHUDE,MAKESIZHUYISHIJIANLIZAIZIRANKEXUEJICHUZHISHANGDEKEXUELILUN,QIZHONGJIANCENGCISHIRENDEJIEFANGLILUN,ERZUIDICENGCIZESHIKEXUESHEHUIZHUYILILUN,YOUCIKANLAI,MAOZEDONGSIXIANGLILUNTIXIDEJIEGOUGENMAKESIZHUYILILUNTIXIDEJIEGOUYOUXIANGSIXING,KEYISHUO,MAOZEDONGSIXIANGSHIZHONGGUODEMAKESIZHUYI,DANZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYILILUNZESHIZAIMAOZEDONGSIXIANGJICHUZHISHANGFAZHANQILAIDE,ERZHEGONGTONGZUCHENGZHONGGUOMAKESIZHUYIDELILUNZHENGTI,ZHEIZAILICIDANGDEDAIBIAODAHUIYIJINGJIANGDEHENQINGCHU,XIJINPINGTONGZHIZHICHU:“GAIGEKAIFANGQIANHOULIANGGELISHISHIQIBENZHISHANGDOUSHIDANGLINGDAORENMINJINXINGSHEHUIZHUYIJIANSHEDESHIJIANTANSUO,BUNENGXIANGHUFOUDING”[18],QIZHONGJIUBAOHANZHEICENGYISI。

侠客棋牌GAIYANZHI,MAOZEDONGSIXIANGDEMUDESHIQUELIRENDEXINYANG,ERDENGXIAOPINGLILUNZEZHILIYUJIANSHESHEHUIZHUYI。ZAICIJICHUSHANGZHANKAIDEQIANHOULIANGGESANSHINIANDANGRANDAXIANGJINGTING,GEYOUBUTONGTEZHENG,JIMAOZEDONGSHIDAISHISHENSHENGDESHIJIE,ERDENGXIAOPINGSHIDAIZESHISHISUDESHIJIE。YINGDANGSHUO,ZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYILILUNSHIDUIMAOZEDONGSIXIANGDEJIANCHIHEFAZHAN,ERMAOZEDONGSIXIANGZESHIZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYILILUNDEJICHUHEZHIDAOSIXIANG。YOUCIKANLAI,MAOZEDONGSIXIANGYUZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYILILUNZAIZHENGGEMAKESIZHUYILILUNTIXIZHONGSUOCHUDEWEIZHISHIBUTONGDE,ZHEILIYEBUSHIJIANGERZHEYINWEIWEIZHIBUTONGJIUYOUGAOXIAZHIFEN,ERSHISHUO,TAMENFENBIEZHENDUIBUTONGDEWENTI,CHANMINGLEBUTONGDEMAKESIZHUYILILUN。

ZHONGGONGSHILIUDAZHIHOU,HUJINTAOSHITUCONGLILUNSHANGTANSUOMAKESIZHUYIDESHENCENGCIWENTI,JIUSHIQIANMIANSUOJIANGDEMAKESIZHUYILILUNDEZHONGJIANCENGCI,TATICHUYIRENWEIBEN,LAIJIANLIMAKESIZHUYILILUNTIXIDEZHONGJIANJIEGOU。QISHI,ZAIZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYILILUNJICHUSHANG,DUIMAKESIZHUYIDEFAZHANYOULIANGGEXIANGDU:YISHIJIEHESHIDAITEZHENGTICHUJIANSHESHEHUIZHUYIDEXINLILUN,ZHEISHIGAIGEKAIFANGSANSHIDUONIANLAIZHONGGUOGONGCHANDANGFAZHANMAKESIZHUYIDEZHUYAOFANGXIANG;ERSHIYANZHEMAKESIZHUYILILUNTIXIDELUOJIJIEGOUXIANGQIANZHUISU,“YIRENWEIBEN”DETICHUJIUSHIYIZHONGZAIMAKESIZHUYILILUNFAZHANZHONGXIANGQIANZHUISUDEJIEGUO,RANER,ZHEIYILILUNMEIYOUSHANGSHENGDAORENDEJIEFANGCENGCILAILIJIE,BINGQIEZAISHIJIGONGZUOZHONGBEIYONGSUHUADIJIEDUWEIGONGZUOFANGFA,YINERMEINENGZHICHENGQIKEXUEFAZHANGUANDEXINYANGCENGCI,KEXUEFAZHANGUANRENGRANJINZHISHISHEHUIZHUYIJIANSHELILUN,ZHONGGUORENDEJINGSHENXINYANGWENTIYIJIUMEINENGDEDAOJIEJUE。

DENGXIAOPINGWANNIANZUIDADEYIHANSHIJIAOYU,ZHEILIDE“JIAOYU”SHIZESHIGERENXINYANGDEMISHI。JIAOYUSHIXINYANGDEJIAOYU,JIAOYUJINJINSHISHOUDUANHETUJING,XINYANGCAISHIJIAOYUDEZUIZHONGZHIYIN。RANER,DENGXIAOPINGSHIDAIGENBENMEIYOUJINXINGJIAZHIXINYANGSHEJI,RENMENRUHEXINYANG?JIAOYUDEJIAOKESHUSHISHENME?DENGXIAOPINGSHIZHONGMEIYOUHENHAODIHUIDAZHEIGEWENTI。GONGCHANZHUYIXINYANGWENTICHENGLEWURENGUJIDEZHENKONGDIDAI,ZIBENLUOJIYOURIYICUIHUIZHEMAOZEDONGSHIDAIJIANLIQILAIDEXINYANGJICHU,SANSHIDUONIANGUOQULE,XINYANGWENTIDESHEHUIXIAOYINGJIUTURANXIANXIANCHULAILE。

 

资本逻辑的社会效应

ZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIDESHIJIANLUOJIBENYINGGAISHIYIJINGJILUOJIWEIJICHUDEJINGJI、SHEHUI、WENHUAGEZHONGLUOJIDEOUHEGUOCHENG,DANGRAN,ZHEIGEGUOCHENGDEMEIYIGEJIEDUANBUKENENGSHIGEZHONGLUOJIDEQITOUBINGJINSHIDEFAZHAN,ZAIMOUYIGEJIEDUANTUCHUMOUYIGEFANGMIANYESHIHENZHENGCHANGDESHIQING。DANSHI,FANGUANLISHI,QIZHONGJINGSHENLUOJIJIANGOUDEQUESHI,SHIZAISHITAIYANZHONGLE。ZHEIZHONGLISHIBEIJINGKONGPAZHENGSHISHIBADAYILAIZHONGYANGJIANG“SIGEQUANMIAN”ZUOWEIGUOJIAZHONGDAFAZHANZHANLVEDEGENBENYUANYIN。

YICHENGSHIJIANSHEWEILI,ZAICHUANTONGSHEHUIZHONG,JIHUSUOYOUDECHENGSHIJIANZHUDOUJUYOUXIANGZHENGYIYI,ZAISHIXIANCHENGSHIFUWUGONGNENGDETONGSHI,DOUHUITIXIANMOUZHONGWENHUACHUANCHENG。JIHUAJINGJISHIQI,CHENGSHIFAZHANHUANMAN,CHULE“WENHUADAGEMING”QIJIAN,GEZHONGJUYOUWENHUAXIANGZHENGYIYIDEJIANZHUHESHESHI,BEISHIZUO“FENGZIXIU”ERZAODAOPOHUAI,ZHENGTIXINGDICUIHUIZUOWEICHENGSHIWENHUAXIANGZHENGDEJIANZHUSHESHIDEXINGWEIHAISHIBUDUOJIANDE,ZHIZHIGAIGEKAIFANGHOUZIBENLUOJIDEXINGQI。ZHENGSHIZAIZHEIZHONGLUOJIDEYINDAOXIA,CAICHUXIANLEZHONGGUOCHENGSHIFAZHANDEDAYUEJIN。CONGYANHAIFADADECHENGSHIDAOYAOYUANDEBIANJIANGXIAOCHENG,DOUWUSHIDIYUWENHUAHEGUOJIAWENHUADEGUILV,BUDUANDICUIHUIZUIJUHEXINJINGZHENGLIDECHUANTONGWENHUAYUANSU,KUAISUDIYOUKAIFASHANGDELIYIHEZHENGFUDEZHENGJISUOZHUDAO,JIANQILEMEIYOUWENHUAYIYIDESUOWEIXIANDAIHUACHENGSHI。JIULIANLIZUGUOSHOUDOUBEIJINGWANLIZHIYAODEKASHEN,YEZAIDANGDIZHENGFUZHUDAOXIA、ZAIYUANJIANGLILIANGDEQIANGLITUIDONGXIA,MOFANGMALAIXIYASHOUDOUDESHUANGZIZUODALOU,FUYIMOUXIESHAOSHUMINZUWENHUAFUHAO,JIANQILEHAOCHENGXIANYIXIZUIGAODESHUANGZIZUODASHA。

ZAIMAOZEDONGSHIDAI,LIXINGDELUOJISHIZHENLI–SHIJIE–GUOJIA–MINZU–ZIWO,ERZAIMAOZEDONGSHIDAIZHIHOU,ZHEIYILUOJIFASHENGLEDIAOZHUAN:ZIWO–MINZU–GUOJIA–SHIJIE–ZHENLI,SHICONGZIWOCHUFALAIJIANGOUSHIJIEDE,QISUOJIANGOUQILAIDESHICUNZAIZHUYIDEJIESHIKUANGJIA。CONGSHIJIECHUFA,QILUOJIJIELUNBIRANSHILIZUYUQUANRENLEI,FUWUYUQUANRENLEI,SUOYI,JIEFANGQUANRENLEISHIMAOZEDONGDEZHUTI,“MAKESISHUO:WUCHANJIEJIYAOJIEFANGZIJI,JIUYAOJIEFANGZHENGGERENLEI”。 ZAIMAOZEDONGSIXIANGDEKUANGJIAZHONG,GUOJIAWENTI、MINZUWENTI、GERENWENTIDOUZHUANHUANWEIRENLEIWENTI,SUOYIMINZUWENTIYUGERENWENTIXIAOSHILE。

ZHONGSUOZHOUZHI,MAOZEDONGSHIDAIJIHUBUCUNZAIMINZUWENTI,ZHEICAIYOULEDENGXIAOPINGDERUXIALUNDUAN:“WOMENDEMINZUZHENGCESHIZHENGQUEDE,SHIZHENZHENGDEMINZUPINGDENG。WOMENSHIFENZHUYIZHAOGUSHAOSHUMINZUDELIYI。ZHONGGUOYIGEHENZHONGYAODETEDIANJIUSHIMEIYOUDADEMINZUJIUFEN。”YINWEIMEIGERENDOUJIANGZIJIDEMINGYUNXIYUGUOJIAMINGYUNZHIZHONG,BUJIJIAOGERENLIYI,DANGRANJIUBUHUISHIGERENYUMINZUWENTICHENGWEI“WENTI”。LUXUNXIANSHENGCENGZAI《QIEJIETINGZAWENJI》ZHONGSHUO:“ZHIYOUMINZUDE,CAISHISHIJIEDE。”DANZHEIHUAYEKEYIFANGUOLAISHUO,ZHIYOUSHIJIEDE,CAISHIMINZUDE,ZHENGRUFEIXIAOTONGSUOZHICHUDENEIYANG,“RENMENCHANGSHUO,‘ZHIYOUMINZUDE,CAISHISHIJIEDE’,ZHEISHIBUCUODE;FANGUOLAISHUO,ZHIYOUSHIJIEDE,CAISHIMINZUDE,CAINENGSHIZHEIGEMINZUDEWENHUAZHANGSHENGBUSHUAI,YEHENYOUDAOLI”。

HUANYANZHI,MAOZEDONGJIANGDESHIXIANSHIJIEERHOUGEREN,SHIGUOJIGE,“YINGTENAXIONGNAIER(International)JIUYIDINGYAOSHIXIAN”,SHI“ZHIYOUSHIJIEDE,CAISHIMINZUDE”;DENGXIAOPINGJIANGDESHIGERENERHOUSHIJIE,“ZHIYOUMINZUDE,CAISHISHIJIEDE”,QILUOJISHICONGZHONGGUOZOUXIANGSHIJIEDELUOJI,SHIGUOJIAZAIQIANGDAHOUZOUXIANGSHIJIE,TAQIANGDIAO:“TEBIESHIXIANGWOMENZHEIYANGDISANSHIJIEDEFAZHANZHONGGUOJIA,MEIYOUMINZUZIZUNXIN,BUZHENXIZIJIMINZUDEDULI,GUOJIASHILIBUQILAIDE。”ZAIMAOZEDONGNEILI,SHIJIEZHUYICAISHIMAKESIZHUYI,DANDENGXIAOPINGSHIDAI,ZAIWAJUELIENINGGUANYU“DIGUOZHUYILIANTIAOZHONGZUIBORUODEYIHUAN”SHIXIANGEMINGDELILUNHUANJIESHI,ZHONGGUOSHEHUIXINGTAIDEDUTEXINGHEGEBIEXINGDEDAOTUXIAN,ERZHEBILEMAKESIZHUYIPUBIANXINGBENYI。

侠客棋牌ZIBENLUOJISUOZHIPEIDESHIDAISHIYIGEJIDUPINGMIANHUADESHIDAI,RENMENBUZAIZHUIQIUSHENGMINGBEIHOUDEYIYI,SHENGHUOBENSHENCHENGLEZHONGJIMUDE,XIAOFEIZHUYISHENGXING,SHOUJI、HULIANWANGJIANGZHEIGESHIDAIBIANCHENGXINXISHIDAI,MEIGERENDOUCHUYUXINXIDEBAOWEIZHIZHONG,RENMENBUZAISHINULIHUOQUXINXI,ERSHICHUZAIXINXIDEBUDUANCHONGJIXIA,RENMENKEYIHUODEJISHIXINGXINXI,BINGQIESUISHIKEYI“QINLIN”XIANCHANG,DANZHEIZHONGXINXIHUASUODAILAIDEQUESHIZIWOYIWANG。

LIDAIZHONGYANGLINGDAOJITI,DOUXIWANGTONGYIQUANGUORENMINDESIXIANG,NINGJUMINXIN,YITUIDONGZHONGGUODEXIANDAIHUAJIANSHE。DENGXIAOPINGQIANGDIAOLIANGSHOUZHUA,LIANGSHOUDOUYAOYING,BINGTUCHUSHEHUIZHUYIJINGSHENWENMINGZAISHEHUIZHUYIJIANSHEZHONGDEDIWEI。JIANGZEMINYEFANFUYAOQIUYAOZHUZHONGWENHUAJIANSHE。HUJINTAOTICHUSHEHUIZHUYIHEXINJIAZHITIXI,ZHIDINGBARONGBACHIDE“SHEHUIZHUYIRONGRUGUAN”,DANZHIDAOSHEHUIZHUYIHEXINJIAZHIGUANDETICHU,ZHONGGUORENSHIZHONGMEIYOUZHAODAONINGJUXINYANGDEJIDIAN。ZAIMEIYOUXINYANGDESHIDAI,GUORENZHINENGHUAIJIU,SHIZHIJINRI,RENGRANYOUHENDUORENZIFADIWEIMAOZEDONGSUXIANGJIUTIXIANLEMAOZEDONGDEYINGXIANGLILIANG。DANXIANSHIZHONG,LAOBAIXINGWEIMAOZEDONGSUXIANG,BADUIMAOZEDONGSIXIANGDEXINYANGBIANCHENGLEOUXIANGCHONGBAI。HENANYIDINONGMINSUMAOZEDONGXIANG,DANJIEYONGHEIGEERDEYIJUHUASHUO,“ZHEIXIESUXIANGMEIYOUDADAOYISHUDEZUNYAN,JUEBUDAIBIAOCHONGGAODEJINGSHEN,ZHISHILINGRENTAOYANDEOUXIANG”。WEIMAOZEDONGSUXIANGYUDUIMAOZEDONGSIXIANGDEXINYANGSHIJUEDUIBUTONGDELIANGGEGAINIAN,MAOZEDONGSIXIANGSHIZHENLI,ZHEIZHONGZHENLIMEIYOUWAIZAIDEOUXIANG,ZHONGGUORENSHANZHANGYUYIOUXIANGCHONGBAIQUDAIDUIZHENLIDEXINYANG,QIHOUGUOZHINENGSHIDUIZHENLIDEFANPAN。

LICHAOLIDAI,ZHONGGUORENDOUCENGWEIKONGZISUXIANG,ZHEILIDEGENBENWENTIZAIYUKONGZIZHISHISHENGRENERBUSHISHEN,RUGUOKONGZIBIANCHENGSHEN,CHENGWEISIQUDESHEN,NEIMERUJIASIXIANGJIUJUYOULEJUEDUIXING,YINWEIZUIGAODEFAZEZHINENGLAIZIYUSHENXING,ZHENGRUSHIRENHEERDELINZAI《REN,SHIYIDIQIJU》ZHONGXIEDAO:“DADIZHISHANGKEYOUCHIGUI?JUEWU。”

侠客棋牌DANKONGZISHIFANREN,ZUIDUOZHISHISHENGREN,KONGZISILE,KONGZIZAISHISHISUOXIANGWANGDE“MANJIEDOUSHISHENGREN”DECHONGJINGYONGYUANBUKENENGBIANCHENGXIANSHI,ZUOWEI“SHEN”DEKONGZIYEBUKENENGZAISHENG,JINGUANSHISHIDAIDAIDOUYOUMAOCHONGSHENGRENDEWEISUOZHEXIANSHEN,ZICHENGSHIKONGZI“ZAILIN”,DANKONGZIYONGYUANYEBUHUISHI“SHEN”DEKONGZILE。

 


本文刊于《文化纵横》2016年10月刊,原标题为“资本逻辑的兴起与当代中国的价值重建”。篇幅所限,注释从略。